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  1. 1. Importance of CCT for IM<br />Motivation/job effectiveness<br />Participants reported potential benefits to their organisation through increased knowledge of and improved service to culturally diverse customers and transfer of their learning to co-workers. Participants’ level of interest in applying learning to work was rated at 4.5. <br />Example: The contribution of the training program to participants’ job effectiveness received an average rating of 3.8 on a 5-point scale. <br />http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:I8UJRWi6ZDsJ:www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/research/cross_cultural/Contents_Executive_Summary.pdf+content+executive+summary+by+robert+bean&hl=en&gl=my&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESg6FnVSGJARfJ2YiTRneKEVrQkJmZSFL2Q8vSGYChwv_CSpB7ruAPXgBjwlIyat1EimDzjSrVwi_euoAOQulkViTiMxBwp0MkLOTC3zYNztXAYi4IH93gCLBwG7pz4yeXZ922_t&sig=AHIEtbQaLtqrFdqhBD4KaZxExM5IS98w8w <br />Break Down Barriers: <br />Break down communication barriers-"All of us have certain barriers such as preconceptions, prejudices and stereotypes that obstruct our understanding of other people. Cross cultural training demystifies other cultures through presenting them under an objective light. Through learning about other cultures, barriers are slowly chipped away thus allowing for more open relationships and dialogue." (Payne, 2009). <br />http://www.brainmass.com/homework-help/business/management/321265 <br />Quite often, workplaces in general tend to unwittingly ‘pigeon-hole’ people into different categories, often stereotyping them in the process. This only has the effect of alienating certain groups which often results in them withdrawing into the groups of people they feel most at ease with. <br />A good example of this is seen in the separation of communities in most large cities and towns. Take New York as a prime example – you’ve got Little Italy, Chinatown, certain areas which are mostly formed by the Jewish community and many others besides and even in this great big ‘melting pot’ of a modern day city, outside of work (and even sometimes within work) most people will socialise with those with whom they feel most comfortable. <br />Likewise, in the workplace, cross cultural training aims to break down those barriers and instead of retreating to where it feels ‘safe’, it aims to bring about a situation where people from different cultures can all feel a sense of common ground with each other. In this way, mutual understanding develops which helps them in business to overcome culturally challenging obstacles. <br />http://www.worketiquette.co.uk/cross-cultural-training.html <br />Build Trust<br />It’s important for international manager to build trust. This trust can, over time, be elevated to social capital and political influence within the host country organization, thereby accelerating the rate at which these valuable social commodities are obtained. These social obligations become the foundation to political influence and increase the probability of the international manager to successfully accomplish tasks during his/her foreign assignment.<br />Journal : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6VPF-46YJ084-1-5&_cdi=6205&_user=9763513&_pii=S1075425302000935&_origin=search&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2002&_sk=999919995&view=c&wchp=dGLzVtb-zSkzk&md5=00b5584c403379b49d39a47b454588de&ie=/sdarticle.pdf<br />Develop interpersonal skills<br />Cross-Cultural Training (CCT) is an important element in the development of individual and <br />organisational cultural competence, which underpins the social cohesion and social capital of Australian society.<br />Example: Over 60% of participants would like more cross-cultural training, indicating their acknowledgement that the development of cultural competence is a complex and on-going learning process. <br />http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:I8UJRWi6ZDsJ:www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/research/cross_cultural/Contents_Executive_Summary.pdf+content+executive+summary+by+robert+bean&hl=en&gl=my&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESg6FnVSGJARfJ2YiTRneKEVrQkJmZSFL2Q8vSGYChwv_CSpB7ruAPXgBjwlIyat1EimDzjSrVwi_euoAOQulkViTiMxBwp0MkLOTC3zYNztXAYi4IH93gCLBwG7pz4yeXZ922_t&sig=AHIEtbQaLtqrFdqhBD4KaZxExM5IS98w8w <br />language barriers<br />In fact, the main reason for failure in international business is not the lack of technical expertise or good will, but rather cultural illiteracy and the lack of people skills. <br />Knowledge of a foreign language is a key element in communicating across cultures. It not only promotes understanding and mutual respect by allowing for dialogue in another’s tongue but also gives an insight into foreign cultures and different ways of thinking. In fact it is believed that the language we speak not only expresses but also determines the way we think! <br />Intercultural or cross-cultural trainings combine a company’s business skills with the necessary people skills. They provide management and staff with the knowledge and tools to develop general and specific intercultural skills in order to work more effectively with international clients or colleagues. Employees having received formalized cross-cultural training are more effective in leadership roles, are good communicators and valuable company ambassadors. <br />http://www.ccf-oran.org/145-language-and-culture-training-the-benefits-of-learning-to-communicate-across-cultures.html<br /> <br />Cultural shock is a complex occurrence ensuing from several causes or stressors which take place when an individual comes into contact with another culture.  Culture shock is an emotional uncertainty due to confusion or not understanding the signs in another culture.  It takes place because things like lack of understanding, little or no prior experience of the new society and personal inflexibility.  When one lives in a new culture it can lead him or her to go through daily questioning of previously held philosophy and ideas that may lead to confusion and anxiety. It can occur almost immediately when a person enters a new country or may occur a few months later. It may start with feeling generally unwell, lack of sleep, homesickness, isolation and anxiety. This is also accompanied by dissatisfaction with the host country, the university or living conditions. The term Culture Shock was first defined by Oberg when he referred to the stress and anxiety experienced by American expatriates when they went abroad.[1] In another study conducted by Mumford, (1998, 151; 2000, 78) the most significant determinant of culture shock was the Culture distance or the degree of distance between host and native culture. The other determinant was the level of ethnic and racial prejudice and discrimination demonstrated by the local population and the fluency of the local language in the host country, age and personality of the individual (Bhugra and Jones, 2001, 220; Ryan and Twibell, 2000, 428).<br />Phase 1 – Honeymoonthis phase usually lasts two to six weeks. During this period, expatriates are usually excited to be in the new country and are fascinated by its sights. Those who relocate to emerging countries will experience a relative increase in status and standard of living. In the beginning, everything is so new and exciting. For these reasons, or perhaps some other reasons, freshly relocated assignees often feel very good in a situation of the first brief period of expatriation.<br />Phase 2 – Culture ShockAfter a month or so, the initial phase ends and expats usually face the barriers in performance of their jobs or in everyday life. They may even realize that methods they used in their careers are either useless or counter-productive in their different cultural environment. It can become even worse if they have brought their families with them and realize that their loved ones are stressed and confused by the new circumstances. Due to such difficulties, expats may feel culture shock symptoms such as confusion, anger and frustration. This phase usually lasts six to eight months.<br />Phase 3 – Gradual AdjustmentIn this phase, expats begin to adjust to their new situation and slowly regain their self-confidence. Through relationships they build with other expats and locals, they begin to understand the new environment better and start to integrate into society. This phase can last one to two years, during which they begin to appreciate and understand local habits, language, lifestyle and business practice. This is the phase in which foreigners adapt to local culture, with much less anxiety.<br />Phase 4 – Basic CompetenceIt could take another year or two for expats to gain basic competence in another country’s business practices. This period could be even longer in the emerging countries where business rules are not clearly set and depend greatly on personal relationships. Still, as relationships build up, it becomes easier for an expat to develop functional proficiency in a foreign environment.<br />Phase 5 – MasteryIt takes a total of five to seven years (according to some studies) for an expatriate to fully develop appreciation and understanding of the host country and its culture. Those on high managerial positions need firm relationships with people in positions of influence within their own organizations and outside of it. It may be the only way to achieve sustainable progress. But it takes time and patience as, before getting close to people, we need to accept and appreciate their culture, habits and language.<br />Culture shock is normal, and the feeling of confusion, disappointment and stress will dissipate. What each expat can do to make the transition easier is to prepare by reading about the host county, its people, rules, habits, taboos and business practices.<br />