Emancipation Proclamation

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Emancipation Proclamation

  1. 1. Emancipation Proclamation
  2. 2. <ul><li>Abolitionists pressured Lincoln to free the slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Battle of Antietam , he announced that the slaves would be freed. </li></ul><ul><li>Became effective on Jan. 1, 1863, in those states still in rebellion . </li></ul><ul><li>Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in US </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s “first” step towards ending slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Final step ” 13th Amendment to the Constitution on Dec. 1865 would legally and constitutionally abolish slavery. </li></ul>EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
  3. 3. September 1862 <ul><li>September 1862 – Preliminary Proclamation </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln waited for a Union Victory </li></ul><ul><li>A tactic of war </li></ul><ul><li>Invitation to the Confederacy to lay down its arms before January 1, 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>if they wanted to keep slavery </li></ul>
  4. 4. JANUARY 1, 1863 <ul><li>Largely a symbolic act </li></ul><ul><li>DID NOT immediately free a </li></ul><ul><li>Single slave </li></ul><ul><li>DID NOT go beyond steps already taken to free slaves as the Union Army advanced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ...all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free...” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ...such persons of suitable condition will be received into the armed service of the United States...” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Emancipation Proclamation actually freed no slaves, the freedom it promised depended upon a military victory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not apply to slaves in border states fighting on the Union side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not affect slaves in southern areas already under Union control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The states in rebellion did not act on Lincoln's order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, it encouraged slaves to run away, to join the Union army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevented England and France from supporting the Confederacy </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Emancipation Proclamation changed the very nature of the war, giving it a completely new objective </li></ul><ul><li>Conciliation was no longer an option </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The North was now not merely fighting to restore a union it thought was never legitimately separated. It was fighting for freedom of a race. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Kept Great Britain from siding with the South </li></ul><ul><li>and becoming an ally . </li></ul><ul><li>War was now a war to </li></ul><ul><li>abolish slavery </li></ul><ul><li>destroy the South </li></ul><ul><li>preserve the Union </li></ul>EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>The South was no longer fighting merely for independence. It was fighting for survival of its way of life. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Reaction to Emancipation Proclamation <ul><li>Border States </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln went too far </li></ul><ul><li>Desertion increased sharply </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reaction to Emancipation Proclamation <ul><li>Abolitionist </li></ul><ul><li>Did not go far enough </li></ul><ul><li>Greeley and Douglass were pleased with it </li></ul>
  11. 11. Reaction to Emancipation Proclamation <ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln trying to stir up slave revolts </li></ul><ul><li>Eleven days after Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, Davis told the Southern Congress that the document was &quot; the most execrable measure in the history of guilty man.&quot; He said Union officers captured at the head of black troops would be turned over to state governments to be punished as &quot; criminals engaged in inciting servile insurrection &quot;; the penalty for this crime would, of course, be execution. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard recommended the summary execution of Union officers of black units, and &quot; let the execution be with the garrote.&quot; </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Jefferson Davis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>labeled REBELLION on chain. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defeated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seated figure with small hammer labeled COMPROMISE. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henry W. Halleck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wields mallet labeled SKILL. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>George McClellan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wields mallet labeled STRATEGY. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edwin M. Stanton </li></ul><ul><li>holds mallet labeled DRAFT. </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shoulders an axe labeled EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><li>European Aristocrats sympathized with slaveholders </li></ul><ul><li>Working class thought proclamation great </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomatic conditions improve with European countries. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>The Emancipation Proclamation made it virtually impossible for the French and British to support the South because England had abolished slavery in 1833 and France in 1848 </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>CIVIL WAR NOW BECOMES A MORAL CRUSADE </li></ul><ul><li>(south’s moral cause is weakened) </li></ul>

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