Differentiated instruction (2011)


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An overview of Differentiated Instruction and how it can transform traditional practice into something much more meaningful.

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  • Presenters:Ian Coffin, Secondary Curriculum Consultant, Eastern School District, PEIDavid Wood, Principal, Vernon River Consolidated School
  • Carol Ann Tomlinson is an acknowledged educator and expert in differentiation.
  • We are aware that this is the case but don’t necessarily consider these facts when we plan instruction and/or assessment. If there is this much variance in the students we see in front of us, isn’t it logical to assume that they will also represent a variety of learning styles and needs?
  • We really don’t need the research to tell us this. We see it every day in our classes.
  • It is important to identify what we DON’T WANT to see in the classroom by making these points abundantly clear. Why do we teach this way, in a lot of cases? It is because that was the way most of us were taught so it is comfortable to us – but not everyone is successful learning this way.
  • Drives the point home doesn’t it?
  • Drives the point home doesn’t it?
  • Differentiated instruction (2011)

    1. 1. ASCD Institute led by Carol AnnTomlinson & Marcia Imbeau,February 2011 in Houston,Texas.
    2. 2.  More students speaking more languages than ever; Increasing numbers of students with learning difficulties; More students needing help with reading and writing; Many advanced learners needing to continue their growth; An economic divide reflected in our classes; A need for every student to leave school as:  THINKERS  FLEXIBLE & INDEPENDENT LEARNERS  PRODUCERS OF KNOWLEDGE
    3. 3.  Students:  Learn at different rates.  Need different degrees of difficulty.  Have different interests.  Learn in different ways.  Need different support systems.
    4. 4.  Teachers cover . We don‟t always think about teaching individuals. We have …  On the same activities and tests, administered at the same time, under the same circumstances. This is comfortable for teachers; .  It allows us to retain (and intensify) familiar habits of instruction that are:  Mostly teacher-centered.  Often low-level.  Mainly text-focused.  Usually orderly and predictable.
    5. 5. Teaching a roomful of learners in over the with the and expecting good results …Dlfldfdljddlfjldkfdl and it never will…
    6. 6.  Because we know all of these things to be true, what is our obligation as educators?  To reflect on how our students – all of them – learn best.  To re-examine curriculum outcomes.  To strengthen and find alternate ways to reach objectives.  To embrace flexibility in our classrooms.  To differentiate instruction and assessment.
    7. 7. Write a definition Develop aof differentiation , that clarifies its in terms of what , or , , he/she would be that you think and . doing in the represents & In other words, classroom – and clarifies what iswrite a definition why. In other important tothat could clarify words, describe understand about thinking here in differentiation in differentiation. your school. action.
    8. 8.  At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means shaking up what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for:  Taking in information;  Making sense of ideas, and;  Expressing what they learn.
    9. 9.  These practices are essential to DI (and good teaching practice), but can also sometime be barriers.
    10. 10.  According to Tomlinson, the four most common impediments to differentiation in the early stages are:  We tend to think and talk about „our kids‟ as a whole rather than studying individuals or even smaller groups. As long as we see them predominantly as a group, we‟re going to teach them that way.  What students should know, understand, and be able to do – not what they‟re going to cover.  Strategies that invite us to differentiate – to reach out in different kinds of ways…and strategies we may not have used in a while.  One in which students are not always doing the same thing in the same way in the same time span.
    11. 11.  What do I want to know about my students as ? As a ?  What do I already know? How well do they & ?  How well do they when they listen? What‟s the for them in school?  What do they about what I‟m planning to teach? How do they feel about their ?  How do their peers feel about them?  How does their and affect their learning? What are their ? What are their ? How do they ?  What do they have that relate to what we‟re studying? What do they have about learning? About schools?  What kinds of do they have outside school?
    12. 12.  The following exercise can be used to group students according to their learning profiles.  It is a great way to gain some insights into the interests of students and the way they learn.  It was developed by a grade five teacher in Virginia as a pre- assessment activity at the beginning of the school year.
    13. 13. LEARNING PROFILE PRE-ASSESSMENT Carol Ann Tomlinson (ASCD)
    14. 14. Learning Profile Pre-Assessment The following exercise can be used to group students according to their learning profiles.  Itis a great way to gain some insights into the interests of students and the way they learn.  Itwas developed by a grade five teacher in Virginia as a pre-assessment activity at the beginning of the school year.
    15. 15. Learning Profile Pre- Assessment1. Favorite subjects in school are indicated by head color and body color:  Math-purple  Science-red  Reading-blue  Writing-orange2. Least favorite subjects in school are indicated by hair color (you can design fun hair).3. If you are a boy, use shorts. If you are a girl use the pants.  Make the color pants with your favorite color.
    16. 16. Learning Profile Pre-Assessment 4. Strongest intelligence area (using Sternberg model) is indicated by the shirt color:  Analytical = Green  Creative = Red  Practical = Blue  Kinesthetic = black  These could also be grouped by multiple intelligence areas (intrapersonal, interpersonal, musical, ki nesthetic, logical mathematical, verbal/linguistic, visual/s patial, naturalist). 5. Learning preference is their shoe color:  Visual = white  Auditory = black  Kinesthetic = brown
    17. 17. Learning Profile Pre- Assessment7. If you prefer to work alone on project , put on stripes. If you prefer to work in groups, draw polka dots on your shirts.8. If you like to be challenged and learn new and difficult things, design a hat for yourself.
    18. 18.  What is this topic really about? ?  What makes it connect to the students‟ lives?  How does it help students understand the discipline better? What should students , , and as a result of each lesson and the unit as a whole?  What questions are essential to ask about the topic?  What are the key concepts that give the topic meaning? How does the topic relate to ?  How can this topic show students connections and help students better understand themselves and their world?
    19. 19. “That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said the Cat.“Then it doesn‟t matter which way you go,” said the Cat. Lewis Carroll, Alice‟s Adventures in Wonderland
    20. 20.  In what ways can I ?  What options do I have when I share ideas/create tasks for students? In what ways can I ?  How can I encourage a wide range of complex thinking?  What modes of expression can I offer/teach students? best serve the goals of this lesson/unit?  How do I ensure the approaches I select serve the students well?  What choices in learning/assessment can I offer my students?  How can I point the way to increase the quality of the student work?
    21. 21.  How can I use , ,& more flexibly?  How do I establish & maintain appropriate and in the classroom?  How can I make my in operating the classroom? How do we practice to foster ?  Where do I find time to meet with ?  How and when can I ? How do I give ?  How do I create tasks that provide adequate , , and for individuals and small groups? What clarify and for me and my students?
    22. 22.  In a classroom with :  The class works as a whole on most materials, exercises, projects.  There is no group pacing.  This doesn‟t suit all the different learners in the room.  There are group grading standards.  There is an implied (or stated) philosophy that all the students need the same teaching and learning.
    23. 23.  In a classroom with :  Teachers adjust questions in discussion.  Teachers encourage individuals to take an assignment farther.  There are implied variations in grading experiences.  Students choose their own work groups.  If students finish work early, the can read, do puzzles, etc.  There are occasional exceptions to standard pacing.  May not need to show all work, do all math problems, etc.  There are occasional adjustments in grading to reflect student effort and/or ability.
    24. 24.  In a classroom:  There is a clearly-stated philosophy of student differences.  There is planned assessment and planned compacting.  Variable pacing is a given.  There is moving furniture and consistent use of flexible groups.  Collaboration is viewed as essential to the learning process.  There is planned variation in content/input.  There is also planned variation in product/output.  There is individual goal setting and individual assessment.  Grading reflects individual growth.  There is frequent mentoring and frequent monitoring.