Closing The Western Frontier

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Closing The Western Frontier

  1. 1. The Closing of the Western Frontier
  2. 2. Key Tensions Native Americans Buffalo Hunters Railroads U. S. Government Cattlemen Sheep Herders Ranchers Farmers
  3. 3. Key Tensions Ethnic Minorities Nativists Environmentalists Big Business Interests [mining, timber] Local Govt. Officials Farmers Buffalo Hunters Lawlessness of the Frontier “ Civilizing” Forces
  4. 4. the Railroad builders
  5. 5. Railroad Construction
  6. 6. Promontory Point, UT (May 10, 1869)
  7. 7. Importance of the Railroad Coming of the machine age Now a continental nation Atlantic and Pacific connection
  8. 8. the cowboys
  9. 9. The Bronc Buster Frederick Remington
  10. 10. Black Cowboys
  11. 11. Cowboys Mixed group Former Confederate cavalry Immigrants African Americans Mexican vaqueros “ just a plain bowlegged human who smelled very horsey at times”
  12. 12. Cowboys Average age 24 Owned their own saddle Most only made one trail drive Dangerous job
  13. 13. the GUNSLINGERS
  14. 14. Colt .45 Revolver God didn’t make men equal. Colonel Colt did!
  15. 15. Legendary Gunslingers & Train Robbers Jesse James Billy the Kid
  16. 16. Dodge City Peace Commission, 1890
  17. 17. the MINERS
  18. 18. Prospecting
  19. 19. Mining Centers: 1900
  20. 20. Mining (“Boom”) Towns-- Now Ghost Towns Calico, CA
  21. 21. The Cattlemen & the Sheep herders
  22. 22. The Cattle Trails
  23. 23. Land Use: 1880s
  24. 24. New Agricultural Technology “ Prairie Fan” Water Pump Steel Plow [“Sod Buster”]
  25. 25. Barbed Wire Joseph Glidden
  26. 26. The Range Wars Sheep Herders Cattle Ranchers
  27. 27. Minority groups in the West
  28. 28. Regional Population Distribution by Race: 1900
  29. 29. Regional Population Distribution by Race: 1900
  30. 30. Black “Exoduster” Homesteaders
  31. 31. Blacks Moving West
  32. 32. The Buffalo Soldiers on the Great Plains
  33. 33. A Romantic View
  34. 34. The Buffalo Soldiers & the Indian Wars
  35. 35. The “Chinese Question” <ul><li>Exclusion Act (1882) - Oriental Exclusion Act - Chinese Exclusion Act </li></ul>
  36. 36. African American & Chinese Populations: 1880-1900
  37. 37. The Farmers
  38. 38. Homestead Act 1862 <ul><li>160 acres free public land </li></ul><ul><li>Must pay filing fee ($10) and farm for five years </li></ul><ul><li>Women could take advantage of the offer </li></ul>
  39. 39. Frontier Settlements: 1870-1890
  40. 40. Homesteads From Public Lands
  41. 41. What is the Message of this Picture?
  42. 42. The Realty--A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
  43. 43. Harsh conditions <ul><li>Trees were scarce </li></ul><ul><li>Little rain in the summer </li></ul><ul><li>Cold and windy in winter </li></ul><ul><li>Grasshoppers and locusts ate crops </li></ul>
  44. 44. Grange 1867 Set up cooperatives* Bought seeds at wholesale rate Built warehouses Better shipping rates * group of farmers pool their money to buy seeds and tools at wholesale rates
  45. 45. Grange Voted for candidates that supported their aims Populist Party 1892 farmers and labor unions
  46. 46. Populist Party Government should raise farm prices Regulate Railroad rates Income tax Eight hour work day Limit immigration Increase the supply of silver
  47. 47. Election of 1896 Populist/Democratic Party – William Jennings Bryan Republican – William McKinley
  48. 49. the plains indians
  49. 50. Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1851) Colorado Gold Rush (1859)
  50. 51. Colonel John Chivington Kill and scalp all, big and little! Sandy Creek, CO Massacre November 29, 1864
  51. 52. Capt. William J. Fetterman 80 soldiers massacred December 21, 1866
  52. 53. Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek (1867) 2 nd Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1868) Reservation Policy
  53. 54. Gold Found in the Black Hills of the Dakota Territory! 1874
  54. 55. The Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 Chief Sitting Bull Gen. George Armstrong Custer
  55. 56. Chief Joseph I will fight no more forever! Nez Percé tribal retreat (1877)
  56. 57. Geronimo, Apache Chief: Hopeless Cause
  57. 58. Dawes Severalty Act (1887): Assimilation Policy Carlisle Indian School, PA
  58. 59. Arapahoe “Ghost Dance”, 1890
  59. 60. Chief Big Foot’s Lifeless Body Wounded Knee, SD, 1890
  60. 61. Indian Reservations Today
  61. 62. Crazy Horse Monument: Black Hills, SD Lakota Chief
  62. 63. Korczak Ziolkowski, Sculptor Crazy Horse Monument His vision of the finished memorial.
  63. 64. Mt. Rushmore: Black Hills, SD
  64. 65. the myth & legend of the west
  65. 66. The Traditional View of the West
  66. 67. William “Buffalo Bill” Cody’s Wild West Show
  67. 68. “ Buffalo Bill” Cody & Sitting Bull
  68. 69. Legendary Female Western Characters Calamity Jane Annie Oakley
  69. 70. The Fall of the Cowboy Frederick Remington
  70. 71. what were the long-term effects of the westward experience?
  71. 72. Destruction of the Buffalo Herds The near extinction of the buffalo.
  72. 73. Yellowstone National Park First national park established in 1872.
  73. 74. National Parks
  74. 75. Conservation Movement John Muir With President Theodore Roosevelt
  75. 76. Sierra Club Founded in 1892

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