Introduction to Linguistics                 nia F lo r e s        By   Ida
What is a Language?Language = df. A system that uses some  physical sign (sound, gesture, mark) to express  meaning.
We are Uniquely Language-UsersOther Animals Communicate• Cats arch their back to scare the neighbor cat• Bees tell each ot...
We are Uniquely Language-UsersWe Use Language• We can separate our vocalization from a  given situation (cats only arch th...
4 Parts to Language/Grammar
Phonological RulesLanguage consists of a fairly small set of  sounds (phonemes). There are about 40 in  English. Most have...
Morphology   Language is Made up of Morphemes.Many are words (Lexicon is the dictionary of). “Papers” has 2 morphemes (pap...
Syntactic RulesRules that enable us to combine morphemes into sentences  (bridge between sound and meaning).When children ...
SemanticArbitrariness of the Sign - Sounds ofwords bear no relationship to meaning(except for onomatopoeia).In Philosophy ...
Semantics Follows Syntax  A single sentence can correspond to two  propositions, each of which has a distinctive  syntacti...
GrammarHow do we know that one sentence isgrammatical and the other is not?– Amy likes Stan– Think likes I Stan that AmyCa...
Questions About Rules– How do we come to have such  knowledge?– In what form is such knowledge  represented in the mind?– ...
Interesting Facts About Language• The number of sentences is infinite.• We are able to distinguish grammatical from  ungra...
Noam ChomskyFocused on the vast and unconscious setof rules he hypothesized must exist in theminds of speakers and hearers...
Chomsky’s Views• He abandons the idea that children produce  languages only by imitation (abandon behaviorism)• He rejects...
Chomsky’s Views    Hypothesis – The inborn linguistic capacity of    humans is sensitive to just those rules that occur   ...
Support for Chomsky (1)                                            es is eal                                   se ntenc   ...
Supp ort for Chomsky (2)   Claim that children can’t be   taught grammatical rules   because they are not explicitly   kno...
Support for Innate RulesCompetent speakers of a language don’t know theprinciples that form grammatical judgments. Theynev...
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Lingustic

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Language origins, language-brain relationship, sound, word, syntactic, meaning and social systems, communication with all its contexts, discourse analysis and its approaches, language learning and teaching aspects are discussed throughout the course

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Lingustic

  1. 1. Introduction to Linguistics nia F lo r e s By Ida
  2. 2. What is a Language?Language = df. A system that uses some physical sign (sound, gesture, mark) to express meaning.
  3. 3. We are Uniquely Language-UsersOther Animals Communicate• Cats arch their back to scare the neighbor cat• Bees tell each other when they have found food• Chimpanzees can be taught to use primitive sign language to communicate desires.
  4. 4. We are Uniquely Language-UsersWe Use Language• We can separate our vocalization from a given situation (cats only arch their back in the appropriate situation).• We can lie (animals only report)• We can speculate (animals are bad at counterfactuals)
  5. 5. 4 Parts to Language/Grammar
  6. 6. Phonological RulesLanguage consists of a fairly small set of sounds (phonemes). There are about 40 in English. Most have no meaning in themselves; rather we string them together to form meaningful bits and pieces. Rules - E.g., an English word can end, but not begin, with an -ng sound
  7. 7. Morphology Language is Made up of Morphemes.Many are words (Lexicon is the dictionary of). “Papers” has 2 morphemes (paper & s) 3 million words in English (about 200,000 words in common use today).
  8. 8. Syntactic RulesRules that enable us to combine morphemes into sentences (bridge between sound and meaning).When children put words together they are followingsyntactic rules about how morphemes are put together.
  9. 9. SemanticArbitrariness of the Sign - Sounds ofwords bear no relationship to meaning(except for onomatopoeia).In Philosophy we often distinguishbetween denotation and connotation.
  10. 10. Semantics Follows Syntax A single sentence can correspond to two propositions, each of which has a distinctive syntactic (and logical) structure, hence, a different cognitive representation.• Evidence that meaning is assigned to syntactic structure, rather than to words and sentences.
  11. 11. GrammarHow do we know that one sentence isgrammatical and the other is not?– Amy likes Stan– Think likes I Stan that AmyCannot be that we have learned eachinstance individually. Sentences are infinite;brain is not.
  12. 12. Questions About Rules– How do we come to have such knowledge?– In what form is such knowledge represented in the mind?– How can children learn grammar?
  13. 13. Interesting Facts About Language• The number of sentences is infinite.• We are able to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical sentences.• We are able to recognize truncated sentences (“Stop it”) that are missing nouns.• We are able to recognize ambiguous sentences (“Andrew saw the girl with binoculars”)• We can create sentences that paraphrase each other.
  14. 14. Noam ChomskyFocused on the vast and unconscious setof rules he hypothesized must exist in theminds of speakers and hearers in order forthem to produce and understand theirnative language.  1957 – Syntactic Structures1965 – Aspects of the Theory of Syntax
  15. 15. Chomsky’s Views• He abandons the idea that children produce languages only by imitation (abandon behaviorism)• He rejects the idea that direct teaching and correcting of grammar could account for children’s utterances because the rules children were unconsciously acquiring are buried in the unconscious of the adults.• He claims that there are generative rules (explicit algorithms that characterize the structures of a particular language).
  16. 16. Chomsky’s Views Hypothesis – The inborn linguistic capacity of humans is sensitive to just those rules that occur in human languages. Language development occurs if the environment provides exposure to language. Similar to the capacity to walk.  Universal Grammar - Despite superficial differences all human languages share a fundamental structure. This structure is a universal grammar. We have an innate ability to apply this universal grammar to whatever language we are faced with at birth.
  17. 17. Support for Chomsky (1) es is eal se ntenc app ical e to mat t we hav gram a tha er of e ide umb ts th the n ppor hat te suT les. ni infi mmatic al r u to gra
  18. 18. Supp ort for Chomsky (2) Claim that children can’t be taught grammatical rules because they are not explicitly known. Rather, they absorb these rules unconsciously, as their language is spoken around them.
  19. 19. Support for Innate RulesCompetent speakers of a language don’t know theprinciples that form grammatical judgments. Theynever learned these rules in school, nor were theytaught them by their parents. Linguistic knowledge isunconscious or tacit.– Data available to children underdetermine linguistic rules– General learning mechanisms cannot account for the acquisition and form of grammars.
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