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October 15 - Ancient Arts HUM 15
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  • 1. OCTOBER 15, 2011
  • 2. Ancient
  • 3. 5000 BC to 300 AD
    Highly stylized and very symbolic
    Surviving art comes from tombs and monuments
    Strong belief in a “future state” or the afterlife
    Art is mostly for religious purposes
    Imperfect art upsets the gods
    Created to provide solace for the deceased in the afterlife
    Death and the afterlife is the most common theme
    Pharaohs, Gods, Nature
    Quick Facts
  • 4. Geography
    • Located in the Nile river valley
    • 5. Civilization developed by about 3,000 BC
  • Geography
    Protected from invaders by:
    • mountains to the south
    • 6. vast deserts on both sides
    • 7. Mediterranean Sea to the north
  • Geography
    This location kept Egypt separate from the rest of the world, so the Egyptians had a unique and enduring style of life and art for about 3,000 years.
  • 8. People
    Communities were made up of:
  • People
    Artists, craftsmen and scribes were honored and admired.
    A scribe is a scholar who could read and write.
  • 15. People
    Scribes wrote on papyrus.
    Papyrus is a reed pounded to make a heavy type of paper.
  • 16. People
    The leader was called a pharaoh.
    The pharaoh was believed to be half man, half god.
    The afterlife of the pharaoh is an important theme in ancient Egyptian art.
    Famous Pharaohs
  • Contributions
    The ancient Egyptians:
    • Made bricks
    • 20. Used sails on the water
    • 21. Used wheels on land
    • 22. Harnessed animals for work
    • 23. Trained donkeys to carry people
    • 24. Combined copper and tin to make bronze
    • 25. Forged tools from copper.
  • Contributions
    They also used hieroglyphics.
    • an early form of picture writing.
    • 26. pictures and symbols stand for sounds and words
    • 27. More than 700 symbols
  • Architecture
    The greatest architectural achievements of the Ancient Egyptians were the pyramids.
    • Pyramids were built as tombs for the pharaohs.
    • 28. They contained the items that the Egyptians believed that the Pharaoh would need in the afterlife.
    • 29. Much of the art that remains was preserved in the pyramids.
  • Architecture
    • The first pyramid was built for King Zoser. It was a “step pyramid”. It was designed and built by an artist and architect named Imhotep.
    • 30. Imhotep is the first artist whose name is recorded in history.
    • 31. This pyramid was built about 2600 BC.
  • Architecture
    • The Three “great pyramids” are located at Giza.
  • Architecture
    They are guarded by the Great Sphinx.
    • body of a lion, wings of a bird and face of a human
    • 32. The sphinx is carved from a rocky ledge.
    • 33. It was damaged by sand and wind.
  • Architecture
    The ancient Egyptians also built beautiful temples.
    • The post and lintel system was used to build this temple
    • 34. Most famous is the Luxor Temple
  • Mummies
    The pyramids and tombs contained the mummified remains of the pharaohs.
    The ancient Egyptians believed that the soul (called the Ka) would need to use the body in the afterlife, so the bodies were carefully preserved. Many items in the tombs were left there to be used by the Ka in the afterlife.
  • 35. Mummies
  • 36. Mummies
    These are the mummified remains of a pharaoh named Ramses II.
  • 37. Mummies
    After embalming, mummies were carefully wrapped in yards of linen bandages.
  • 38. Mummies
    The ancient Egyptians even mummified animals.
  • 39. Sculpture
    Painted relief sculpture lined the walls of pyramids.
    This is called a stele.
    • A stele is a carved upright stone slab used as a monument.
    Male statues are darker than the femaile
    Hands usually on the knees
  • 40. Sculpture
    This stele shows Ramses II slaying his enemies.
  • 41. Sculpture
    Notice that the sculptures are stiff, formal, and stylized.
  • 42. Sculpture
    Faces face forward, and the left foot is slightly ahead of the right. There are no open spaces in the stone that the figures are carved from.
  • 43. Sculpture
    Artists used materials found in the Nile river valley. They were:
  • Sculpture
  • 48. Sculpture
    This gold mask rested on the head of the mummy of King Tutankhaman.
  • 49. Sculpture
    Notice how Ramses II faces forward. He appears to be very rigid. This is typical of ancient Egyptian sculpture.
  • 50. Sculpture
    This sculpture of Queen Nefertiti is much more relaxed and graceful than most ancient Egyptian sculpture.
  • 51. Painting
    Ancient Egyptians followed a very strict set of rules in their art. One of these rules was to show the human body from the most familiar or visible angle.
  • 52. Painting
    Again, the figures appear to be rigid and stylized. Notice the left foot and body posture.
  • 53. Painting
    Paintings tell us about the daily lives of the ancient Egyptians.
  • 54. The gods are often depicted in the tomb paintings.
  • 55.
    • Obelisk
    • 56. tall, four sided narrow tapering monument
    • 57. symbolized the Sun God Ra
    Influence on Popular Culture
  • 58.
    • Ankh
    • 59. Hieroglyphic symbol for eternal life
    • 60. Goths, World of Warcraft,
    Influence on Popular Culture
  • 61. Influence on Popular Culture
  • 62. Indian
  • 63. Names of India
    South Asia
    The Sub-Continent
  • 64.
  • 65. History and Culture
    Indus River Valley
    Dravidians and Aryans
    Hinduism and the Caste system
    British Colonization
    India Today
  • 66. Indus Valley Civilization
    2600-1900 BCE
  • 67. Indus Valley Civilization
    City of Harappa
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70.
  • 71. Dravidians and Aryans
  • 72. India Today
    2nd largest population (after China)
    Great ethnic diversity
    Largest English-speaking nation in the world
  • 73. Focus on Hinduism
  • 74. Rise of Hinduism
    Gupta Dynasty (320 – 500 CE)
    Sponsored a lot of the finest surviving Hindu artworks
  • 75. Interior of cave 19
    Ajanta, India
    2nd half of 5th century
  • 76. Bodhisattva (mural), detail of a wall in Cave I, Ajanta, Maharashtra India.
    Gupta period, c. 475 CE
  • 77. Hinduism
    Reincarnation into higher “positions” and escape from cycle of life
    Has millions of gods and godesses
    Important deities
    • Vishnu – Benevolent God of Order and Well-being of the world, often depicted with a goddess Lakshmi or Radha.
    • 78. Shiva – Lord of Existence. Lord of the Dance (creation and destruction of the world)
    • 79. Devi – the Great Goddess of Material Wealth and Fertility; represents positive (beauty, wealth, auspiciousness) and negative aspects (wrath, pestilence, violent power); provides the vital force to all male gods.
  • Vishnu
    Often depicted lying in a trance or sleeping on Cosmic Waters.
    Associated with the symbols: Wheel, Conch Shell, usually has four arms, lavish jewelry.
  • 80. Shiva
    Shiva is often represented as dancing within a ring of fire; a linggam, the symbol of creative energy, holding fire, a drum, and gesturing to worshippers.
    5-fold nature (five heads/faces): creator, protector, destroyer, obscurer, releaser.
  • 81. Devi
    General term form for mother goddess, reincarnations in the form of numerous other goddesses that represent life-giving power of the universe as identified with women, fruitfulness of the land; rites of the dead.
  • 82. Other Important Contributions of India to the World of Art
    Taj Mahal
    Indian Music
  • 83. Mandala
    Sanskrit for “circle” or “wholeness”
    diagram that reminds of our relation to the infinite, the world that extends both beyond and within our bodies and minds.
    Diagrams of cosmic realms; representing order and meaning within the spiritual universe; may be simple of complex, three- or two-dimensional and in different shapes
  • 84.
  • 85.
  • 86.
  • 87.
  • 88. The Taj Mahal
  • 89. The Swastika
  • 90. Indian Music
    Sitar, wooden flutes, little bells
    George Harrison of the Beatles
  • 91. Bollywood
    Largest movie-making industry in the world
    Slum Dog Millionaire
  • 92. East Asian
  • 93. Countries in East Asia
  • 94. Early Civilization
    Huang-Ho River Valley
    Cradle of Chinese civilization
    First Chinese kingdoms – Bronze age, before 1600 BCE
  • 95. Huang Ho
    Yellow River
    Because of its
    Disastrous floods.
  • 96. Yang Tze River
  • 97. History of China
    China means “Middle Land”
    Huang-Ho River Valley Civilization
    Great Wall of China
    Trade with the West
    Communist China
    Tibet and Taiwan
    Modern China
  • 98. History of Korea
    Ju Mong
    Jewel in the Palace
    Japanese Invasion
    Post World War 2 Division of Korea
    Korean War
    Modern Korea
  • 99. History of Japan
    Samurais, Ninjas and Shogunates
    Empire of the Sun
    World War 2
    Economic Recovery
    Japan Today
  • 100. Chinese Art
  • 101.
  • 102. Shi Huang Di
    • First emperor of China
    • 103. United the warring states
    • 104. Common language, system of writing
    • 105. First version of The Great Wall of China
    • 106. Burning of the books and burying of the scholars
    • 107. Hero and The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor
  • During his life, Qin Shi Huangdi’s empire was defended by an army of 300,000.
    After his death, an underground army of thousands of terracotta men and horses guarded his tomb, disciplined and alert for all eternity.
    Army of Emperor Shi Huangdi
    Shaanxi Province, China
    210 B.C.E.painted terracotta
  • 108.
    • 1,000 potters molded and carved the clay, fired and painted
    • 109. 85 artists signed the figures
    • 110. Standardized figures by using molds of arms, torsos, legs, fingers, heads
    • 111. Real weapons of wood and bronze
    • 112. Such feat predates European industrial societies (1700s) by many centuries!
    Army of Emperor Shi Huangdi
    Shaanxi Province, China
    210 B.C.E.painted terracotta
  • 113.
  • 114. The Silk Route
    5,000-mile long caravan & sea trade route from western end of the Great Wall to Rome.
    Silk was greatly treasured in ancient Greece and Rome.
    Funeral Banner from Tomb 1
    Mawangdui, China
    ca.168 B.C.E.painted silk
  • 115. Silk, spices and other foodstuff, horses, metals, gems and ceramics were traded along this silk route as early as 2640 BCE. Silk had been greatly valued in ancient Greece and Rome. China had monopoly of silk cultivation and art until 2 christian missionaries smuggled a few silkworm larvae to Constantinople.
  • 116. Fan Kuan
    Travelers Among Mountains and Streams
    early 11th centuryhanging scroll, ink, and colors on silk6 ft. 7 1/4 in. x 3 ft. 4 1/4 in.
  • 117. Zhou Jichang
    Arhats Giving Alms to Beggars
    1178 C.E.ink and colors on silk44 x 21 in.
  • 118. Shakyamuni Buddha
    338gilded bronze1 ft. 3 1/2 in. high
  • 119. Vairocana Buddha, Longmen Caves
    Luoyang, China
    ca. 670-680 C.E.central figure 50 feet high
  • 120. Most impressive surviving works of Buddhist art are hundreds of caves carved from solid rock
    Vairocana Buddha, Longmen Caves
    Luoyang, China
    ca. 670-680 C.E.50 feet high
  • 121. Paradise of Amitabha
    Cave 172
    Dunhuang, China
    mid 8th centurywall paintingwall approximately 10 feet high
  • 122. The abundance of raw material necessary for ceramics has made China the cradle of ceramic—porcelain and earthenware art.
    Glazing—the art of fastening color unto ceramics—was also perfected by ancient Chinese.
    8th to 9th century C.E.20 in. highglazed earthenware
  • 123. Neighing Horse
    8th to 9th century C.E.20 in. highglazed earthenware
  • 124. Meiping vase
    960-1127 C.E.Stoneware, Cizhou type with sgraffito decoration
  • 125.
  • 126. Pagodas are closely associated with East Asian Buddhist temples, particularly the stupas
    Influenced early Han Dynasty watchtowers
    Foguang Si Pagoda
    Yingxian, China
    1056 C.E.
  • 127. Multi-storied buildings with upward-curving roofs supported by elaborate bracketing.
    Architectural principles of simplicity, symmetry, proportions and grace.
    Foguang Si Pagoda
    Yingxian, China
    1056 C.E.
  • 128. Korean Art
  • 129.
  • 130. Emperor Wu Ti of China (2nd cent BCE) brought the northern part Korea into his empire; introduced Buddhism, which in turn Koreans brought to Japanese culture in 552 CE.
    Korean people: skilled ceramists and metal workers.
    Shakyamuni Buddhaat entrance to cave temple
    from Sokkuram, Korea
    751-744graniteapproximately 11 ft. high
  • 131. The Matreya, or “Buddha of the Future” is the otherwise known as the early Korean representation of Buddhist deities.
    Slender figures, sophisticated, linear patterns.
    Statues with downcast eyes and fingers touching the chin indicating a person lost in deep thought.
    Seated Matreya. Korea.
    Three Kingdoms Period, early 7th Cent.
    Gilt bronze, 35 ¾ in.
  • 132. Usually seen as a conduit from China to Japan
    Assimilated Chinese art but created a unique culture of its own
    Sophisticated style spread to Japanese islands and became an aesthetic basis for arts in China, Korea and Japan.
  • 133. Japanese Art
  • 134.
    • Painting is one of the oldest of the Japanese arts
    • 135. Synthesis and competition between native/original aesthetics and adaptation of imported ideas
  • Ise Shrine
    Ise, Mie Prefecture, Japan
    originally 5th century C.E.rebuilt 1973
  • 136. Horyuji kondo
    Nara, Japan
    ca. 680 C.E.
  • 137. Yakushi triad, Yakushiji kondo
    Nara, Japan
    late seventh or early eighth century C.E.bronze
  • 138.
  • 139. Taizokai (Womb World)
    Ryokai Mandara Kyoto, Japan
    9th centurycolor on silk 6 ft. x 5 ft. 5/8 in.
  • 140.
  • 141. Phoenix Hall
    Byodoin, Uji, Japan
    1053 C.E.
  • 142. Flying StorehouseThe Legends of Mount Shigi
    Chogosonshiji, Nara
    late 12th centuryhandscroll ink and color on paper1 1/2 ft. high
  • 143. Detail of Burning of the Sanjo Palace
    13th century C.E.
    handscroll, ink and colors on paper16 1/4 in. high
  • 144. Detail of Burning of the Sanjo Palace
    13th century C.E.
    handscroll, ink and colors on paper16 1/4 in. high
  • 145. Amida Descending over the Mountain
    13th century C.E.
    hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk51 1/8 in. high
  • 146. Amida Triad
    Horyuji Kondo, Nara, Japan
    ca. 710ink and colors10 ft. 3 in. x 8 ft. 6 in.
  • 147. Crown from tomb 98
    Hwangnamdong, Korea
    5-6th centurygold10 3/4 in. high
  • 148. Kano Motonobu
    Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom
    Muramachi Period, ca. 1513hanging scroll, ink and color on paper5 ft. 7 3/8 in. x 2 ft. 10 3/4 in.
  • 149. Hasegawa Tohaku
    Pine Forest
    Monoyama Period, late 16th C.one of a pair of six-panel screensink on paper5 ft. 1 3/8 in. x 11 ft. 4 in.
  • 150. Katsushika Hokusai
    The Great Wave off Kanagawa, from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji series
    Edo Period, ca. 1826-33woodblock print oban, ink and colors on paper9 7/8 in. x 1 ft. 2 3/4 in.
  • 151. Ancient Greece
    Foundation of Western Civilization
    Breeding ground of the great philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle)
    Influenced Roman civilization, which is the foundation of democratic societies
    Greek language is the foundation of many modern English terms.
    New Testament written in Greek language
  • 152. History
    Began with small sea-faring communities in the Aegean Sea
    Developed to city-states (polis)
    Became an empire that conquered the known world east of Greece (Alexander the Great) circa 350 BCE
    Replaced by the Roman Empire
  • 153. Ancient Greeks sought perfection of the body and mind
    Greeks believed in Humanism – idea that humans should look to themselves when establishing standards
    Ancient Greeks greatly influenced Western culture – government / democracy, systems of education, athletics, developed philosophy, math, literature
  • 154. Mythology
    Stories of gods and goddesses
    Theme of many sculptures
  • 155. Sculpture
    Highly realistic
    Theme: mythology
    Theme: the perfect human body
  • 156. Anavysos Kouros
    Sculpture (Marble)
    530 BCE
    1.93 M Tall
  • 157. Anavysos Kouros
    Kouros means “young man” in Greek
    Represents the ideal “perfect” young man (strong, athletic, smooth skin, classic features)
    Classic pose (one foot forward, hands at the sides)
    Pose is similar to Egyptian figures
  • 158. Peplos Kore
  • 159. Peplos Kore
    Kore - “young woman”
    Peplos – style of dress that she is wearing
    Originally wore a metal crown and jewelry
    Originally painted with patterns of animals
    Missing left forearm – arm once held an object that would have identified her role
    Peplos Kore,
    530 BCE, Marble, height 121 cm
  • 160. Discus Thrower
    Sculpture (Marble / Roman Copy)
    450 BCE
    1.54 M Tall
  • 161. Discus Thrower
    Sculpture is a copy by the Romans (who loved Greek art)
    Discus Throwing is an Olympic sport
    Greeks started the original Olympic Games in 776 BCE
    Anatomy of the human figure
    Movement of the figure
  • 162. Venus de Milo (Aphrodite of Melos)
    Sculpture (Marble)
    150 BCE
    2.1 M Tall
  • 163. Venus de Milo
    (Aphrodite of Melos)
    Classic Beauty of the Female Form
    Elongated Body with S-curve (shape of letter S)
    “Erotic” tension of her drapery falling off her body
    Arms broken off – originally holding an apple?
    Found on Aegean island of Melos by French excavators in 1820)
  • 164. Nike of Samothrace
    Sculpture (Marble)
    190 BCE
    2.44 M Tall
  • 165. Nike of Samothrace
    Nike – Greek Goddess of Victory
    Sometimes called “Winged Victory”
    Monument which originally stood on a hill (Victory Monument)
    Louvre Museum, Paris
  • 166. Architecture
    For the gods, not for human use
  • 167.
  • 168.
  • 169. 3 Types of Greek Columns:
    Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
    The Greek Columns became more elaborate as time advanced (the oldest column is the Doric)
  • 170. Sanctuary of Apollo
    6th – 3rd century BCE
  • 171. Sanctuary of Apollo
    Sacred home of the Greek God Apollo (God of sun, light, truth, music, archery, and healing)
    Greeks believed Apollo could communicate to humans through a human medium called the Pythia
    Located at Delphi (the site of the Pythian Games – a festival and competition of music, dance, and poetry
  • 172. The Greeks searched for perfect proportions (relationship between size differences) in their sculpture and temples
    The Greeks used a ratio called the Golden Section in their art and architecture
  • 173. Parthenon, Acropolis
    447 – 438 BCE
  • 174. Located in Athens, Greece
    Temple built for Goddess Athena (Goddess of Athens, wisdom, war, victory, and civilization)
    Acropolis - complex of buildings
    Perfect Harmony and Balance (Golden Section)
    Designed by Kallikrates and Iktinos (architects)
    Doric Columns
    Parthenon, Acropolis
  • 175. The Golden Section as applied to the Parthenon
  • 176. East Pediment of the Parthenon
    Pediment – a triangular gable found over major architectural elements such as porticos, windows, or doors
  • 177. East Pediment of the Parthenon
  • 178. East Pediment of the Parthenon
    AKA the “Elgin Marbles” - British Earl of Elgins bought the pediment and later gave it to British government
    Originally over 90 feet long – today less than 40 feet survives (probably destroyed by Christians in the 5th Century when Parthenon was converted to a church
    Figures illustrate the birth of Athena (goddess of wisdom and civilization)
    East Pediment of the Parthenon, Marble Sculptures, 447 – 432 BCE
  • 179. Painting
    Usually found on pots and vases
    Theme: methology
  • 180. Francois Vase
    Sculpture (Painted Ceramic)
    570 BCE
    66 cm
  • 181. Discovered by a French archaeologist, Francois
    Signed by the painter and the potter
    Black Figure Pottery (black on red decoration)
    Volute Crater Shape
    Many stories, including the story of the wedding of King Peleus
    200 animal and human figures
    Francois Vase
  • 182. Greek Vase Shapes
  • 183.
  • 184.
  • 185. Theater
    Comedy and Tragedy
    Use of masks
  • 186.
  • 187.
  • 188. Olympics
    Myth is that it was started by Hercules and Zeus (Olympic Stadium was built after Hercules completed the 12 labors)
    All wars/protests/struggles are postponed during this period
    Fundamental religious importance
    Running events, pentathlon, boxing, wrestling
  • 189.
  • 190.
  • 191.
  • 192.
  • 193.
  • 194. Literature
    Mythology is the major theme
    Illiad and Odyssey
    Philosophy – Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
    “All men by nature desire to know”
  • 195. Impact of Greek Mythology in Language
    Herculean Task
    Achilles Heel
    Trojan virus
    Trojan horse
    Midas touch
    The face that launched a thousand ships
    Remember the Titans
    You opened a Pandora’s box
    Carrying the weight of the world
  • 196. Greek Gods and Goddesses
    • Zeus – king of the Gods
    • 197. Hera – queen of the Gods
    • 198. Hades – god of death, the underworld
    • 199. Athena – goddess of wisdom and civilization
    • 200. Ares – god of war
    • 201. Apollo – god of sun, creativity, fine arts
    • 202. Aphrodite – goddess of love and beauty
    • 203. Hermes – god of commerce and messenger of the gods
    • 204. Dionysos – god of wine
    • 205. Poseidon – god of sea and earthquakes
    • 206. Eros – god of love (son of Aphrodite)
  • As a modern-day artist, what are the lessons that you have learned from studying the ancient civilizations?
  • 207. Create a work of art inspired by an ancient civilization
    Present to the class on October 29
    Talk about the creative process, why you chose that civilization, what are some of the modern-day influences that you used
    Powerpoint presentation
    Mode of presentation depends on art form you will choose