Introduction to Scientific Nomenclature Hendrik Segers Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Hue University, Vietnam...
What nomenclature? A set of  mandatory   rules  and  voluntary   recommendations  that determine the structure and formati...
Why nomenclature? “ The objects of the Code are  to promote  stability  and  universability  in the scientific names of an...
Nomenclature codes <ul><li>McNeill .,  et al . (eds), 200 6 . International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ( Vienna  Code)...
The ICZN
History of zoological nomenclature <ul><li>1758 Formal starting point = 10th Edition of Linnaeus’s  Systema Naturae  (also...
Why do names change? Correct application of nomenclatural codes (e.g., correction of errors; homonyms;…) Increased scienti...
Why do names change? Correct application of nomenclatural codes (e.g., correction of errors; homonyms;…) Increased scienti...
Ruling principles <ul><li>Nomenclature =  naming tool </li></ul><ul><li>Nomenclature only  follows  taxonomy   </li></ul>T...
Ruling principles <ul><li>Nomenclature =  naming tool </li></ul><ul><li>Typification </li></ul><ul><li>The taxonomic ident...
Principle of Typification <ul><li>Art. 61.1. Each nominal taxon in the family, genus or species groups has actually or pot...
Principle of Typification Types of name-bearing types  (in the species group) Original designation (Fixed in the original ...
How does it work? Syntypes Type localities New Species A Species B
How does it work? Holotype + Paratypes Type locality New Species A Species B
How does it work? Lectotype + paralectotype Type localities Species A Species B
How does it work? Lectotype + paralectotype Type localities Species A Species B
Principle of Typification Terms not regulated by the Codes Allotype :  a designated specimen of opposite sex of the holoty...
Ruling principles <ul><li>Nomenclature =  naming tool </li></ul><ul><li>Typification </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Synony...
Synonyms … <ul><li>Synonyms : 2 or more names = 1 taxon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomenclatural  (=  objective, homotypic ) sy...
Synonyms … <ul><li>Synonyms : 2 or more names = 1 taxon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomenclatural  (=  objective, homotypic ) sy...
Ruling principles <ul><li>Nomenclature =  naming tool </li></ul><ul><li>Typification </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Synony...
…  and   Homonyms <ul><li>Lecane ornata  (Harring & Myers, 1926)  </li></ul><ul><li>Lecane ornata  (Daday, 1897) </li></ul...
Ruling principles <ul><li>Nomenclature =  naming tool </li></ul><ul><li>Typification </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Synony...
Synonyms … « Oldest fool »: Lecane ludwigii  (Eckstein, 1883) <ul><li>Lecane ludwigii  (Eckstein, 1883)  or </li></ul><ul>...
…  and   Homonyms Argus  Bohadsch, 1761(gastropod);  Argus  Scopoli, 1763 (butterfly);  Argus  Scopoli, 1777 (butterfly); ...
…  and   Homonyms <ul><li>Lecane ornata  (Harring & Myers, 1926)  </li></ul><ul><li>Lecane ornata  (Daday, 1897) </li></ul...
Principle of Priority <ul><li>Can Cause Problems  ! </li></ul>The Commission can intervene ( nomina rejicienda, conservand...
Ruling principles <ul><li>Nomenclature =  naming tool </li></ul><ul><li>Typification </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Synony...
Monostyla closterocerca  Schmarda, 1853 What’s in a name? With subgenus name: Lecane (Monostyla) closterocerca  (Schmarda,...
Scientific Names are Latin <ul><li>Rules of  Latin grammar  apply </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement in gender </li></ul><ul><li>...
Formation of Scientific Names <ul><li>Formation of species names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After  features : adjectives </li>...
Formation of Scientific Names <ul><li>Formation of species names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After  features : adjectives </li>...
Formation of Scientific Names <ul><li>Formation of species names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After  features : adjectives </li>...
Formation of Scientific Names <ul><li>Formation of species names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After  features : adjectives </li>...
Formation of Scientific Names <ul><li>Formation of species names: </li></ul><ul><li>no diacritic or other marks, ligature,...
Formal requirements in ICZN (1) <ul><li>Name or nomenclatural act must be  Published ; </li></ul>
Formal requirements in ICZN (1) <ul><li>Name or nomenclatural act must be  Published ; </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific names ...
Formal requirements in ICZN (1) <ul><li>Name or nomenclatural act must be  Published ; </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific names ...
Some examples: One-letter difference… Eucosma  fandana Eucosma  gandana  Eucosma  handana  Eucosma  landana Eucosma  manda...
<ul><li>Fun with Latin:  </li></ul><ul><li>S tupidogobius  Aurich, 1938 (stupid fish) </li></ul><ul><li>Localities : </li>...
<ul><li>Not another one… </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclocephala nodanotherwon  Ratcliffe (scarabid)  </li></ul><ul><li>Ochisme, Po...
Formal requirements in ICZN (2) <ul><li>New requirements for species-group names published after 1999: </li></ul><ul><ul><...
The different codes: a comparison <ul><li>The codes have  different starting dates  and  works   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bot...
<ul><li>The codes have different starting dates and works </li></ul><ul><li>The codes are  independent   </li></ul><ul><li...
Inter-Code Generic homonyms     Botanical genus names homonyms in Zool. record     Total   64,419 8,784  (13.6%)     in co...
<ul><li>Poria cocos:  Coleoptera and Fungus; </li></ul><ul><li>Pieris japonica : butterfly and plant; </li></ul><ul><li>Cu...
<ul><li>Principle of co-ordination: </li></ul><ul><li>Names established at any rank within the F/G/S groups are deemed est...
<ul><li>Principle of co-ordination   </li></ul><ul><li>Tautonyms   </li></ul><ul><li>( Bison bison, Glis glis, Mops mops.....
<ul><li>Principle of co-ordination  </li></ul><ul><li>Tautonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Latin diagnosis   </li></ul><ul><li>requ...
<ul><li>Principle of co-ordination  </li></ul><ul><li>Tautonyms   </li></ul><ul><li>Latin diagnosis  </li></ul><ul><li>App...
Table 2: Standardized endings for names of taxa 1 : for fungi; ²: for algae   Rank :   Zoological Botanical Bacteriologica...
Interesting websites <ul><li>International Code of Botanical Nomenclature :  http://ibot.sav.sk/icbn/main.htm </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Games with letters/statistics: </li></ul><ul><li>Aa  Baker, 1940 (mollusk) </li></ul><ul><li>Aaadonta  Solem, 1976...
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Segers Introduction To Scientific Nomenclature

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Segers Introduction To Scientific Nomenclature

  1. 1. Introduction to Scientific Nomenclature Hendrik Segers Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Hue University, Vietnam January 2009
  2. 2. What nomenclature? A set of mandatory rules and voluntary recommendations that determine the structure and formation of names of organisms, for use in scientific communication.
  3. 3. Why nomenclature? “ The objects of the Code are to promote stability and universability in the scientific names of animals and to ensure that the name of each taxon is unique and distinct. All its provisions and recommendations are subservient to those ends and none restricts the freedom of taxonomic thought or actions” (ICZN 1999:2) Fundamental aim of nomenclature: avoid a Tower of Babel Need for universal codes!
  4. 4. Nomenclature codes <ul><li>McNeill ., et al . (eds), 200 6 . International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ( Vienna Code). Regnum Vegetabile 146. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG. I SBN 0080-0694 </li></ul><ul><li>Trehane, P., et al. (eds). 1995. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants . Adapted by the International Committee for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants of the I.U.B.S. Regn. Veget. 133. </li></ul><ul><li>Sneath, P.H.A., et al. (eds), 1992. International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria . Washington (+ : Skerman, V.D.B. et al., 1980. Approved Lists of Bacterial Names). </li></ul><ul><li>International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , 4 th edition. Adopted by the I.U.B.S. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London </li></ul>
  5. 5. The ICZN
  6. 6. History of zoological nomenclature <ul><li>1758 Formal starting point = 10th Edition of Linnaeus’s Systema Naturae (also Clerck’s Aranei Svecici ) </li></ul><ul><li>1842 Strickland Code (botany and zoology) </li></ul><ul><li>1889 First ICZ meeting (Paris) ; tentative adoption of a set of rules </li></ul><ul><li>1901 Fifth ICZ meeting (Berlin) ; “Rules of Zoological Nomenclature”; published as Règles Internationales de la Nomenclature Zoologique (French, English & German) </li></ul><ul><li>1961 First edition of the Code of Zoological Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>1964 Second edition </li></ul><ul><li>1985 Third edition </li></ul><ul><li>1988 Launch of fourth edition project </li></ul><ul><li>1995 Draft of fourth edition released by Secretariat </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Fourth edition (current edition) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes effect from 1 January 2000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion on registration of names re-opened; “ zoobank”, Launch of fifth edition project </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why do names change? Correct application of nomenclatural codes (e.g., correction of errors; homonyms;…) Increased scientific understanding (e.g., discoveries; changes in species concept ( s.l. ) and phylogenetic understanding)
  8. 8. Why do names change? Correct application of nomenclatural codes (e.g., correction of errors; homonyms;…) Increased scientific understanding (e.g., discoveries; changes in species concept ( s.l. ) and phylogenetic understanding) <ul><li>All changes are governed by legalistic, scientifically neutral conventions: the codes of nomenclature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.: the ICZN consists of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preamble </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90 Articles, grouped in 18 chapters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One or more mandatory provisions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-mandatory recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glossary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ruling principles <ul><li>Nomenclature = naming tool </li></ul><ul><li>Nomenclature only follows taxonomy </li></ul>Tool Science
  10. 10. Ruling principles <ul><li>Nomenclature = naming tool </li></ul><ul><li>Typification </li></ul><ul><li>The taxonomic identity of a name is determined by that of its type </li></ul>
  11. 11. Principle of Typification <ul><li>Art. 61.1. Each nominal taxon in the family, genus or species groups has actually or potentially a name-bearing type. The fixation of the name bearing type of a nominal taxon provides the objective standard of reference for the application of the name it bears. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>61.1.1. The valid name from a taxon is determined only from the name-bearing type(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>61.1.2. Objectivity through typification is continuous through the hierarchy of names, from species to family group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>61.1.3. Name-bearing types (generally) are stable and provide objective continuity in the application of names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ICZN) </li></ul></ul>=> Identity of a name relies only on its type , not on its description or diagnosis
  12. 12. Principle of Typification Types of name-bearing types (in the species group) Original designation (Fixed in the original publication) Subsequent designation (Not fixed in the original publication) Holotype : the single specimen upon which a new species-group taxon is based in the original publication (see also isotype ) Paratypes : remaining specimens of the original type series (see also allotype) Syntypes : specimens of a type series that collectively constitute the name-bearing type Hapantotype : (special case) Lectotype : a syntype designated as the single-name bearing type specimen Paralectotypes : each specimen of the former syntype series remaining after lectotype designation (see also isolectotype) Neotype : the single specimen designated as the name-bearing type when no name-bearing type specimen is believed to exist (anymore)
  13. 13. How does it work? Syntypes Type localities New Species A Species B
  14. 14. How does it work? Holotype + Paratypes Type locality New Species A Species B
  15. 15. How does it work? Lectotype + paralectotype Type localities Species A Species B
  16. 16. How does it work? Lectotype + paralectotype Type localities Species A Species B
  17. 17. Principle of Typification Terms not regulated by the Codes Allotype : a designated specimen of opposite sex of the holotype Cotype : a term formerly used for either syntype or paratype Genotype : a term formerly used to designate the type species of a genus (generotype) Topotype : a specimen originating from the type locality or localities of the species or subspecies to which it is thought to belong, whether or not the specimen is part of the type series (see also topotypical specimen) Some peculiar cases: Cleptotype , Iconotype , … Type of a family name = genus Type of a genus = species
  18. 18. Ruling principles <ul><li>Nomenclature = naming tool </li></ul><ul><li>Typification </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Synonymy </li></ul><ul><li>1 taxon should only have 1 valid name </li></ul>
  19. 19. Synonyms … <ul><li>Synonyms : 2 or more names = 1 taxon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomenclatural (= objective, homotypic ) synonyms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxonomic (= subjective, heterotypic ) synonyms </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Synonyms … <ul><li>Synonyms : 2 or more names = 1 taxon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomenclatural (= objective, homotypic ) synonyms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxonomic (= subjective, heterotypic ) synonyms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lecane ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883) or </li></ul><ul><li>Lecane stokesi (Pell, 1890) or </li></ul><ul><li>Lecane ohioensis (Herrick, 1885) ? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ruling principles <ul><li>Nomenclature = naming tool </li></ul><ul><li>Typification </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Synonymy </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Homonymy </li></ul><ul><li>1 name can apply to only 1 taxon </li></ul><ul><li>(but see independance of codes) </li></ul>
  22. 22. … and Homonyms <ul><li>Lecane ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) </li></ul><ul><li>Lecane ornata (Daday, 1897) </li></ul><ul><li>(syn. of L. ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883)) </li></ul>Problem: name for L. ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) non (Daday, 1897)?
  23. 23. Ruling principles <ul><li>Nomenclature = naming tool </li></ul><ul><li>Typification </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Synonymy </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Homonymy </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Priority </li></ul><ul><li>“ the oldest fool is always right” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Synonyms … « Oldest fool »: Lecane ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883) <ul><li>Lecane ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883) or </li></ul><ul><li>Lecane stokesi (Pell, 1890) or </li></ul><ul><li>Lecane ohioensis (Herrick, 1885) ? </li></ul>
  25. 25. … and Homonyms Argus Bohadsch, 1761(gastropod); Argus Scopoli, 1763 (butterfly); Argus Scopoli, 1777 (butterfly); Argus Poli, 1791 (mollusk); Argus Temminck, 1807 (bird); Argus Lamarck, 1817 (hesperid); Argus Boisduval, 1832 (lycaenid); Argus Walckenaer, 1836 (arachnid); Argus Gray, 1847(mollusk); Argus Gerhard, 1850 (lycaenid) ) Principle of Priority: Argus Bohadsch, 1761 is the only valid name
  26. 26. … and Homonyms <ul><li>Lecane ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) </li></ul><ul><li>Lecane ornata (Daday, 1897) </li></ul><ul><li>(syn. of L. ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883)) </li></ul>Problem: name for L. ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) non (Daday, 1897)? No “Oldest fool” available! Nomen novum required: Lecane myersi
  27. 27. Principle of Priority <ul><li>Can Cause Problems ! </li></ul>The Commission can intervene ( nomina rejicienda, conservanda )
  28. 28. Ruling principles <ul><li>Nomenclature = naming tool </li></ul><ul><li>Typification </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Synonymy </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Homonymy </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Priority </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of binominal nomenclature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names of taxa above species: uninominal: e.g., Hominidae, Homo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Names of species: binominal: e.g., Homo sapiens </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Monostyla closterocerca Schmarda, 1853 What’s in a name? With subgenus name: Lecane (Monostyla) closterocerca (Schmarda, 1853) Edmondson, 1935 Short : Lecane (M.) closterocerca (Shmarda, 1853) Or: L. closterocerca new combination: Lecane closterocerca (Schmarda, 1853) Edmondson, 1935 With subspecies name: trinomen Lecane (Monostyla) closterocerca amazonica Koste, 1972 Or: L. closterocerca amazonica
  30. 30. Scientific Names are Latin <ul><li>Rules of Latin grammar apply </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement in gender </li></ul><ul><li>Mastigocerca capucina Wierzejski & Zacharias, 1893 </li></ul><ul><li>Rattulus capucinus  : Jennings, 1903 </li></ul><ul><li>Trichocerca capucina (Wierzejski & Zacharias, 1893) Harring, 1913 </li></ul>
  31. 31. Formation of Scientific Names <ul><li>Formation of species names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After features : adjectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g.: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lepadella minuta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaridium grande </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S. longicaudum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brachionus bidentatus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keratella taurocephala </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Formation of Scientific Names <ul><li>Formation of species names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After features : adjectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After other species : noun in apposition, adjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Trichocerca tigris, T. rattus, T. cavia, T. mus, T. musculus, T. porcellus, T. orca. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also: Seison nebaliae. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Formation of Scientific Names <ul><li>Formation of species names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After features : adjectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After other species : noun in apposition, adjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After people : noun in genitive case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one man: Trichodorus borgoniei </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one woman: T. catharinae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>several man/woman: L. gallagherorum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>several woman: stem + arum </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Formation of Scientific Names <ul><li>Formation of species names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After features : adjectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After other species : noun in apposition, adjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After people : noun in genitive case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After places : adjectival toponym </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Trichodorus lusitanicus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paratrichodorus delhiensis </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Formation of Scientific Names <ul><li>Formation of species names: </li></ul><ul><li>no diacritic or other marks, ligature, apostrophes, etc…: </li></ul><ul><li>Trichocerca dixon-nutalli becomes T. dixonnutalli ; </li></ul><ul><li>Dicranophorus lütkeni becomes D. luetkeni; </li></ul><ul><li>Filinia novaezaelandiae; </li></ul><ul><li>( ñ becomes n, ø becomes o, …) </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>- Zygiella x-notata </li></ul>
  36. 36. Formal requirements in ICZN (1) <ul><li>Name or nomenclatural act must be Published ; </li></ul>
  37. 37. Formal requirements in ICZN (1) <ul><li>Name or nomenclatural act must be Published ; </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific names must be spelled using the 26 letters of the Latin Alphabet ; </li></ul>
  38. 38. Formal requirements in ICZN (1) <ul><li>Name or nomenclatural act must be Published ; </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific names must be spelled using the 26 letters of the Latin Alphabet ; </li></ul><ul><li>Derivation : a name may be derived from any language, or even an arbitrary combination of letters if this is formed to be used as a word (not cbafdg); </li></ul><ul><li>=> lots of freedom allowed! </li></ul>
  39. 39. Some examples: One-letter difference… Eucosma fandana Eucosma gandana Eucosma handana Eucosma landana Eucosma mandana Eucosm a nandana Eucosma pandana Eucosma sandana Eucosma wandana But also: Cydi a candana Epiblema tandana Epinotia xandana Epinotia zandana Pelochrista randana Pelochrista vandana Tortricidae (Moths, Northern Mexico : ( Kearfo t t, 1907)
  40. 40. <ul><li>Fun with Latin: </li></ul><ul><li>S tupidogobius Aurich, 1938 (stupid fish) </li></ul><ul><li>Localities : </li></ul><ul><li>Panama canalia Marsh, 1993 (braconid) </li></ul><ul><li>Belgica antarctica (chironomid) </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico (beetle and virus) </li></ul><ul><li>Texas (pentatomid and virus) </li></ul><ul><li>Neotiglossa (Texas) californica Bliven, 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>Mythology : </li></ul><ul><li>Zeus Linnaeus, 1758 (fish) </li></ul><ul><li>Kali Lloyd, 1909 (fish) </li></ul><ul><li>Satan Hubbs & Bailey, 1947 (fish),… </li></ul>More examples….
  41. 41. <ul><li>Not another one… </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclocephala nodanotherwon Ratcliffe (scarabid) </li></ul><ul><li>Ochisme, Polychisme, Dolichisme, Peggichisme Kirkaldi, 1904 </li></ul><ul><li>Iyaiyai Evenhuis, 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Agra vation Erwin, 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>Notnops, Taintnops , and Tisentnops Platnick, 1994 (spiders originally in genus Nops MacLeay, 1839 </li></ul><ul><li>Persons (“honorifics”): </li></ul><ul><li>Cartwrightia cartwrighti Cartwright, 1967 (scarab) </li></ul><ul><li>Hoia hoi (parasitic copepod), after Ju-Shey Ho </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo davincii Bleszynski, 1965 (pyralid butterfly) </li></ul><ul><li>But also (“horrorifics”): </li></ul><ul><li>Dyaria Neumoegen, 1893 (liparid butterfly) after Mr. Dyar. </li></ul>Even more examples….
  42. 42. Formal requirements in ICZN (2) <ul><li>New requirements for species-group names published after 1999: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit indication of name as intentionally new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(n. sp., gen. nov., nom. nov.,…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixation of name-bearing types explicit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>designation & deposition </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. The different codes: a comparison <ul><li>The codes have different starting dates  and works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Botanical : Species Plantarum  : Linnaeus, 1753. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoological : Systema Naturae  : Linnaeus, 1758; Araneae swecici Clerck, 1757,… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteriologial : January 1, 1980 (older names only when included in list of approved names ) </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>The codes have different starting dates and works </li></ul><ul><li>The codes are independent </li></ul><ul><li>=> inter-code homonyms are possible, allowed, and common </li></ul>The different codes: a comparison <ul><li>Lactarius nonfungus Nolf & Bajpai 1992 : fish </li></ul><ul><li>Lactarius nonpiscis Verbeken 1996: fungus </li></ul>
  45. 45. Inter-Code Generic homonyms   Botanical genus names homonyms in Zool. record     Total 64,419 8,784 (13.6%)     in common use 28,041 3,554 (12.7%)       Bacteriological genus names Homonyms in Zool. Record Homonyms in ING (Botanical) Homonyms in both Total 739 50 (6.8%) 29 (3.9%) 15 in common use 701 48 (6.9%) 27 (3.9%) 14
  46. 46. <ul><li>Poria cocos: Coleoptera and Fungus; </li></ul><ul><li>Pieris japonica : butterfly and plant; </li></ul><ul><li>Culcita novaeguineae : seastar, and Culcita novae-guineae : fern </li></ul>Examples of genus + species homonoms:
  47. 47. <ul><li>Principle of co-ordination: </li></ul><ul><li>Names established at any rank within the F/G/S groups are deemed established at any rank within the group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family-group: Super-,Family, sub-, Tribus, sub- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genus-group: Genus, sub- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Species-group: Species, sub- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoology only </li></ul></ul>The different codes: a comparison
  48. 48. <ul><li>Principle of co-ordination </li></ul><ul><li>Tautonyms </li></ul><ul><li>( Bison bison, Glis glis, Mops mops...) </li></ul><ul><li>allowed in zoology; </li></ul>The different codes: a comparison
  49. 49. <ul><li>Principle of co-ordination </li></ul><ul><li>Tautonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Latin diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>required in botanical nomenclature </li></ul>The different codes: a comparison
  50. 50. <ul><li>Principle of co-ordination </li></ul><ul><li>Tautonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Latin diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Application & different standardised endings </li></ul>The different codes: a comparison
  51. 51. Table 2: Standardized endings for names of taxa 1 : for fungi; ²: for algae Rank :   Zoological Botanical Bacteriological phylum/divisio * - phyta/-mycota 1   classis * - opsida/-mycetes 1 / -phyceae²   subclassis * - idea/-mycetidae 1 /-phycidae 2   superordo * - anae   ordo * - ales - ales subordo * - ineae - ineae superfamily - oidea (not used) (not used) family - ida e - aceae - aceae subfamily - inae - oideae - oideae tribus - ini - eae - eae subtribus - ina - inae - inae
  52. 52. Interesting websites <ul><li>International Code of Botanical Nomenclature : http://ibot.sav.sk/icbn/main.htm </li></ul><ul><li>International Commission and Code on Zoological Nomenclature : http://www.iczn.org </li></ul><ul><li>Nomenclator Zoologicus ( 347,000 zo o logi cal genus- and subgenus names from 1758 to 1994 : http://www.ubio.org/NomenclatorZoologicus </li></ul><ul><li>GBIF (www.gbif.org), Catalogue of Life ( www.catalogueoflife.org), Zoobank (www.zoobank.org), Universal Biological Indexer and Organizer (uBio: www.uBio.org), </li></ul><ul><li>ERMS, WoRMS, Fishbase, FaunaEuropaea (www.faunaeur.org), </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia of Life, Speciesbase,…… </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG: www.tdwg.org) </li></ul><ul><li>BioNET International (http://www.bionet-intl.org/opencms/opencms/index1.jsp) </li></ul><ul><li>Global Taxonomy Initiative ( http://www.biodiv.org/programmes/cross-cutting/taxonomy/ ) </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Games with letters/statistics: </li></ul><ul><li>Aa Baker, 1940 (mollusk) </li></ul><ul><li>Aaadonta Solem, 1976 (endodontoid slug) </li></ul><ul><li>Cavaticovelia aaa Gagne, 1975 (Hawaiian bug) </li></ul><ul><li>Aragara Walker, 1860 (fly; longest palindrome) </li></ul><ul><li>Ia io Thomas, 1902 (bat; shortest binomen) </li></ul><ul><li>Gammaracanthuskytodermogammarus loricatobaicalensis Dybowski, 1926 (amphipod; the longest binomen ) </li></ul><ul><li>Zyzzyxdonta Solem, 1976 (endodontoid slug, </li></ul><ul><li>with opposite features of Aaadonta ) </li></ul><ul><li>Zyzzyzus Stechow, 1921 (Coelenterata) </li></ul><ul><li>… and many, many more: http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~heraty/menke.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html </li></ul>Did I mention these ones?
  54. 54. Thank you for your attention
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