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Carson2 Abnormal Psyche

Carson2 Abnormal Psyche






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    Carson2 Abnormal Psyche Carson2 Abnormal Psyche Presentation Transcript

    • Causal Factors and Viewpoints in Abnormal Psychology
      • This Chapter Will Explore the Causal Factors and Viewpoints of the Development and Maintenance of Abnormal Behavior. It Is Important to Have an Understanding of These for Prevention and Treatment of Abnormal and Maladaptive Behavior
    • Causes and Risk Factors
      • The Causes and Risk Factors are Multiple
        • Etiology (causal pattern underlying behavior)
          • Linear (A causes B causes C etc.)
          • Circular (Both A and B are reciprocal in their cause. )
      A B
    • Diathesis Stress Models
      • According to Diathesis-Stress Models, the cause of abnormal behavior can be view viewed as combination of two types of factors:
        • Diathesis - previous biological and environmental factors that predispose an individual towards developing a disorder.
        • Stress -trigger that taxes or exceeds the individuals personal resource and results in abnormal behavior.
      • Protective Factors - influences that modify a person’s response to an environmental stressor, making it less likely less likely that the person will experience the adverse effects of the stressor
      • Resilience - ability to adapt successfully to very difficult circumstances
      • Developmental Psychopathology
    • Models or Viewpoints for Understanding Abnormal Behavior
      • The value of viewpoints
        • Organize observations, provide a system of thought, and suggest areas of research, focus, and treatment.
        • Blind us until paradigm shifts (Freud)
      • Current Viewpoint in Psychology Is Multidimensional, Eclectic, and Integrative
        • Biopsychosocial viewpoint- an integrative approach that acknowledges that biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors all interact and play a role in psychopathology and treatment.
    • The Biological Viewpoint & Causal Factors
      • Biological Viewpoints and Causal Factors Include the Following General Areas:
        • Neurotransmitter and Hormonal Imbalances
        • Genetic Vulnerabilities
        • Constitutional Liabilities
        • Brain Dysfunction and Neural Plasticity
        • Physical Deprivation or Disruption
    • Neurotransmitter Imbalances
      • Neurotransmitter
      • imbalances
        • Synapse
        • Neurotransmitter
    • Hormonal Imbalances
        • Hypothalamus
        • Pituitary gland
    • Genetic Vulnerabilities
      • Cell-Nucleus-Chromosomes-DNA
        • Meiosis (germ cells and crossover)
          • Germ cell can result in 8 million combinations
          • Therefore over 64 trillion combinations are possible
        • Mitosis (cell division)
        • Chromosomal
        • Abnormalities
          • Downs Syndrome
            • Trisomy-21
    • Genetic Vulnerabilities
      • Genotype - a person’s total genetic endowment
      • Phenotype - the observed structural and functional characteristics that result from the interaction of a person’s genotype and the environment
        • The genotypic vulnerability may not be expressed in the phenotype until later in life (schizophrenia)
      • Genotype-Environment Correlation - phenomenon whereby a person’s genotype can shape her environmental experiences
      • Genotype-Environment Interaction - differential sensitivity or susceptibility to their environments among people having different genotypes
    • Methods for Studying Genetic Influences
      • The pedigree (family history) method
        • Greater incidence in a family would indicate genetics
      • The twin method (monozygotic)
        • Same genes should result in both having same disorder if it is genetic
      • The adoption method
        • Biological parents of individuals who have given disorder are traced and compared with biological parents of individuals without the disorder.
    • Constitutional Liabilities
      • Constitutional Liability - any detrimental characteristic that is either innate or acquired so early and in such strength that it is functionally similar to a genetic characteristic
      • Physical handicaps
      • Temperament
        • Involves not only reactivity but also characteristic ways of self-regulation
        • Biological basis of personality
        • Results from both genetic and prenatal/ postnatal environments
    • Brain Dysfunction and Neural Plasticity: Developmental Systems Approach
      • Brain development is based on genetic programming and the environment.
      • (eg) Rats raised in enriched environment
      Developmental Systems Approach
    • Physical Deprivation or Disruption
      • Deprivation of the basic physiological needs
        • Sleep
        • Diet
        • Over Working Oneself
      • Stimulation and Activity
        • Enriched Environments
        • Promote Neural
        • Development
    • The Psychosocial Viewpoints
      • Psychodynamic Perspectives
        • Freud
        • Object Relations Theory
      • Behavioral Perspectives
        • Classical Conditioning
        • Operant Conditioning
      • Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives
    • The Psychodynamic Perspectives
      • Id
        • Libido
        • Pleasure principle
        • Primary Process thinking
      • Ego
        • Secondary process thinking
        • Reality principle
      • Superego
        • The conscience
        • Executive branch of the personality
    • Psychodynamic: Ego-Defense Mechanisms
      • Acting out
      • Denial of reality
      • Displacement
      • Fixation
      • Projection
      • Rationalization
      • Reaction formation
      • Regression
      • Repression
      • Sublimation
      • Undoing
    • The Psychodynamic Perspectives: Psychosexual Stages of Development
      • Oral stage (0-2 yrs old)
      • Anal stage (2-3 yrs old)
      • Phallic stage (3-5/6 yrs old)
      • Latency stage (6-12 yrs old)
      • Genital stage (After puberty)
      • Fixation
      • Oedipus complex
        • Castration anxiety
      • Electra complex
    • Newer Psychodynamic Perspectives
      • Object-relations theory
      • The interpersonal perspective
      • Sullivan’s interpersonal theory
      • Interpersonal accommodation and attachment
    • The Behavioral Perspective: Classical Conditioning
    • The Behavioral Perspective: Classical Conditioning
      • Classical conditioning
        • Extinction
        • Spontaneous recovery
        • Generalization
        • Discrimination
    • The Behavioral Perspective: Operant Conditioning
      • The likelihood of a behavior is either increased or decreased by the consequence which follows the behavior.
      • Reinforcement - the process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that follows
      • Punishment - the process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows
    • The Behavioral Perspective: Operant Conditioning
      • The likelihood of a behavior is either increased or decreased by the consequence which follows the behavior.
      • Reinforcement - the process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that follows
      • Punishment - the process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows
      Reinforcer (increase) Punisher (decrease) Positive (+) Pleasant Unpleasant Negative (-) Unpleasant Pleasant
    • The Behavioral Perspective: Operant Conditioning
        • Extinction
        • Spontaneous recovery
        • Generalization
        • Discrimination
      • Observational learning
    • The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective
      • Attributions
      • Attributional style
      • Cognitive therapy
      • Schema
    • Psychosocial Causal Factors
      • Our Views of the World and of Ourselves
        • Schema - an organized representation of prior knowledge about a concept or about some stimulus that helps guide the processing of current information
          • Schemas about people, social roles, etc.
        • Self-schema - our views of what we are, what we might become, and what is important to us.
          • Not completely based in “reality”
        • Assimilation - process of working new experiences into existing cognitive frameworks (schemas) even if the new information has to be reinterpreted or distorted to make it fit
        • Accommodation - process of changing existing cognitive frameworks to make possible the incorporation of discrepant information.
        • We Prefer Predictability and Controllability
    • Psychosocial Causal Factors
      • Early Deprivation or Trauma
        • How would each viewpoint discussed earlier describe possible effects of deprivation and trama?
        • Institutionalization
          • More positive outcomes when moved to a harmonious home
          • Less enriched environment and lack of emotional/physical contact are harmful to biological, personality, social development
          • Negative correlation between time spent in an institution and healthy development
    • Psychosocial Causal Factors
      • Deprivation and Abuse in the Home
        • Failure to Thrive Syndrome
        • Increased Aggression
        • Emotional and Social Problems
        • Anxiety and Depression
        • Disorganized or Disoriented Attachment Style
        • Decreases in IQ
        • Self-Injurious Behavior
          • Negative effects can decrease when environment improves
      • Other Childhood Traumas
        • Psychic Traumas
    • Psychosocial Causal Factors
      • Inadequate parenting styles
      • Parental psychopathology
    • Psychosocial Causal Factors
      • Parenting styles
        • Authoritative parenting
        • Authoritarian parenting
        • Permissive-Indulgent parenting
        • Neglectful-uninvolved parenting
      • Parenting Behavior’s (Style) update
        • Connection-Regulation-Autonomy
    • Psychosocial Causal Factors
      • Marital discord
      • Divorced families
        • Effects of divorce on parents
        • Effects of divorce on children
    • Psychosocial Causal Factors
      • Maladaptive peer relationships
      • Popularity versus rejection
    • The Sociocultural Viewpoint
      • Cross-cultural studies
      • Cultural differences in which disorders develop and how they are experienced
      • Culture and undercontrolled behavior
      • Culture and overcontrolled behavior
    • Sociocultural Causal Factors
      • The sociocultural environment
    • Sociocultural Causal Factors
      • Pathogenic societal influences
        • Socioeconomic status
        • Unemployment
        • Disorder-engendering social roles
        • Prejudice and discrimination
        • Social change and uncertainty
      • Advantages of having a theoretical viewpoint
      • The eclectic approach
      • The biopsychosocial, unified approach