Supporting EAL Students in the MFL ClassroomIsabelle Jones, The Radclyffe Schoolhttp://isabellejones.blogspot.comTwitter: @email@example.com
Aims• Identify the most common EAL issues encountered by MFL teachers in UK schools• Suggest practical strategies to support EAL learners in MFL classes
Find the language… 1. BEM - VINDOS 2. WILLKOMMEN 3. .رحب 4. েসিপ্িসিডেসিডেন্রেস র্রেস 5. 欢迎 ট 6. साइमंड्स 7. پاکستان 8. هلمندRank out of the 15th most spoken languages in English schools?
Find the language… 1. BEM - VINDOS Portuguese 9 2. WILLKOMMEN German X Arabic 8 3. .رحب 4. েসিপ্িসিডেসিডেন্রেস র্রেস Bengali 4 5. 欢迎 ট Chinese 13 6. साइमंड्स Hindi X 7. پاکستان Urdu 3 هلمند Farsi X 8.Rank out of the 15th most spoken languages in English schools?
First languages in English schoolshttp://www.naldic.org.uk/research-and-information/eal-stati
EAL Learners• What does EAL stands for? EFL? ESL?• Describe what you think are the characteristics of a “typical” EAL learner?• What issues did you anticipate him/her to have with learning a foreign language?
The Globalised Classroom: How many pupils? Where? • 1 in 8 secondary school pupil does not have English as their first language. • 1 in 6 primary school pupil speaks a language at home other than English. • The percentage of EAL students varies greatly from region to region and school to school. In some schools it can be 90% + DfE school census, January 2011 http://www.naldic.org.uk/research-and-information/eal-statistics
EAL as a continuum EAL refers to any student with English as an Additional Language. At one end of the continuum , you find the ‘International NewArrivals’ (INA.) This refers specifically to students who have entered theUK within the past two years. Subgroups: - ‘first generation’ : children who were born in another country and have since resettled in the UK with their family. - ‘second or third generation’ : children who were born in the UK into a migrant or ‘dual-heritage’ family. - ‘migrant worker’ : children whose parents have moved to work in Britain. - ‘asylum seeker’ / ‘refugee’ : children who have moved with / without their parents to escape famine, persecution and other tragic events.
EAL as a continuum : Other criteria• Language spoken at home• Existence and role of older relatives• Literacy in the first language• Other language spoken• Parents’ level of education and literacy in both English and first language• Schooling history and experience• Traumatic experiences
Truth or Myth? Pros and Cons?1. If new arrival EAL students are segregated and taught English, they will be ableto prepare themselves quicker for taking exams through the medium of English.2. EAL is a Special Educational Need3. Speaking another language interferes with learning English.4. EAL learners should only speak English at school.
Fighting Common Misconceptions1. EAL students will take approximately 5 – 7 years of English-speaking educationto acquire academically-fluent English. This will occur naturally through nurturingimmersion rather than segregated intervention. MFL lessons will be moreaccessible in Y7-8 for EAL learners as they often represent a fresh start linguistically(impact on progress and setting)2.EAL students have a temporary additional need which is primarily languageacquisition. EAL students are not automatically SEN or ‘special educationalneeds’, and should not automatically put in lower sets . Lack of data/ unreliabledata can be an issue if EAL learner is assessed through the medium of English.There is a social-emotional and cultural dimension to caterin for the needs of EALstudents.3.EAL students will have potential strengths as well as additional needs. There are many cognitive advantages to being bilingual. Research shows that bilingual learners have better classification skills, concept formation, analogical reasoning, visual –spatial skills , creativity and divergent thinking, story-telling skills, language awareness. However, not all EAL learners are truly bilingual. 4. There are benefits if students can carry on developing their home language at the same time as English, but when and how it is done need to be thought through.
The Challenges : Through MFL we need to…Nurture language developmentCoach students in how to learnBuild stable and productive social groups The good news? EAL good practice is MFL good practice!
Language AcquisitionStage 1: Pre-productionThis is often described as ‘the silent period’ and can last up to six months. English language learners mayhave up to 500 words in their receptive vocabulary but they are typically not yet fully able / confident inspeaking. Some students will, however, repeat everything you say. They are not really producing languagebut are parroting. NC English – P LevelsStage 2: Early productionThis stage may last up to six months and students will develop a receptive and active vocabulary of about1000 words. NC English – Level 1Stage 3: Speech emergenceStudents have developed a vocabulary of about 3,000 words and can communicate with simple phrasesand sentences. This stage will tend to last up to three years.NC English – Level 1 → 2 BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) =conversational English Stage 4: Intermediate fluency English language learners at the intermediate fluency stage have a vocabulary of 6000 active words. NC English – Level 3 – 4 Stage 5: Advanced Fluency Starting as a new speaker of English, it takes students an average of 7 - 10 years to achieve academic language proficiency in a second language. At this stage, students have the range of listening skills necessary to participate fully within the curriculum and can be fairly assessed using only the National Curriculum for English. NC English – Level 4 and above CALP= Cognitive and Academic Language Proficiency (minimum 5 years)
EAL support?• Peer support not always available• Many schools have no EAL department as such• EAL expertise varies greatly from school to school• Languages are not always seen as a priority for support
Type of EAL support?Restricted timetable/Withdrawal lessonsIn English/ in homelanguageTeaching AssistantPeer supportClass teacher Cummins’ Interdependence theory Concepts can be transferred from one language to another. EAL learners need to continue to develop both languages to derive maximum benefit of their studies.
Interdependence Theory and Literacy• Many children new to literacy in English will have experience of literacy in other languages Child’s experience of Literacy Potential benefits for in another language acquiring literacy in English Can decode the script but with Recognises that literacy little understanding involves connection between sound and symbol Visual memory Can read and write with Reading for understanding understanding strategies No home literacy but oral story Range of genres telling and language games Language as a fun activity
EAL, assessment and data• Progress is a key accountability measure for OFSTED.• Baseline tests in Y7-What are the issues for EAL learners in general? And for the assessment of a foreign language in particular?
Common experiences of EAL students: If I keep quiet I will not I feel different. get laughed at or told off.Can I eat this? Is itOK do this? What will I miss home. Why did Imy family say? get sent here? I am not used to those busy streets and cold weather. Why do some people avoid talking to me? Why do they speak to me so loudly and slowly ? I just can’t keep up… it’s really tiring, but I have to learn so that I can help my family with the language. Where is my next lesson? I am never sure of what to At my other school I had do and where to go… much more interesting work. All I do here is listen and write.
Generic strategies to support EAL learners: Challenges & Benefits 7. Coaching Schemes of work need to 6. Communicating The use of build in activities that demonstrate and English and TL should be supported practise language. Not just subject- . by visual cues and practical specific words but general academic examples. A dictionary could be words like ‘compare’, ‘analyse’ etc. used provided the student’s literacy in L1 is strong enough.5. Mentoring The student’s form tutor or keyworker needs to regularly catch up with themto address queries / confusions, ensurehomework is being managed. The mentor 4. Buddying Pair with afilters information through to student and responsible, caring, articulatesupport with practical academic & pastoral student who will act as aissues. guide, friend and role model. Reward students for acting as3. Grouping Place EAL students with buddies. (This can besupportive students of similar ability, who can arranged by class teacher orprovide a good linguistic model in English. EAL support) 2. Knowing Identify their language 1. Naming! Ensure that you levels. Try to find out a little about their address the student by their native / home culture. With INAs, find out correct name and that you their ‘story’. Link with EAL support as pronounce the student’s appropriate. name correctly.
Sharing culture• Encouraging students to complement the topics you are teaching when working independently e.g. fruit and vegetable• Finding out about specific features of EAL learners’ home language e.g. forms of address, word order, pronunciation, cognates, funny-sounding words…• Encouraging students to share information in the Target Language about their home countries, language and culture.
Newbury Park: Language of the monthhttp://www.newburypark.redbridge.sch.uk/langofmon
Language Awareness starters• Introduce the idea of “families” of languages e.g. latin (word order)• English is great at borrowing words from other languages…
Language Awareness starters Which languages have these been borrowed from?• Jar, coffee, sugar Arabic• Sky, leg, wife Norwegian/ Danish• Pill, wagon Dutch• Damp, luck German• Shampoo, bungalow, cot Hindi• Umbrella, piano, corridor Italian• Tent, café, route French• Rose, atlas, museum Greek
EAL learners: Attainment Expectations and RealityEarly Years/ Foundation StagePhonics screening checkKS1KS2 KS3 KS4
EAL learners: Attainment Expectations and RealityEarly Years/ Foundation Stage: 56%/ 65%(generally improving trend)Phonics screening check no difference or +KS1: lower % (generally improving trend)KS2: 72%/75% (improving trend) KS3: catching-up phase KS4: 78.1%/71.1% (English) average point score for bilingual pupils higher for languages!
? A few points to consider… ?1. Where are your EAL students and who are they sitting with? How is that likely to help or hinder them?2. How would you make it easier for your EAL learners to understand instructions-orally and on a worksheet for instance?3. How do you think EAL learners can contribute to enhancing our subject? 4. An EAL student pronounces or writes a word incorrectly – What do you do? 5. From a standard MFL scheme of work- what specific vocabulary is needed in English to understand the activities and their purpose ? 6. What will you have to consider when assessing EAL students’ progress in MFL in all four skills? What should you avoid?
7 Steps to introduce New LanguageWhen learning new language, EAL students need to: 1. See the word / phrase 2. Hear the word / phrase 3. Link the word / phrase to meaning 4. Practise and self-repair the word / phrase 5. Listen to the word/ phrase being recast 6. Revise the word / phrase
Scaffolding Learning: (Listening & Reading) Visual Support• All teaching materials should include visuals like photographs, pictures, drawings or paintings to support learning. Beware of hidden cultural references in visuals.• Use spot the difference pictures to reinforce simple structures in the affirmative and negative forms or introduce comparatives.• Concept maps• Props, puppets and images• Mime, gestures, acting out• Display
DARTs-inspired Language Activities• Text sequencing• Prioritising decisions/ ranking opinions• Matching pictures to text• Matching phrases to definitions• Matching beginning and end of sentences• True/ False/ Not Mentioned• statements about a text• Sorting activities (gender/ verbs or• nouns)…
Bonjour!Je m’appelle Ludovic. J’ai treize ans. Je suisen sixième. J’habite près de Toulouse.J’ai les cheveux courts et châtains et les yeuxmarron. Je suis assez grand.Je mesure un mètre cinquante. Je porte des lunettes. Je joue de la guitare classique. Je suis sportif. J’aime le football et le rugby. J’ai une chienne qui s’appelle Léa.
Word clouds and mind-mapping• Wordle http://www.wordle.net• Tagxedo http://www.tagxedo.com/• Freemind http://freemind.sourceforge.net/wiki/index. php/Main_Page• Mindomo http://www.mindomo.com
EAL Attainment Data http://www.tagxedo.com/artful/2a50dd53fe98461
Dictionaries Bilingual dictionaries Monolingual dictionaries Thesaurus Pros and Cons?
Flip your lesson!Pre-teach key vocabulary/ structures:How would you do this?Advantages and inconvenients?
Visual support & EngagementClasstool.net http://classtools.net/Site with templates for resources to be printed or put on a blog or a VLE. Drama! http://www.triptico.co.uk/
Scaffolding Learning: Audio support (listening/ speaking/ reading/ writing)• Repeating key words and phrases and using visual support at the same time.• Rephrasing: get students to rephrase in English and move from complex to simpler language.• Recasting: model by providing a gramatically correct or longer version of what the student said.• Target Language Use
Supporting and Recording Talkhttp://www.easi-speak.org.uk/ http://audacity.sourceforge. net/http://www.voki.com Ppt recording function
Scaffolding Learning: Models and Modelling• Provide a model and deconstruct texts. Sequencing activities will support the development of literacy skills as well.• The model could be a story, a transcript from a short video clip, a recipe, 2 sides of an argument, the evaluation of a product or a performance, a timeline …• Writing/ Speaking frames (talk stems/ sentence starters)
Writing and structure of first language• In Urdu, gender and number are both shown through the verb inflection and the tense through a verb suffix.• Nouns in many South Asian languages have cases.• Most languages do not have definite• and indefinite articles.• In many South Asian languages yesterday and tomorrow are the same word.
Scaffolding Learning: Questioning• No hands rule• Yes or no question to check understanding• Multiple choice questions• Traffic lights
Literacy Across the Curriculum (LaC) and EAL studentsHow can you contribute through your foreignlanguages lessons?Grammar terminologyPunctuationUse of apostrophes (comparisons)Vocabulary