The Globalised Classroom: How many pupils? Where? • 1 in 8 secondary school pupil does not have English as their first language. • 1 in 6 primary school pupil speaks a language at home other than English. • The percentage of EAL students varies greatly from region to region and school to school. In some schools it can be 90% + DfE school census, January 2011 http://www.naldic.org.uk/research-and-information/eal-statistics
EAL as a continuum EAL refers to any student with English as an Additional Language. At one end of the continuum , you find the ‘International NewArrivals’ (INA.) This refers specifically to students who have entered theUK within the past two years. Subgroups: - ‘first generation’ : children who were born in another country and have since resettled in the UK with their family. - ‘second or third generation’ : children who were born in the UK into a migrant or ‘dual-heritage’ family. - ‘migrant worker’ : children whose parents have moved to work in Britain. - ‘asylum seeker’ / ‘refugee’ : children who have moved with / without their parents to escape famine, persecution and other tragic events.
EAL as a continuum : Other criteria• Language spoken at home• Existence and role of older relatives• Literacy in the first language• Other language spoken• Parents’ level of education and literacy in both English and first language• Schooling history and experience• Traumatic experiences
The Challenges : Through MFL we need to…Nurture language developmentCoach students in how to learnBuild stable and productive social groups The good news? EAL good practice is MFL good practice!
Language AcquisitionStage 1: Pre-productionThis is often described as ‘the silent period’ and can last up to six months. English language learners mayhave up to 500 words in their receptive vocabulary but they are typically not yet fully able / confident inspeaking. Some students will, however, repeat everything you say. They are not really producing languagebut are parroting. NC English – P LevelsStage 2: Early productionThis stage may last up to six months and students will develop a receptive and active vocabulary of about1000 words. NC English – Level 1Stage 3: Speech emergenceStudents have developed a vocabulary of about 3,000 words and can communicate with simple phrasesand sentences. This stage will tend to last up to three years.NC English – Level 1 → 2 Stage 4: Intermediate fluency English language learners at the intermediate fluency stage have a vocabulary of 6000 active words. NC English – Level 3 – 4 Stage 5: Advanced Fluency Starting as a new speaker of English, it takes students an average of 7 - 10 years to achieve academic language proficiency in a second language. At this stage, students have the range of listening skills necessary to participate fully within the curriculum and can be fairly assessed using only the National Curriculum for English. NC English – Level 4 and above
EAL support?• Peer support not always available• Many schools have no EAL department as such• EAL expertise varies greatly from school to school• Languages are not always seen as a priority for support
Type of EAL support?Restricted timetable/Withdrawal lessonsIn English/ in homelanguageTeaching AssistantPeer supportClass teacher
Frequently asked Questions1. Is it better for students to wait until they have a working knowledgeof English before they can attend MFL lessons?2. Can you have EAL students in top sets? What assessment issuescan EAL students have?3. What are the potential strengths of EAL students? 4. What kind of pastoral support do many EAL learners need?
Fighting Common Misconceptions1. EAL students will take approximately 5 – 7 years of English-speaking educationto acquire academically-fluent English. This will occur naturally through nurturingimmersion rather than segregated intervention. MFL lessons will be moreaccessible in Y7-8 for EAL learners as they often represent a fresh start linguistically(impact on progress and setting)2. EAL students have a temporary additional need which is primarily languageacquisition. EAL students are not automatically SEN or ‘special educationalneeds’, and should not automatically put in lower sets . Lack of data/ unreliabledata can be an issue if EAL learner is assessed through the medium of English.3. EAL students will have potential strengths as well as additional needs. There are many cognitive advantages to being bilingual. Research shows that bilingual learners have better classification skills, concept formation, analogical reasoning, visual –spatial skills , creativity and divergent thinking, story-telling skills, language awareness. However, not all EAL learners are truly bilingual. 4, There is a social-emotional and cultural dimension to catering for the needs of EAL students.
Common experiences of EAL students: If I keep quiet I will not I feel different. get laughed at or told off.Can I eat this? Is itOK do this? What will I miss home. Why did Imy family say? get sent here? I am not used to those busy streets and cold weather Why do some people avoid talking to me? Why do they speak to me so loudly and slowly ? I just can’t keep up… it’s really tiring, but I have to learn so that I can help my family with the language. Where and when is my next lesson? I am never At my other school I had sure of what to do and much more interesting where to go… work. All I do here is listen and write.
Generic strategies to support EAL learners: 7. Coaching Schemes of work need to 6. Communicating The use of build in activities that demonstrate and English and TL should be supported practise language. Not just subject- . by visual cues and practical specific words but general academic examples. words like ‘compare’, ‘analyse’ etc. 5. Mentoring The student’s form tutor or key worker needs to regularly catch up with them to address queries / confusions, ensure 4. Buddying Pair with a homework is being managed, Classroom responsible, caring, articulate teachers to liaise with them as appropriate. student who will act as a guide, friend and role model. Reward students for acting as3. Grouping Place EAL students with buddies. (This can besupportive students of similar ability, who can arranged by class teacher orprovide a good linguistic model. EAL support) 2. Knowing Identify their language 1. Naming! Ensure that you levels. Try to find out a little about their address the student by their native / home culture. With INAs, find out correct name and that you their ‘story’. Link with EAL support as pronounce the student’s appropriate. name correctly.
Sharing culture• Encouraging students to complement the topics you are teaching when working independently e.g. fruit and vegetable• Finding out about specific features of EAL learners’ home language e.g. forms of address, word order, pronunciation, cognates, funny-sounding words…• Encouraging students to share information in the Target Language about their home countries, language and culture. Newbury Park: Language of the month http://www.newburypark.redbridge.sch.uk/langofmonth/
? A few points to consider… ?• Where are your EAL students and who are they sitting with? How is that likely to help or hinder them?• How would you make it easier for your EAL learners to understand instructions-orally and on a worksheet for instance?• How do you think EAL learners can contribute to enhancing our subject? 1. An EAL student pronounces or writes a word incorrectly – What do you do? 5. From a standard MFL scheme of work- what specific vocabulary is needed in English to understand the activities and their purpose ? 6. What will you have to consider when assessing EAL students’ progress in MFL in all four skills? What should you avoid?
7 Steps to introduce New LanguageWhen learning new language, EAL students need to: 1. See the word / phrase 2. Hear the word / phrase 3. Link the word / phrase to meaning 4. Practise and self-repair the word / phrase 5. Listen to the word/ phrase being recast 6. Revise the word / phrase
Scaffolding Learning: Visual Support• All teaching materials should include visuals like photographs, pictures, drawings or paintings to support learning. Beware of hidden cultural references in visuals.• Use spot the difference pictures to reinforce simple structures in the affirmative and negative forms or introduce comparatives.• Concept maps• Props, puppets and images• Mime, gestures, acting out• Display
Cherchez l’erreur A B C D E F G 1Dans la case …Il y a … 2Il n’y a pas de …Plus haut 3Plus bas…À gauche … 4À droite … 5 6 7 http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/spot-difference!-professional/id30
Pictures and Photographs• NEN Gallery http://gallery.nen.gov.uk• Flickr http://www.flickr.com• Tag Galaxy http://taggalaxy.de• Pinterest http://pinterest.com/• Visual searches: http://www.wordsift.com• Google.fr Google.es
Word clouds and mind-mapping• Wordle http://www.wordle.net• Freemind http://freemind.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/• Mindomo http://www.mindomo.com
Visual support & EngagementClasstool.net http://classtools.net/Site with templates for resources to be printed or put on a blog or a VLE. http://www.triptico.co.uk/
Scaffolding Learning: Audio support• Repeating key words and phrases and using visual support at the same time.• Rephrasing: get students to rephrase in English and move from complex to simpler language.• Recasting: model by providing a gramatically correct or longer version of what the student said.• Text-to-speech http://text-to-speech.imtranslator.net/
Supporting and Recording Talkhttp://www.easi-speak.org.uk/ http://audacity.sourceforge.net/http://www.voki.com Ppt recording function
Scaffolding Learning: Models and Modelling• Provide a model and deconstruct texts. Sequencing activities will support the development of literacy skills as well.• The model could be a story, a transcript from a short video clip, a recipe, 2 sides of an argument, the evaluation of a product or a performance, a timeline …• Writing/ Talking frames
Scaffolding Learning: Questioning• No hands rule• Yes or no question to check understanding• Multiple choice questions• Traffic lights