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Presentation on Resource for Mitigation by REDD in Copenhagen


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Presentation on Resource for Mitigation by REDD in Copenhagen at the CCWG meeting on November 24, 2009

Presentation on Resource for Mitigation by REDD in Copenhagen at the CCWG meeting on November 24, 2009

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  • 1. REDD in COPENHAGEN: SOME KEY ISSUES Richard McNally COP 15 Delegates Retreat, Hoa Binh, 23/11/2009
  • 2. Presentation Outline
    • Background
    • REDD Policy: Key Issues for Copenhagen
  • 3.
  • 4.  
  • 5. Forest and carbon
  • 6.
    • Not in KP; growing pressure to include post KP ( CRN, Stern Review etc )
    • Bali Action Plan COP 13 [2007] includes REDD as a potential option to reach climate goals
    • COP 15 decides on REDD in post Kyoto Protocol?
    • Non Paper 39 used as negotiating text at COP 15
    • REDD part of the Climate Action Bill in the US
    • Part of Voluntary market VCS AFOLU guidelines; projects ongoing
    Where are we on REDD?
  • 7.
  • 8.
    • Scope of the agreement: RED, REDD, REDD + ?
    • Introducing and Funding REDD (+)
    • Measuring, Reporting and Verification
    • Safeguards
  • 9.
    • Non Paper 39: Option 1/2
    • include [reducing emissions from deforestation and
    • forest degradation [,maintaining existing carbon
    • stocks and enhancing removals] [or increasing
    • forest cover through afforestation and
    • reforestation], [while promoting] [enhancement of
    • carbon stocks through [sustainable forest [and
    • land] management] [sustainable management of
    • forests].]
    1. The Scope
  • 10.
    • Reduced Emissions from deforestation [support by Brazil etc] ‘RED’
    • Also include degradation ; harder to measure but critical to many countries; general support
    • REDD + [includes conservation , sustainable forest management , enhancement of forest stocks ]
    • G eneral support behind REDD + to encourage all countries involved – stop international leakage
    • Issue of defn [e.g sustainable forest management vs sustainable management of forests]
  • 11. What does REDD+ include?
  • 12. Implications for Viet Nam
    • Relatively low levels of net deforestation (US$58m p.a)
    • Gross deforestation (US$145m p.a)
    • High levels of forest degradation (REDD)
    • High forest cover; degraded land favours REDD ‘+’
    • Sub national/ nested approaches ? gross levels
  • 13.
    • General support for a Phased Approach: 3 Phases:
    • Phase 1 : National REDD strategy development, including national dialogue, institutional strengthening, and demonstration activities – this is happening now!!!!! (e.g. REDD Working Groups)
    • Phase 2 : Implementation of policies and measures (PAMs) proposed in those national REDD strategies
    2. Implementing and Funding REDD + REDD + ready
  • 14. Estimate of Readiness costs!!!!!
  • 15.
    • Increased voluntary contributions to support Phase 1 [e.g. FCPF and UN REDD initiatives]
    • Some sort of Readiness Fund established for Phase II (estimate need 2 rising 10bn/year)
  • 16. Readiness Funding: Non Paper 39
    • [… funded through … [market-linked revenues],
    • [innovative funding sources, Including auctioning of
    • national emissions trading allowances or of assigned amount
    • units at international level, and penalties or fines for non –
    • compliance of developed country Parties with their emission
    • reduction and financial resources commitments]. These
    • funds shall be [new and additional to ODA,] [complementary
    • to GEF, and bilateral and multilateral funding].]
    • Option 2
    • [existing funds and institutions, including multilateral, bilateral and domestic arrangements].
  • 17.
    • Phase 3 : Payment for performance on the basis of quantified forest emissions and removals against agreed reference levels which are Measured , Reported and Verified (MRV)
    • Not clear on Fund versus sold on Carbon Market (concerns over flooding), dual market, or some other combination
    • Non Paper 18 to Non Paper 39 removal of markets as stand alone option? Likely some combination
    • Lack clarity on financing for conservation and maintenance of carbon stocks
  • 18. 3. Measuring, Reporting and Verification
    • To measure it necessary to set Baseline/ Reference Emissions Level
    • REL: critical issue to determine potential carbon revenues and interest from Parties
    • Preference: based on national historical reference period of past emissions – deforestation/forest deg. net levels not so good for VN
  • 19. Correction/development adjustment factor?
    • Inclusion correction factor to reflect national circumstances?
    • E.g. historically low deforestation and forest degradation, forest transition, capacities
    • In Viet Nam the end of 661 program?
    • Determined in SBSTA
  • 20. REDD and NAMA
    • … . [and must be consistent with the overall approaches to MRV of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions ]
    • Move towards inclusion in NAMAs/NAMA registry? implications for financing, reporting???
    • Support for (e.g. US, Brazil and EU) and against (many tropical forest countries)
  • 21.
    • Institutional arrangements
    • [Shall o perate under the authority and guidance of, and be fully accountable to, the COP]
    • Establish regional and national capacity-building in developing country Parties on MRV
    • COP will establish technical/expert? panels for MRVerification
  • 22. 4. Safeguards – growing contention
    • (a) Ensure that non-permanence is addressed;
    • (b) Ensure that necessary actions are taken to [avoid
    • leakage] [reduce leakage as much as possible];
    • [Promote] transparent forest governance structures and accessible support mechanisms, taking into account national legislation and sovereignty
  • 23.
    • (e) In accordance with relevant international agreements[, such as the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,] and taking into account national circumstances and legislation, respect the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples[, including their free, prior and informed consent,] and members of local communities and promote the full and effective participation…..
    Rights of indigenous people/local communities
  • 24.
    • (f) [Promote] actions that are consistent with the conservation of biological diversity [, and do not provide incentives for conversion of natural forests][, including safeguards on the conversion of natural forests] and enhance other social and environmental benefits[, including [environmental] [ecosystem] services], complementary to the aims and objectives of relevant international conventions and agreements.
    • Lack of monitoring of safeguards
    Non conversion of natural forests
  • 25.
    • In Copenhagen 8 th till 17 th
    • Available any time to VN delegation ( [email_address] )
    • Two Events :
    • Forest Day: Co Host for governance and institutional capacity- Dr Cuong speaking
    • Forest Day: Financing Event initial findings
    • Side Event on CDM and small scale projects with Practical Action
    SNV Viet Nam