Chapter 18 3
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Chapter 18 3 Chapter 18 3 Presentation Transcript

  • Reconstruction continues
  • Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?
    • Reconstruction Acts of 1867 divides South into 5 districts
    • Law sets down requirements for Southern states to reenter Union:
    • give vote to all adult men, including
    • African Americans
    • ratify the Fourteenth Amendment
    • Write new state constitutions
  • Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?
    • Freedmen’s Bureau :
    • sets up schools, hospitals for African
    • Americans
    • distributes clothes, food, fuel for African
    • Americans
    • Fourteenth Amendment
    • all people born in U.S. are citizens, have equal rights
    • states preventing black suffrage will lose representation in Congress
  • Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?
  • Key Questions
    • What groups of
    • people make
    • up southern
    • Politics?
    2. How did some southerners resist reconstruction? 3.What challenges did Southern state governments face? 4.How did many Southerners become locked into a cycle of poverty?
  • Southern Politics
    • New forces in politics
    • White southern Republicans
    • rebuild and move on
    • Scalawags
    • Northerners
    • came to help rebuild the south
    • make a quick $$$$
    • relocate – loved the area
    • Carpetbaggers
    • African Americans
    • Freedmen
    • no voice before the war
    • voted and ran for office
    • Hiram Revels – first African American Senator
  • Resistance to Change
    • White conservatives
      • Resisted change
      • Didn’t want to give up the power
      • Most were Democrats
      • Some resorted to violence to regain power
      • Ku Klux Klan
      • powerful in rural areas
      • hundreds killed
      • few willing to stop the terror
    • KKK main goals:
    • restore Democratic control of the South
    • keep former slaves powerless
    • Klan also attacked white Republicans
    • Klan’s victims have little protection from the law
    • Terrorism keeps Republicans from polls, Democrats increase power
  • Congress Responds to violence
    • Enforcements Acts
    • made it illegal to prevent another person from voting by bribery, force or threats to their life.
    • Grant sent troops to enforce these acts
  • Key Questions
    • What groups of
    • people make
    • up southern
    • Politics?
    2. How did some southerners resist reconstruction? 3.What challenges did Southern state governments face? 4.How did many Southerners become locked into a cycle of poverty?
  • Challenges of rebuilding
    • Schools built for all children
    • Taxes increased sharply
    • Corruption at all levels of government
      • North and south
  • Cycle of poverty
    • Under Sharecropping system:
    • worker rents plot of land to farm
    • landowner provides tools, seed, housing
    • sharecropper gives landowner a share of the crop
    • Gives families without land a place to farm, landowners cheap labor
    • Sharecroppers have to grow cash crops, buy food from local store
    • Sharecroppers do not have money for goods, caught in cycle of debt
  • Election of 1872
    • Republican party splits
    • Radical Republicans
    • Liberal Republicans – dissatisfied with Grant
    • Grant – will run for re-election
    • Democrats nominate – Horace Greeley
    • Liberal Republicans support him
    • Grant won
    • but his popularity plummeted rapidly into his second term
    • largely due to a series of poor appointments and corruption scandals involving high ranking administration officials.
  • Reversal of Reconstruction begins
    • 1872 -an Amnesty Act had been passed which pardoned most of the remaining ex-Confederates.
    • The power of the Democratic party increases
    • Civil Rights Act of 1875-was entitled to the same treatment in "public accommodations" (i.e. inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement). Not enforced
    • Republicans begin to lose control of state governments in the south
    • By 1876 – 3 states are still controlled by Republicans
  • North begins to lose interest in Reconstruction
    • Supreme contributed to the ultimate failure of reconstruction.
    • The Slaughter-House Cases (1873) – in these cases, the SC basically killed off the 14th Amendment by declaring that state and nat’l citizenship were two different things and that the law only dealt w/a few particular rights. So, the nat’l gov’t was not allowed to oversee civil rights in the states, which had been the whole point of the law in the first place!
    • Bradwell v. Illinois (1873) – this case dealt w/a female attorney who claimed that the 14th Amendment defended her against discrimination. However, the SC did not agree and made (hear this!) an argument about the “woman’s place in the home.”
    • US v. Cruikshank (1876) – this ruling hurt the enforcement clause of the 14th Amendment by once again declaring that the duty of protecting citizens’ rights was the states’ alone.
  • Reconstruction ends
    • Election of 1876
    • Republican – Rutherford B Hayes
    • Democrat-Samuel Tilden
    • Election of 1876 Tilden wins popular vote
    • Tilden 184
    • Hayes 165
    • 20 disputed votes
    • Republicans controlled the process
    • commission gives Hayes 20 votes
    • Winner is Hayes 185
    • Tilden 184
  • It is not over yet
    • Democrats threatened to block the confirmation vote
    • Hayes people and southern Democrats meet and……..
    • The results are
    • The Compromise of 1877
  • The Compromise of 1877
    • Hayes becomes President
    • South given right to control their own affairs
    • Troops removed from the south
    • $200 million for railroads and canal
    • Cabinet position
  • Reconstruction ends
    • Reconstruction ended because the North no longer wanted to protect the rights of the freedmen.
    • Reconstruction Scorecard
    • Radical reconstruction increased southerners’ fear of African Americans
    • White southerners held their bitter memories of the war and reconstruction process
    • Democratic party establishes a stronghold on the south
    • African Americans loose political rights.
  • Benefits of Reconstruction
    • 13 th ,14 th ,15 th Amendments
    • New industries in the south
    • More balanced economy
    • More natural resources used
      • Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers.
      • When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized.
      • Must abolish slavery
  • Radical Plan for Readmission
    • Required new state constitutions, including black suffrage and ratification of the 13 th and 14 th Amendments.
    • In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that authorized the military to enroll eligible black voters and begin the process of constitution making.
  • Johnson Plan
    • 50% must swear loyalty oath
    • Must ratify 13 th amendment
    • Former Confederate officials may vote and hold office (if pardoned by President)
  •  
  • Black Codes
    • Purpose:
      • Spell out rights of freedmen
      • Help planters find workers to replace their slaves
      • Keep freedmen at the bottom of the social order in the south
  • 14 th Amendment
    • Ratified in July, 1868.
      • Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people.
      • Insure against neo-Confederate political power.
      • Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy.
    • Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens!