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  • 1. What is a “red”? Why were they feared in the 1920’s?
    • someone with communist sympathies, connection with Russian Revolution
  • 2. Why were recent immigrants often portrayed as political agitators in the 1920s?
    • Usually members of working class, many had radical beliefs (anarchists, socialists, etc.)
  • 3. Identify two examples of immigration restriction during the 1920s.
    • The quota system (set limits on # of imms from each country), 1923 Japanese Exclusion Act
  • 4. Why was there a wave of strikes in 1919? How did employers respond?
    • Workers wanted to gain what they had missed out on during WWI, employers called them revolutionaries and Communists
  • 5. What were the primary issues that workers were striking for?
    • Shorter hours, five day work week, living wage
  • 6. What group wanted to form “one big union” to fight against the “employment class”?
    • Industrial Workers of the World or the “Wobblies”
  • 7. Whose trial was a clear example of anti-immigrant sentiment? Who took up the cause of their innocence?
    • Sacco & Vanzetti, many celebrities and intellectuals
  • 8. Identify two examples of anti-immigrant sentiment from the twenties.
    • Sacco & Vanzetti, Al Smith, KKK, quotas & restrictions
  • 9. What group worked to oppress everybody who was not a White Protestant? Why did this group grow in the 1920’s?
    • KKK, tension in cities between poor whites and blacks and immigrants
  • 10. What Attorney General started the “Red Scare”? Why?
    • Mitchell Palmer, thought fighting Communism would help advance his political career
  • 11. What legal organization was formed in response to the Palmer Raids? Name a leading member of this organization.
    • ACLU, Clarence Darrow
  • 12. List three characteristics of life in rural America in the 1920s.
    • cultural homogeneity, religious fundamentalism, farming, traditional values, country music & ice cream socials, tough economic times
  • 13. Identify three characteristics of urban America in the 1920’s.
    • cultural diversity, new immigrants, religious diversity, speakeasies & jazz, manufacturing, booming economic times
  • 14. What the basis of the Christian Fundamentalist movement? Name a well known fundamentalist preacher of the 1920s.
    • a literal interpretation of the Bible, Billy Sunday or Aimee Semple McPherson
  • 15. What was the charge in the Scopes’ Monkey Trial? What did the trial represent?
    • teaching evolution, clash between rural (esp. fundamentalist) and urban values
  • 16. What encouraged consumption of all kinds of new goods in the twenties?
    • new marketing techniques (advertising, installment plans, mail order catalogs, etc.)
  • 17. Why were so many Americans in a hurry to get rich quick in the 1920’s? What two areas did they invest in to accomplish this?
    • new American dream defined by possessions, stock market and real estate
  • 18. What is “buying on the margin”?
    • taking a loan on profits existing stock to buy more stock
  • 19. Why is buying on the margin a problem?
    • market crashes, stocks lose their value, and nobody can pay back their loans
  • 20. Why were so many farmers struggling to make ends meet during the 1920s?
    • Overproduction (still producing at WWI levels) led to low crop prices, and many were carrying debt from new equipment purchases
  • 21. What happened to all the new manufacturing capacity that had been built up producing war materials during WWI?
    • It transitioned to producing new consumer goods (appliances, clothing, cosmetics, etc.)
  • 22. List two new electronic conveniences of the 1920s.
    • vacuum cleaner, washing machine, radio, refrigerator, toaster
  • 23. What were the two big auto manufacturers in the 1920s?
    • Ford & General Motors
  • 24. How did the automobile change American life?
    • demand for roads, faster transportation, closed distances, greater contact
  • 25. Why were Republican Presidents like Harding and Coolidge so popular in the 1920’s?
    • isolationist and pro-business
  • 26. Identify 2 ways Harding’s tenure was scandalous.
    • womanizer, seized alcohol at poker parties, embezzlement by cabinet members, Tea Pot Dome
  • 27. Who took over after Harding died & cleaned up after the scandals?
    • Coolidge
  • 28. Describe Coolidge’s business philosophy.
    • hands off, pro-ownership
  • 29. What kept Al Smith from winning the 1928 Presidential election?
    • urban, new immigrant, Roman Catholic
  • 30. How many farmers lost their farms in the ‘20s? What institutions lost a lot of money as a result?
    • 1/2 million, the banks
  • 31. What amendment made alcohol illegal? How successful was it in reducing consumption of alcohol?
    • 18th, not very
  • 32. Who took over distribution of alcohol during prohibition?
    • organized crime (bootleggers)
  • 33. Identify two things that helped “liberate” America in the ‘20s.
    • Jazz, Radio, Movies, Literature of the Lost Generation, Automobiles
  • 34. Name two ways women established new independent attitudes in the 20s.
    • Bobbing Hair, wearing shorter skirts, moving out on their own, voting, rejecting the sexual double standard
  • 35. What amendment gave women the right to vote? Did the votes of women significantly change the American political scene?
    • 19th, no
  • 36. Name two types of jobs commonly held by middle class women.
    • nursing, teaching, higher level clerical
  • 37. Name 2 big athletes of the Twenties.
    • Babe Ruth, Red Grange, Bill Tilden, Jack Dempsey, Gertrude Elderle, Bobby Jones
  • 38. Name two famous entertainers of the ‘20s.
    • Charlie Chaplin, Gillespie, Clara Bo, Valentino, Al Jolson, Paul Robeson, Mills
  • 39. Name two types of jobs commonly held by lower class women.
    • factory, lower clerical, janitorial
  • 40. What was the Harlem Renaissance?
    • the flourishing growth of the arts in Harlem in the 1920’s
  • 41. Name 2 authors that were part of the Harlem Renaissance.
    • Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Claude McKay
  • 42. Why was the Harlem Renaissance most significant?
    • Was the first time Blacks were able to exert major influence over American culture, gave a voice to the Black experience
  • 43. Name two writers that were part of the “Lost Generation”. Why were they lost?
    • F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, H.L. Mencken; disillusioned by destruction of WWI
  • 44. Name one of the most influential architects of the 1920’s.
    • Louis Sullivan & Frank Lloyd Wright