Copyright:the new taxonomic impedimentDonat Agosti* & Norman F. Johnson***AMNH / **OSUZOOBANK-Symposium, ESA, Dec. 18, 2005
Copyright is a set of exclusive rights granted bygovernment for a limited time to regulate the use of aparticular form, way or manner in which an idea orinformation is expressed.In law, an exclusive right is the power or right to performan action in relation to an object or other thing whichothers cannot perform. The law may require that aperson seek such rights through application, or it mayautomatically grant such rights.Exclusive rights may be granted in intellectual propertylaw.Most governments recognize a bundle of exclusive rights inrelation to creative and scientific works and propertyunder the umbrella term "intellectual property". Anexample is copyright..(Source: Wikipedia)
Access to ant taxonomic publications through antbase.org /Smithsonian Institution, including currently theentire body of non-copyrighted publications since 1758 (>4,000 publications or 85,000 pages. Source:(Agosti 2005 and antbase.org)Directly through enforcement of copyright
Approved by 148 against 2 votes (4abstentions) by the GeneralConference of UNESCO in Paris,October 20
Universal Declaration on Cultural DiversityARTICLE 6 Towards access for all to cultural diversityWhile ensuring the free flow of ideas by word and image, careshould be exercised that all cultures can express themselves andmake themselves known.Freedom of expression, media pluralism, multilingualism, equalaccess to art and to scientific and technological knowledge,including in digital form, and the possibility for all cultures to haveaccess to the means of expression and dissemination are theguarantees of cultural diversity.
“The Real Death of Print”A. von Bubnoff, Nature 438:550-552, 01 Dec. 2005
ScanningPdf-conversion(WWW)Electronic revolution? Not yet.
Index 1 Index n DocsIndex ..RDBMSRetrieval Engine- Analyze queries- Use indices for SE and result improvement- Retrieve documents- Functionality in Query Executor & PluginsQuery PipelineRetrievalPlugin1RetrievalPlugin...MeasurePlugin1MeasurePlugin...RetrievalPluginnQueryExe-cutorDocument Analyzer- Analyze documents (NLP)- Store documents- Create indices from analysis results- Functionality in GATE & PluginsNLP Analysis PipelinePre-Plugin1Pre-Plugin...AnalyzerPlugin...AnalyzerPluginnAnalyzerPlugin1GATEDocDocDocResultDocDocDocResultDocDocDocResultUserUserUserUserUserUser???Query???Query???QueryDocDocDocQuestions /FeedbackLegendDocument / QueryMeta DataInformation Retrieval for Biodiversity Information Guido Sautter
• Taxonomic publications are “legal documents”,they must conform to the Codes to make thepresented nomenclatorial decisions valid. Thuseverybody should have access to these legallybinding documents.
• Taxonomic publications are “legal documents”,they must conform to the Codes to make thepresented nomenclatorial decisions valid. Thuseverybody should have access to these bindingdocuments.• Taxonomic descriptions are factual knowledge,that is knowledge based on direct observations.Thus, taxonomic publications, at least thedescriptive part, cannot be copyrighted, and canbe open access.
TitleAuthorAbstractIntroductionTaxon descriptionsSuppl. MaterialsAcknowledgmentsReferencesGenusDiagnosisNotesBiologyDistributionKey to sp.SpeciesdescriptionsSpeciesdescriptionsSpeciesdescriptionsSpecies 1Species 2Species 3Species 4Species ..Species nThe structure of a systematics publicationSpeciesdescriptions
Species 1Species 2Species 3Species 4Species ..Species nSpeciesdescriptionsNomenclatureDiagnosisDistributionMaterialExaminedCommentsDescriptionGraphic artSpecies 1The structure of a systematics publication, continuedSpecies (or taxa in case ofhigher level revisions)descriptions can beconsidered the buildingblocks or basic dataelements of taxonomicpublications. They are veryrich in detail. All the otherelements of a publications,are inferred from the analysisand synthesis of taxondescriptions.The descriptions are also the‚legal‘ element of thepublication in compliancewith the ICZN.
NomenclatureDiagnosisDistributionMaterialExaminedCommentsDescriptionGraphic artSpeciesSpecimen 1Specimen 2Specimen …Specimen nMaterial exam.DescriptionCharacter 1Character 2Character …Character nThe structure of a systematics publication, continuedSpecies descriptionscan be furtherresolved into thebasic units,characters in thedescription sensustr., and thespecimen records,which are a speciesat a given time at agiven locality(collecting event).They could beenhanced by sharedontologies andgazetteers
From text document to XML-document,or the deconstruction of documentsTaxon-xschema
Data Domains and Standards• Taxonomic names and concepts• Taxonomic Concept Schema (approved 2005)• Specimen occurrence records• ABCD (approved 2005)• DarwinCore (under development)• Characters and character states• Structure of Descriptive Data (approved 2005)• Literature• TaxonX (under development)• TaXMLit (under development)• Digital objects• Analytical results
ms submissionEdited msRevised msPublication: pdfPublication: hard copy OntologyBibliographyanalysis &ms preparationName ServerCharacter DBSpecimen DBDescription DBDistribution DBChar. Matrix DBPhyl. Tree DBChar-state imgSpecimen imgHabitat ImageLegacy Pub.TaxonDBNew DataAccepted msThe old - new taxonomy
ms submission(„Taxon-x-version“)new ms alertPosting for reviewEdited msRevised msPublication: pdf„Version control“Publication: hard copyPublication database(„taxon-x-version“)OntologyBibliographyanalysis &ms preparationZooBank / NSCharacter DBSpecimen DBDescription DBDistribution DBChar. Matrix DBPhyl. Tree DBChar-state imgSpecimen imgHabitat imageLegacy Pub.TaxonDBNew DatafeedbackAccepted msNew taxon alert… and the Future of Publication