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5000 BC to 300 AD Highly stylized and very symbolic Surviving art comes from tombs and monuments Strong belief in a “future state” or the afterlife Art is mostly for religious purposes Imperfect art upsets the gods Created to provide solace for the deceased in the afterlife Death and the afterlife is the most common theme Pharaohs, Gods, Nature Quick Facts
Mummies The pyramids and tombs contained the mummified remains of the pharaohs. The ancient Egyptians believed that the soul (called the Ka) would need to use the body in the afterlife, so the bodies were carefully preserved. Many items in the tombs were left there to be used by the Ka in the afterlife.
Rise of Hinduism Gupta Dynasty (320 – 500 CE) Sponsored a lot of the finest surviving Hindu artworks
Interior of cave 19 Ajanta, India 2nd half of 5th century
Bodhisattva (mural), detail of a wall in Cave I, Ajanta, Maharashtra India. Gupta period, c. 475 CE
Hinduism Reincarnation into higher “positions” and escape from cycle of life Has millions of gods and godesses Important deities
Vishnu – Benevolent God of Order and Well-being of the world, often depicted with a goddess Lakshmi or Radha.
Shiva – Lord of Existence. Lord of the Dance (creation and destruction of the world)
Devi – the Great Goddess of Material Wealth and Fertility; represents positive (beauty, wealth, auspiciousness) and negative aspects (wrath, pestilence, violent power); provides the vital force to all male gods.
Vishnu Often depicted lying in a trance or sleeping on Cosmic Waters. Associated with the symbols: Wheel, Conch Shell, usually has four arms, lavish jewelry.
Shiva Shiva is often represented as dancing within a ring of fire; a linggam, the symbol of creative energy, holding fire, a drum, and gesturing to worshippers. 5-fold nature (five heads/faces): creator, protector, destroyer, obscurer, releaser.
Devi General term form for mother goddess, reincarnations in the form of numerous other goddesses that represent life-giving power of the universe as identified with women, fruitfulness of the land; rites of the dead.
Other Important Contributions of India to the World of Art Mandala Taj Mahal Swastika Indian Music Bollywood
Mandala Sanskrit for “circle” or “wholeness” diagram that reminds of our relation to the infinite, the world that extends both beyond and within our bodies and minds. Diagrams of cosmic realms; representing order and meaning within the spiritual universe; may be simple of complex, three- or two-dimensional and in different shapes
Burning of the books and burying of the scholars
Hero and The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor
During his life, Qin Shi Huangdi’s empire was defended by an army of 300,000. After his death, an underground army of thousands of terracotta men and horses guarded his tomb, disciplined and alert for all eternity. Army of Emperor Shi Huangdi Shaanxi Province, China 210 B.C.E.painted terracotta
The Silk Route 5,000-mile long caravan & sea trade route from western end of the Great Wall to Rome. Silk was greatly treasured in ancient Greece and Rome. Funeral Banner from Tomb 1 Mawangdui, China ca.168 B.C.E.painted silk
Silk, spices and other foodstuff, horses, metals, gems and ceramics were traded along this silk route as early as 2640 BCE. Silk had been greatly valued in ancient Greece and Rome. China had monopoly of silk cultivation and art until 2 christian missionaries smuggled a few silkworm larvae to Constantinople.
Fan Kuan Travelers Among Mountains and Streams early 11th centuryhanging scroll, ink, and colors on silk6 ft. 7 1/4 in. x 3 ft. 4 1/4 in.
Zhou Jichang Arhats Giving Alms to Beggars 1178 C.E.ink and colors on silk44 x 21 in.
Shakyamuni Buddha 338gilded bronze1 ft. 3 1/2 in. high
Vairocana Buddha, Longmen Caves Luoyang, China ca. 670-680 C.E.central figure 50 feet high
Most impressive surviving works of Buddhist art are hundreds of caves carved from solid rock Vairocana Buddha, Longmen Caves Luoyang, China ca. 670-680 C.E.50 feet high
Paradise of Amitabha Cave 172 Dunhuang, China mid 8th centurywall paintingwall approximately 10 feet high
The abundance of raw material necessary for ceramics has made China the cradle of ceramic—porcelain and earthenware art. Glazing—the art of fastening color unto ceramics—was also perfected by ancient Chinese. Horse 8th to 9th century C.E.20 in. highglazed earthenware
Neighing Horse 8th to 9th century C.E.20 in. highglazed earthenware
Meiping vase 960-1127 C.E.Stoneware, Cizhou type with sgraffito decoration
Pagodas are closely associated with East Asian Buddhist temples, particularly the stupas Influenced early Han Dynasty watchtowers Foguang Si Pagoda Yingxian, China 1056 C.E.
Multi-storied buildings with upward-curving roofs supported by elaborate bracketing. Architectural principles of simplicity, symmetry, proportions and grace. Foguang Si Pagoda Yingxian, China 1056 C.E.
Emperor Wu Ti of China (2nd cent BCE) brought the northern part Korea into his empire; introduced Buddhism, which in turn Koreans brought to Japanese culture in 552 CE. Korean people: skilled ceramists and metal workers. Shakyamuni Buddhaat entrance to cave temple from Sokkuram, Korea 751-744graniteapproximately 11 ft. high
The Matreya, or “Buddha of the Future” is the otherwise known as the early Korean representation of Buddhist deities. Slender figures, sophisticated, linear patterns. Statues with downcast eyes and fingers touching the chin indicating a person lost in deep thought. Seated Matreya. Korea. Three Kingdoms Period, early 7th Cent. Gilt bronze, 35 ¾ in.
Usually seen as a conduit from China to Japan Assimilated Chinese art but created a unique culture of its own Sophisticated style spread to Japanese islands and became an aesthetic basis for arts in China, Korea and Japan.
Flying StorehouseThe Legends of Mount Shigi Chogosonshiji, Nara late 12th centuryhandscroll ink and color on paper1 1/2 ft. high
Detail of Burning of the Sanjo Palace 13th century C.E. handscroll, ink and colors on paper16 1/4 in. high
Detail of Burning of the Sanjo Palace 13th century C.E. handscroll, ink and colors on paper16 1/4 in. high
Amida Descending over the Mountain 13th century C.E. hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk51 1/8 in. high
Amida Triad Horyuji Kondo, Nara, Japan ca. 710ink and colors10 ft. 3 in. x 8 ft. 6 in.
Crown from tomb 98 Hwangnamdong, Korea 5-6th centurygold10 3/4 in. high
Kano Motonobu Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom Muramachi Period, ca. 1513hanging scroll, ink and color on paper5 ft. 7 3/8 in. x 2 ft. 10 3/4 in.
Hasegawa Tohaku Pine Forest Monoyama Period, late 16th C.one of a pair of six-panel screensink on paper5 ft. 1 3/8 in. x 11 ft. 4 in.
Katsushika Hokusai The Great Wave off Kanagawa, from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji series Edo Period, ca. 1826-33woodblock print oban, ink and colors on paper9 7/8 in. x 1 ft. 2 3/4 in.
Ancient Greece Foundation of Western Civilization Breeding ground of the great philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle) Influenced Roman civilization, which is the foundation of democratic societies Greek language is the foundation of many modern English terms. New Testament written in Greek language
History Began with small sea-faring communities in the Aegean Sea Developed to city-states (polis) Became an empire that conquered the known world east of Greece (Alexander the Great) circa 350 BCE Replaced by the Roman Empire
Ancient Greeks sought perfection of the body and mind Greeks believed in Humanism – idea that humans should look to themselves when establishing standards Ancient Greeks greatly influenced Western culture – government / democracy, systems of education, athletics, developed philosophy, math, literature
Mythology Stories of gods and goddesses Theme of many sculptures
Sculpture Highly realistic Life-size Semi-nude Theme: mythology Theme: the perfect human body
Anavysos Kouros Sculpture (Marble) 530 BCE 1.93 M Tall
Anavysos Kouros Kouros means “young man” in Greek Represents the ideal “perfect” young man (strong, athletic, smooth skin, classic features) Classic pose (one foot forward, hands at the sides) Pose is similar to Egyptian figures
Peplos Kore Kore - “young woman” Peplos – style of dress that she is wearing Originally wore a metal crown and jewelry Originally painted with patterns of animals Missing left forearm – arm once held an object that would have identified her role Peplos Kore, 530 BCE, Marble, height 121 cm
Discus Thrower Sculpture (Marble / Roman Copy) 450 BCE 1.54 M Tall
Discus Thrower Sculpture is a copy by the Romans (who loved Greek art) Discus Throwing is an Olympic sport Greeks started the original Olympic Games in 776 BCE Anatomy of the human figure Movement of the figure
Venus de Milo (Aphrodite of Melos) Sculpture (Marble) 150 BCE 2.1 M Tall
Venus de Milo (Aphrodite of Melos) Classic Beauty of the Female Form Elongated Body with S-curve (shape of letter S) “Erotic” tension of her drapery falling off her body Arms broken off – originally holding an apple? Found on Aegean island of Melos by French excavators in 1820)
Nike of Samothrace Sculpture (Marble) 190 BCE 2.44 M Tall
Nike of Samothrace Nike – Greek Goddess of Victory Sometimes called “Winged Victory” Monument which originally stood on a hill (Victory Monument) Louvre Museum, Paris
Architecture Temples For the gods, not for human use pillars
3 Types of Greek Columns: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian The Greek Columns became more elaborate as time advanced (the oldest column is the Doric)
Sanctuary of Apollo Architecture 6th – 3rd century BCE
Sanctuary of Apollo Sacred home of the Greek God Apollo (God of sun, light, truth, music, archery, and healing) Greeks believed Apollo could communicate to humans through a human medium called the Pythia Located at Delphi (the site of the Pythian Games – a festival and competition of music, dance, and poetry
The Greeks searched for perfect proportions (relationship between size differences) in their sculpture and temples The Greeks used a ratio called the Golden Section in their art and architecture
Located in Athens, Greece Temple built for Goddess Athena (Goddess of Athens, wisdom, war, victory, and civilization) Acropolis - complex of buildings Perfect Harmony and Balance (Golden Section) Designed by Kallikrates and Iktinos (architects) Doric Columns Parthenon, Acropolis
The Golden Section as applied to the Parthenon
East Pediment of the Parthenon Pediment – a triangular gable found over major architectural elements such as porticos, windows, or doors
East Pediment of the Parthenon AKA the “Elgin Marbles” - British Earl of Elgins bought the pediment and later gave it to British government Originally over 90 feet long – today less than 40 feet survives (probably destroyed by Christians in the 5th Century when Parthenon was converted to a church Figures illustrate the birth of Athena (goddess of wisdom and civilization) East Pediment of the Parthenon, Marble Sculptures, 447 – 432 BCE
Painting Usually found on pots and vases Flat Theme: methology
Francois Vase Sculpture (Painted Ceramic) 570 BCE 66 cm
Discovered by a French archaeologist, Francois Signed by the painter and the potter Black Figure Pottery (black on red decoration) Volute Crater Shape Many stories, including the story of the wedding of King Peleus 200 animal and human figures Francois Vase
Olympics Myth is that it was started by Hercules and Zeus (Olympic Stadium was built after Hercules completed the 12 labors) All wars/protests/struggles are postponed during this period Fundamental religious importance Running events, pentathlon, boxing, wrestling
Literature Mythology is the major theme Illiad and Odyssey Philosophy – Socrates, Plato, Aristotle “All men by nature desire to know”
Impact of Greek Mythology in Language Herculean Task Achilles Heel Trojan virus Trojan horse Morphine Midas touch The face that launched a thousand ships Narcissistic Remember the Titans You opened a Pandora’s box Carrying the weight of the world Odyssey
As a modern-day artist, what are the lessons that you have learned from studying the ancient civilizations? ASSIGNMENT # 4
Create a work of art inspired by an ancient civilization Present to the class on October 29 Talk about the creative process, why you chose that civilization, what are some of the modern-day influences that you used Powerpoint presentation Mode of presentation depends on art form you will choose GROUP PROJECT