30,000 Confederate troops defending Vicksburg surrendered their arms.
Grant captured 260 cannons, 60,000 stand-of-arms, and more than 2 million rounds of ammunition.
Former slaves celebrated Independence Day for the first time.
4 days later, the Mississippi River was in the hands of the Union army
Effectively cutting the Confederacy in two.
Battles in East 2 DATE BATTLE VICTOR RESULT Dec. 1862 Fredericksburg South Lee stops Burnside from taking Richmond Jan. 1863 Chancellorsville South Lee stops Joe Hooker from taking Richmond *July 1863 Gettysburg North George Meade stops Lee from moving into Washington, D.C. * Turning point battle KEY BATTLES IN THE EAST
General Lee invades the North.
The “High Tide of the Confederacy”. South’s last chance to capture Washington, D.C.
PICKETT'S CHARGE General Lee orders a frontal assault on Union lines to break through, surround and destroy the North. General George Pickett
The defeat of Lee at Gettysburg would be the last time Lee would invade the North and try to take Washington, D.C.
Lee’s retreat at Gettysburg on July 3 rd and Grant’s defeat of the South at Vicksburg on July 4 th would lead to the eventual surrender of the South by 1865.
President Lincoln appointed General Grant as the Commanding General of all Union troops.
Grant commanded the Army of the Potomac in the East and was instructed by Lincoln to force General Lee to surrender.
Grant appointed his 2nd in command General William T. Sherman to head up the Army of the West.
It is here that Lincoln, Grant and Sherman devise a new strategy of “ total war ” or bring the civilian population into the war, destroy the South and free the slaves.
UNION CHANGE IN LEADERSHIP
William T. Sherman
Tactic of war where the Union marched through the South and destroyed all resources the civilian population needed to survive.
Goal : To make war as horrible and destructive as possible to force your enemy to surrender.
Total war brings the civilian population into the war to demoralize the enemy and force them to surrender.
It is “in your face warfare” or you ( South ) started this war and until you surrender, we will destroy you.
Summer of 1864
Both sides are struggling
War was a part of everyone’s life
Lincoln was seeking re-election
Lincoln needed victories
Atlanta must be captured for the Union to end the war
Union army is not winning
First election held during a civil war
William T. Sherman
Grant’s right hand general.
Fought with Grant in the West.
Most noted for this saying;
“ War is hell and the worse you make it the sooner it will be over.”
Put in charge of the Army of the West after Lincoln appoints Grant as head of all Union troops .
Responsible for the March to the Sea and using “total war” in destroying the South.
WAR HERO OR WAR CRIMINAL William T. Sherman
Sherman’s March through Georgia to the Sea, 1864
Election of 1864
Republican (Union Party) Coalition of Republican Party and War Democrats nominated Lincoln Slogan “ Don’t Swap horses in the middle of the river.” Lincoln needed military victories to win the election Election would be a mandate on how to finish the war.
Democratic Party – McClellan
Slogan “McClellan, the Union and the Constitution”
Pressed to end the war
Invented the term miscegenation
The interbreeding of what are presumed to be
distinct human races, especially marriage
between white and non-white persons.
The Peace movement Copperheads
BORDER COPPERHEAD. "Glad to see you and your men, General. I've allus stood up for the South, and cussed the Yankees. I'm your friend, and allus has been. You won't take nothin' of mine, will you, General?"
REBEL GENERAL. "Of course, we won't take any thing from you. But, as you're our friend, you'll be glad of a chance to help us. We want all your Cattle, and Horses, and Grain, and we'll pay you in Confederate Notes for all you have. Here, boys! be lively, and take along whatever our friend has that will help the Cause."
(COPPERHEAD thinks himself sold.)
Soldiers were given absentee ballots
Had 55% of the popular vote
McClellan 21 (KY, DE, NJ)
Had 45% of the popular vote
The war continues
Crushing defeat for the South
Total war policy would continue
Last real hope for Confederate
Sherman’s march to the sea
Atlanta to Savannah
Split the south
Destroy Confederate supplies
Bring the south to its knee
62,000 soldiers split in two columns
Total War 1 TOTAL WAR
Total War 3 TOTAL WAR
Path of Destruction
425 miles long
30 – 60 miles wide
$100 million in damage
Picture: Richmond TOTAL WAR
March 4, 1865
Civil War was almost over
Sherman had destroyed the South
Sheridan had destroyed the Shenandoah Valley
Second Inaugural address
“ With malice toward none, and charity for all”
703 word speech- six minutes in length
Asked the audience to think about the cause and meaning of the war
Laying the groundwork for a reconstruction of compassion and reconciliation
Lincoln was looking forward to be a peace president.
Letter Grant to Lee 5 PM, April 7, 1865….. To: General R. E. Lee, Commanding CSA The results of the last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia in this struggle. I feel that it is so, and regard it as my duty to shift from myself the responsibility of any further effusion ( spilling ) of blood by asking of you the surrender of that portion of the Confederate States army known as the Army of Northern Virginia…… Very respectfully, your obedient servant, U.S. Grant THE FINAL SURRENDER
April 7, 1865
To: General U.S. Grant:
General: I have received your note of this date. Though not entertaining the opinion you express of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia, I reciprocate your desire to avoid useless effusion of blood, and therefore, before considering your proposition, ask the terms you will offer on condition of its surrender.
Commanding General of CSA,
R. E. Lee
April 8, 1865….
To: General R. E. Lee, Commanding CSA
Your note of last evening just received. In reply would say that there is but one condition I would insist upon---namely, that the men and officers surrendered shall be disqualified for taking up arms against the Government of the United States……..I will meet you at any point agreeable to you, for the purpose of arranging definitely the terms upon which the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia will be received.
General U.S. Grant, Commanding Officer, USA
Terms of Surrender April 9,1865
Confederate officers and soldiers were free to return to their homes
Confederate officers were permitted to keep their side arms
Confederate soldiers could keep their gun and horse if they were personal property
The Confederacy would release all Union prisoners.
Terms of Surrender
The Union army provided the soldiers with food.
The confederacy would not be recognized as a nation and they could not keep slavery.
620,000 men lost their lives
1 million casualties
$20 billion in damage done to the nation ($2 trillion today’s $$$)
Turning point in history
Balance of political power changed
Democrats lost its influence
“ the United States”
no longer a confederation of states
the idea of states’ rights was dead
Power of federal government grew
End of slavery in the United States
Dates to remember
April 12, 1861
January 1, 1863
July 1-3, 1863
July 4, 1863
November 19, 1863
April 9, 1865
We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
And that the government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
With malice toward none, with charity for all
I wish I was in the land of cotton,
old times there are not forgotten
Daniel Decatur Emmett
Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord
Julie Ward Howe
Analyze the turning points of the Civil War, the effect on society, and the end of the war.
Identify five ways that the Civil War changed the nation.
Why did Lincoln wait until after the Battle of Antietam to issue the Emancipation Proclamation instead of
issuing it at the beginning of the war?
What obstacles did African American soldiers face?
How was the Civil War different from wars that Americans had previously fought?