Emancipation Proclamation

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  • 1. Emancipation Proclamation
  • 2.
    • Abolitionists pressured Lincoln to free the slaves.
    • After the Battle of Antietam , he announced that the slaves would be freed.
    • Became effective on Jan. 1, 1863, in those states still in rebellion .
    • Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in US
    • Lincoln’s “first” step towards ending slavery.
    • “ Final step ” 13th Amendment to the Constitution on Dec. 1865 would legally and constitutionally abolish slavery.
    EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
  • 3. September 1862
    • September 1862 – Preliminary Proclamation
    • Lincoln waited for a Union Victory
    • A tactic of war
    • Invitation to the Confederacy to lay down its arms before January 1, 1863
    • if they wanted to keep slavery
  • 4. JANUARY 1, 1863
    • Largely a symbolic act
    • DID NOT immediately free a
    • Single slave
    • DID NOT go beyond steps already taken to free slaves as the Union Army advanced.
      • “ ...all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free...”
      • “ ...such persons of suitable condition will be received into the armed service of the United States...”
  • 5.
    • The Emancipation Proclamation actually freed no slaves, the freedom it promised depended upon a military victory.
      • Did not apply to slaves in border states fighting on the Union side
      • Did not affect slaves in southern areas already under Union control
      • The states in rebellion did not act on Lincoln's order
      • However, it encouraged slaves to run away, to join the Union army
      • Prevented England and France from supporting the Confederacy
  • 6.
    • The Emancipation Proclamation changed the very nature of the war, giving it a completely new objective
    • Conciliation was no longer an option
      • The North was now not merely fighting to restore a union it thought was never legitimately separated. It was fighting for freedom of a race.
  • 7.
    • Kept Great Britain from siding with the South
    • and becoming an ally .
    • War was now a war to
    • abolish slavery
    • destroy the South
    • preserve the Union
    EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
  • 8.
      • The South was no longer fighting merely for independence. It was fighting for survival of its way of life.
  • 9. Reaction to Emancipation Proclamation
    • Border States
    • Lincoln went too far
    • Desertion increased sharply
  • 10. Reaction to Emancipation Proclamation
    • Abolitionist
    • Did not go far enough
    • Greeley and Douglass were pleased with it
  • 11. Reaction to Emancipation Proclamation
    • South
    • Lincoln trying to stir up slave revolts
    • Eleven days after Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, Davis told the Southern Congress that the document was " the most execrable measure in the history of guilty man." He said Union officers captured at the head of black troops would be turned over to state governments to be punished as " criminals engaged in inciting servile insurrection "; the penalty for this crime would, of course, be execution. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard recommended the summary execution of Union officers of black units, and " let the execution be with the garrote."
  • 12.  
  • 13.
    • Jefferson Davis
      • labeled REBELLION on chain.
    • Defeated
      • seated figure with small hammer labeled COMPROMISE.
    • Henry W. Halleck
      • wields mallet labeled SKILL.
    • George McClellan
      • wields mallet labeled STRATEGY.
    • Edwin M. Stanton
    • holds mallet labeled DRAFT.
    • Lincoln
      • shoulders an axe labeled EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION.
  • 14.
    • Europe
    • European Aristocrats sympathized with slaveholders
    • Working class thought proclamation great
    • Diplomatic conditions improve with European countries.
  • 15.
    • The Emancipation Proclamation made it virtually impossible for the French and British to support the South because England had abolished slavery in 1833 and France in 1848
  • 16.
    • CIVIL WAR NOW BECOMES A MORAL CRUSADE
    • (south’s moral cause is weakened)