S By the dawn of the 1920s, the United States had emerged from World War I as one of the world’s superpowers; however, it remained unwilling to accept the role of world leader. President Woodrow Wilson fell short of his goal of “making the world safe for democracy” with the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations when the Senate rejected the treaty. Without a U.S. presence in the League of Nations, the international organization lacked the credibility needed to maintain world peace. Unwilling to consider the possibility of sending U.S. soldiers into another foreign war, most Americans favored an isolationist policy in dealing with international affairs. The election of Warren Harding in 1920 began a period of Republican Party dominance that lasted throughout the decade: from 1921 until 1933, Republicans controlled both the White House and Congress.
S After the Senate’s rejection of the Treaty of Versailles and the defeat of the League of Nations, Republican leaders saw an opportunity to regain the White House after Democrat Woodrow Wilson’s two terms. They nominated Ohio Senator Warren G. Harding for president. Harding, realizing that Americans wanted to put the war behind them, promised to return the nation to “normalcy.” When questioned as to what the term meant, Harding explained that it referred not to the “old order,” but rather to “a steady way of doing things,… normal procedure, in a natural way, without excess.” However, it later became evident that he had little grasp of the major issues facing the country at the time. The Republicans nominated as Harding’s running mate Calvin Coolidge, who as Massachusetts governor had gained fame for breaking the Boston Police Strike. The Democrats nominated Ohio Governor James M. Cox. His running mate was Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had served as Undersecretary of the Navy after a career in New York state politics. Cox and Roosevelt promised to continue Wilson’s ideas as set forth in the Treaty of Versailles and to join the League of Nations. The American public proved unwilling to continue the policies that they believed had entangled the United States in World War I, and the Democrats lost in a landslide. Harding and Coolidge received more than 60 percent of the popular vote, and more than 400 electoral votes.
-Mother gave up her children to orphanage because of the family’s povery level -Signed with Chicago White Stockings in 1883, was traded to the Pittsburgh Alleghenies in 1888; then to the Philadelphia Phillies in 1890; in 1891 he was asked to be released from his contract with the Phillies so he could follow a higher purpose (through his ministry) -both he and his wife were engaged when they first met, but called each other’s off to get together; wife became his manager on his roadtrips because they spent little time together and were concerned about growing apart; the kids were left with a nanny
-tabernacles needed to be built after the tent he had been using collapsed during a strong snow storm in Colorado; tabernacles came at great expense to towns, most of them tore it down after he finished -New York Tabernacle: 18,000 seating, $68,000 cost to build -ordained by the Presbyterian Church in 1903 -remained a support of the poor, despite his obvious wealth… -passionately supported World War I (staunchly against what Germans were doing) -even after appeal of prohibition he continued to preach for its reinstatement -health worsened as he traveled. Had a mild heart attack in 1935 and despite doctors warnings to stop preaching, he continued and it led to his death -his sons were a disgrace to Billy, because they participated in all that he preached against -paid blackmail to several women to keep scandals quiet (concerning sons) -only daughter died in 1932 of multiple sclerosis -oldest son committed suicide in 1933; he had been conflicted with financial troubles
LIFE & CULTURE IN AMERICA IN THE 1920S THE ROARING TWENTIES
On 4th June, 1920, Congress passed a bill that stated that the Secretary of the Navy would have the power "to conserve, develop, use and operate the same in his discretion, directly or by contract, lease, or otherwise, and to use, store, exchange, or sell the oil and gas products thereof, and those from all royalty oil from lands in the naval reserves, for the benefit of the United States."
In March of 1921, President Warren Harding appointed Albert Fall as Secretary of the Interior.
Pres. Warren Harding Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall
Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall Harry Sinclair (Mammoth Oil Corp.) Edward L. Doheny (Pan-American Petroleum) Yo, Albert buddy! How about letting Edward and I drill for oil in Elk Hills and Teapot Dome! But that’s Naval property! You can’t drill there! Maybe $100,000 would help you change your mind! Why didn’t you say so, Ed? You’ve got a deal!
Later that year Fall decided that two of his friends, Harry F. Sinclair (Mammoth Oil Corporation) and Edward L. Doheny (Pan-American Petroleum and Transport Company), should be allowed to lease part of these Naval Reserves. There was NO evidence that Harding was involved in any way.
In 1923, Harding died of a heart attack. Vice-President Calvin Coolidge took over.
In 1927, Fall was found guilty of accepting a $100,000 bribe from Doheny. He was forced to resign from office and spent one year in jail. Fall was the first cabinet member to be convicted of a crime while in office.
The land was naval property, and should not have been leased to private oil companies.