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Citizens in a Knowledge Society: rethinking education from scratch. Part 2: Policies for (e-)inclusion: from physical access to meaningful use

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Conference for the "Quality standards in ICT education" workshop within the EU Project "Click to Europe" (Part 2). More information: http://ictlogy.net/?p=3731

Conference for the "Quality standards in ICT education" workshop within the EU Project "Click to Europe" (Part 2). More information: http://ictlogy.net/?p=3731

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  • 1. Citizens in a Knowledge Society: Ci i i K l d S irethinking education from scratch. scratch Part 2 Policies for (e-)inclusion: from physical access to meaningful use Ismael P ñ Ló I l Peña-López Internet Interdisciplinary Institute Universitat Oberta de Catalunya Quality standards in ICT education workshiop Belgrade, April 12, 2011. B l d A il 12 2011
  • 2. A digital revolution, revolutiona social revolution
  • 3. p Human Development vs. Info. Society yAfter UN NDP (2006), Dutta, S., López-Claros, A. & Mia, I. (2006) D
  • 4. y g Information Society vs. Political rightsAfter Fre eedom House (2008), Dutta S., López-Cl a, laros, A. & Mia I. (2008) a,
  • 5. y Information Society vs. EducationAfter UN NDP (2006), Dutta, S., Lópe D ez-Claros, A. & Mia, I. (2006 6)
  • 6. y Educ. quality vs. Internet in the ClassroomAfter Du utta, S., López-Claros, A. & Mia, I. (2006) M
  • 7. e-Government vs. Infrastructures UNPAN (2005)
  • 8. e-Government. Rights g UNPAN (2005)
  • 9. e-Government vs. SearchesAfter UN NPAN (2008), OECD (2007 7)
  • 10. e-Government vs. Chatting gAfter UN NPAN (2008), OECD (2007 7)
  • 11. gStart a blog e-Government vs. BlogsAfter UN NPAN (2008), Universal Mc cCann (2008)
  • 12. y e-Democracy vs. ParticipationNorris P. & Curtice, J. (2006) P
  • 13. Accessing thedigital society
  • 14. Fostering access to the Digital Economy g g y A Digital Revolution: Mokyr (1997, 2000), Greenwood (1999), Boaset al. (2005), Zysman, J. & Newman (2006) The Concept of Access: Raboy (1995, 1998), ITU (1998-2009), WEF (1998 2009),(2002-2009), Sciadas (2003), Gillwald and Stork (2007) The Digital Divide: NTIA (1999), Hargittai (2001), Bridges.org (2001),Warschauer (2003), Gunkel (2003), DiMaggio et al. (2004), Barzilai-Nahon (2006), TibbenN h (2006) Tibb (2007) Policies f ( i P li i of (universal) Access: H d l) A Hudson (1994) Albery (1995) (1994), Alb (1995),Compaine & Weinraub (1997), OECD (2001b), Loader & Keeble (2004),ITU (2005e), Kenny and Keremane (2007)
  • 15. Model: 360º Digital Framework g Infrastructures ICT Sector Digital Skills Legal Content and Framework ServicesSupply Assets Enterprises Digital Literacy ICT (Sector) Availability Availability Level Regulation EconomyS s nd InformationDeman Flows F Digital Literacy Society Intensity of Affordability Workforce Training Strategies and Use Policies
  • 16. Cluster centre values for WITSA countries Cluster #1 1 ‐ Broadband subscribers (per 100 people) 1 Cluster #2 22 2 2 Cluster #3 2 ‐ Personal computers (per 100 people) 21 1,5 3 Cluster #4 3  Telephone mainlines (per 100 people) 3 ‐ Telephone mainlines (per 100 people) Cluster #5 4 ‐ Mobile phone subscribers (per 100 people) 1 20 4 5 ‐ International Internet bandwidth (bits per person) 0,5 6 ‐ Internet Hosts (per 10000 people) 19 0 5 7 ‐ Price basket for residential fixed line (US$ per month) 7 Pi b k f id i l fi d li (US$ h) -0,5 8 ‐ Telecommunications revenue (% GDP) 18 -1 6 9 ‐ GDP per Telecom Employee (US Dollars) 10 ‐ Human Capital p -1,5 11 ‐ Internet Access in Schools 17 7 12 ‐ Laws relating to ICT 13 ‐ Intellectual property protection 16 8 14 ‐ Govt procurement of advanced tech products 14 Govt procurement of advanced tech products 15 ‐ Secure Internet servers (per 1 million people) 15 9 16 ‐ Total Domains (per 100 people) 17 ‐ Availability of government online services 14 10 18 ‐ Internet users (per 100 people) 13 11 19 ‐ Total ICT Spending, Consumer (% of GDP) 12 20 ‐ Firm‐level technology absorption 21 ‐ Extent of business Internet use 21 Extent of business Internet useNon-hierarchical K-means cluster analysis.Significance of F in ANOVA for all variables: p<0.001 22 ‐ ICT use and government efficiency
  • 17. Cluster centre values for OECD countries Cluster #1 1 ‐ Broadband subscribers (per 100 people) 1 Cluster #2 17 2 2 Cluster #3 2 ‐ Personal computers (per 100 people) 1,5 15 Cluster #4 3  Telephone mainlines (per 100 people) 3 ‐ Telephone mainlines (per 100 people) Cluster #5 16 1 3 4 ‐ International Internet bandwidth (bits per person) 0,5 5 ‐ Internet Hosts (per 10000 people) 0 6 ‐ GDP per Telecom Employee (US Dollars) 15 4 -0,5 7 ‐ Human Capital 7 H C i l 8 ‐ Internet Access in Schools -1 9 ‐ Laws relating to ICT -1,514 5 10 ‐ Intellectual property protection p p yp -2 11 ‐ Govt procurement of advanced tech products 12 ‐ Secure Internet servers (per 1 million people) 13 6 13 ‐ Total Domains (per 100 people) 14 ‐ Availability of government online services 14 Availability of government online services 15 ‐ Internet users (per 100 people) 12 7 16 ‐ Firm‐level technology absorption 17 ‐ Extent of business Internet use 11 8 10 9Non-hierarchical K-means cluster analysis.Significance of F in ANOVA for all variables: p<0.001
  • 18. Infrastructures 1 ‐ Broadband subscribers (per 100 people) (*) 100% 2 ‐ Personal computers (per 100 people) (*) 90% 80% 3 ‐ Telephone mainlines (per 100 people) (*) 70% 60% 4 ‐ Mobile phone subscribers (per 100 people) (*) 50% 40% 5 ‐ Population covered by mobile telephony (%) (*) 30% Laggards Leaders 6 ‐ International Internet bandwidth (bits per person) (*) 20% 10% 7  Internet Hosts (per 10000 people) ( ) 7 ‐ Internet Hosts (per 10000 people) (*) 0% 8 ‐ Internet subscribers (per 100 inhabitants) (*) 9 ‐ Residential monthly telephone subscription (US$) (**) 10 ‐ Price basket for Internet (US$ per month) (**) 11 ‐ Price basket for mobile (US$ per month) (**) Leaders 12 ‐ Price basket for residential fixed line (US$ per month) (*) b k f d lf dl ( $ h) (*) Strivers Laggards 13 ‐ Telephone average cost of call to US (US$ per three  Leafproggers minutes) (***) % of countries that scored “high” on indicator per cluster (*): p<0.01 (**): p<0.05 (***): p<0.1
  • 19. ICT Sector 1 1 ‐ Telecommunications revenue (% GDP) (*) 100% 90% 2 ‐ High‐technology exports (% of manufactured exports) (**) 80% 70% 3 ‐ Telephone subscribers per employee (***) 60%6 50% 2 4 ‐ Telephone employees (per 100 people) (**) 40% 5 ‐ Total full‐time telecommunications staff  (per 100 people) (*) 30% 20% 6 ‐ GDP per Telecom Employee (US Dollars) (*) 10% 0% % of countries that scored “high” on indicator per cluster (*): p<0.01 (**): p<0.05 (***): p<0.1 Laggards5 Leaders 3 Leaders Strivers Laggards Leafproggers 4
  • 20. Digital Literacy g y 1 1 ‐ Enrolment in science. Tertiary. (per 100 people) (*) 100% 90% 2 ‐ Human Capital (*) 80% 70% 3 ‐ Internet Access in Schools (*) 60% 50% 40% 30% % of countries that scored “high” on indicator per cluster 20% (*): p<0.01 (**): p<0.05 (***): p<0.1 10% Laggards 0% Leaders eade s 3 2 Leaders Strivers Laggards Leafproggers
  • 21. Policy and regulatory framework y g y 1 1 ‐ Laws relating to ICT (*) 100% 90% 2 ‐ Intellectual property protection (*) 80% 70% 3 ‐ Level of competition ‐ DSL (**) 60% 50% Leaders 4 ‐ Level of competition – Cable modem (**) 40%5 2 5 ‐ Govt procurement of advanced tech products (*) 30% 20% 10% 0% % of countries that scored “high” on indicator per cluster high (*): p<0.01 (**): p<0.05 (***): p<0.1 Laggards 4 3 Leaders Strivers Laggards Leafproggers
  • 22. Usage g 1 ‐ Secure Internet servers (per 1 million people) (*) 100% 90% 2 ‐ Total Domains (per 100 people) (*) 80% 3 ‐ Total ICT Spending, Retail Trade (% of GDP) (*) 70% 60% 4 ‐ Web Measure (*) 50% 40% 5 ‐ Availability of government online services (*) 30% 20% 6 ‐ International outgoing telephone traffic (minutes) (per 100  10% people) (*) Laggards 0% 7 ‐ Internet users (per 100 people) (*) Leaders 8 ‐ E‐Participation (*) 9 ‐ Total ICT Spending, Consumer (% of GDP) (*) 9 T t l ICT S di C (% f GDP) (*) 10 ‐ Firm‐level technology absorption (*) 11 ‐ Extent of business Internet use (*) ( ) Leaders Strivers Laggards % of countries that scored “high” on indicator per cluster Leafproggers (*): p<0.01 (**): p<0.05 (***): p<0.1
  • 23. Analogue indicators g 1 ‐ GDP (***) 2  GDP Capita ( ) 2 ‐ GDP Capita (*) 3 ‐ GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) (*) 100% 4 ‐ GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) (*) 90% 5 ‐ GNI per capita, PPP (current international $) (**) 80% 6  HDI ( ) 6 ‐ HDI (*) 70% 7 ‐ Life expectancy at birth, total (years) (*) Laggards 60% 8 ‐ Improved water source (% of population with access) (*) 50% 9 ‐ Health Public Expenditure (% of govt. expenditure) (*) 40% 10 ‐ Health Public Expenditure (% of total Health expend.) (*) 10 Health Public Expenditure (% of total Health expend ) (*) 30% 11 ‐ School enrollment, primary (% net) (***) 20% Leaders 12 ‐ School enrollment, primary (% gross) (**) 10% 13 ‐ Education Public Expenditure (% of govt. expenditure) (***) 0% 14 ‐ Gross National Expenditure (% of GDP) (**) 14 G N ti lE dit (% f GDP) (**) 15 ‐ General Govt. final consumption expend. (% of GDP) (***) 16 ‐ Economic Incentive Regime (*) 17 ‐ Innovation (*) 18 ‐ Population in urban agglom. > 1 million (% of total pop.) (*) 19 ‐ Inequality‐10 (**) 20 ‐ Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) (*) 21 ‐ Population growth (annual %) (***) Leaders 22 ‐ Interest payments (% of GDP) (*) Strivers Laggards 23 ‐ Present value of debt (% of GNI) (**) Leafproggers 24 ‐ GDP deflator (base year varies by country) (*) , p ( )( ) 25 ‐ Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) (*)% of countries that scored “high” on indicator per cluster 26 ‐ Inflation, GDP deflator (annual %) (*)(*): p<0.01 (**): p<0.05 (***): p<0.1 27 ‐ Tax revenue (% of GDP) (**)
  • 24. Policy-making and digital development y g g Income, Health, Human Capital Economic incentive regime & innovation Infrastructures + Real Economy approach Strong Information Society regulatory framework Direct intervention (expenditure) does not make adifference — Keynesian or liberal is ok ok. Demand triggers digital development G2B, G2G, B2C, e-Commerce, e-Administration, e-Government, e-Health, e-Justice pull digital development , , p g p
  • 25. A comment on leapfrogging gg g Some evidence that leapfrogging is possible Based on Human capital ICT regulatory and policy framework Strong, international-bound ICT Sector Dubious i D bi impact on d domestic economy b i beyond most di d directone ICT Sector a locomotive for (nation-wide) development?
  • 26. 26Belgrade, April 12, 2011. Quality standards in ICT education g , p , yTo cite this work:Peña-López, Ismael. (2011) Citizens in a Knowledge Society: rethinking education from e a ópe , s ae ( 0 ) C t e s o edge Soc ety et g educat o oscratch. Part 2: Policies for (e-)inclusion: from physical access to meaningful use. Qualitystandards in ICT education workshop, April 12, 2011. Belgrade.<http://ictlogy.net/presentations/ 20110412_ismael_pena-lopez_-_citizens_knowledge_society_2_policies_e inclusion.pdf citizens knowledge society 2 policies e-inclusion.pdf>To contact the author:http://ictlogy.net All the information in this document under a Creative Commons license: Attribution – Non Commercial – No Derivative Works More information please visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/

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