Hytadid Disease


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Hytadid Disease

  1. 1. Pasteur Institute of Iran <ul><li>Parasitology Departement </li></ul><ul><li>Hassan Nekouie & Mohamad Reza Siavashi </li></ul>
  2. 2. Hydatid disease <ul><li>Also called Echinococcosis </li></ul><ul><li>parasite infection caused by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus , and less frequently by Echinococcus multilocularis (alveolaris) or Echinococcus vogeli Like other cestodes, </li></ul><ul><li>echinococcal species have both intermediate and definitive hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Definitive hosts : the definitive hosts are dogs that pass eggs in their feces. </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate hosts : After the ingestion of eggs, cysts develop in the intermediate hosts: sheep, cattle, horses for E.granulosus </li></ul><ul><li>And mice and other rodents for E. multilocularis . </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are accidental intermediate hosts for all species. </li></ul><ul><li>When a dog ingests beef or lamb containing cysts the life cycle is complete . </li></ul>
  3. 4. Life cycle
  4. 5. symptoms <ul><li>AE is caused by tumor-like or cyst-like tapeworm larvae growing in the body. AE usually involves the liver, but can spread to other organs of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the cysts are slow-growing,infection with AE may not produce any symptoms for many years. </li></ul><ul><li>Pain or discomfort in the upper abdominal region, weakness, and weight loss may occur as a result of the growing cysts. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms may mimic those of liver cancer and cirrhosis of the liver. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Diagnosis & Treatment <ul><li>See your health care provider if you think you may have been exposed to AE by one of the ways listed above . </li></ul><ul><li>He or she can order a blood test for the presence of the parasite or antibodies to E. multilocularis . </li></ul><ul><li>The diagnosis of CE in individual patients is based on identification of cyst structures by imaging techniques, predominantly ultrasonography, computed tomography, X-ray examinations, and confirmation by detection of specific serum antibodies by immunodiagnostic tests </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery is the most common form of treatment for AE, although removal of the entire parasitemass is not always possible. </li></ul><ul><li>After surgery, medication may be necessary to keep the cyst from growing back. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy with benzimidazoles ( albendazole or mebendazole ) is indicated for patients with inoperable CE and for those with multiple cysts in two or more organs </li></ul>
  6. 7. How can I prevent <ul><li>If you live in an area where E. multilocularis is found in rodents and wild canines, take thefollowing precautions to avoid infection: </li></ul><ul><li>· Don’t touch a fox, coyote, or other wild canine, dead or alive, unless you are wearing gloves. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunters and trappers should use plastic gloves to avoid exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>· Don’t keep wild animals, especially wild canines, as pets or encourage them to come close toyour home. </li></ul><ul><li>· Don’t allow your cats and dogs to wander freely or to capture and eat rodents. </li></ul><ul><li>· If you think that your pet may have eaten rodents, consult your veterinarian about thepossible need for preventive treatments. </li></ul><ul><li>· After handling pets, always wash your hands with soap and warm water. </li></ul><ul><li>· Fence in gardens to keep out wild animals. </li></ul><ul><li>· Do not collect or eat wild fruits or vegetables picked directly from the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>All wild-pickedfoods should be washed carefully or cooked before eating. </li></ul>
  7. 8. I.R.Iran Hydatid disease is endemic in Iran
  8. 9. Nekouie
  9. 10. Rodent Trapping
  10. 12. Fox hunting
  11. 13. Rodent liver
  12. 14. some rodent species are involved in hydatic cyst such as gerbills , … Cricetulus migrates
  13. 15. Merion persicus
  14. 16. Apodemus sylvaticus
  15. 17. Microtus socialy
  16. 18. Suspected rodent