RAW MATERIAL

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RAW MATERIAL

  1. 1. HACCP Standard of: Raw Material Handling &Selection CODE Good Manufacturing Practices (Checking, Grading and Cold Storing) RMS No.: 01/RMS/ICM/02-2008 01 (Fish handling) On Board Fish Handling: [RMS 01/1] Fish are allowed to chill in the slurry for no less than 6 hours. Fish should be chilled to an internal temperature of 500F (100C) within 6 hours capture. Fish are placed in ice or refrigerated seawater for final chilling period. On ice vessels ice is repacked around the fish after 6 hours to ensure proper chilling. Fish temperature are brought down to 320F (00C) within a total of 24 hours of capture. Fish are kept properly iced during storage on board the vessel to maintain a constant 320F (00C) until unloading. When long lining for Tuna and Mahi-mahi, fish are landed individually by hook and line, gaffed and immediately stunned with a club and bled using gill and tail cuts. The fish are then gilled and gutted using a knife. The fish is rinsed with seawater and placed immediately into ice slurry. This process takes no more than 15 minutes. Fishing Boat Sanitation: [RMS 01/2] The fish holds are cleaned and sanitized after each trip using dilute chlorine bleach solution (specially, sodium hypochlorite solution of 100 ppm). Clean new ice made from potable water is loaded into the fish hold at the start of each fishing trip. Fish holds are not used to store fuel. Fish holds are kept free of chemicals and lubricants used on-board the vessels Physical characteristics of ice utilized in chilling fish. [RMS 01/3] Types Approximate Dimensions Specific volume (m3/t) Specific weight (t/m3) Flake 10/20 - 2/3 mm 2.2 -2.3 0.45-0.43 Plate 30/50 - 8/15 mm 1.7 - 1.8 0.59-0.55 Tube 50(D)- 10/12 mm 1.6 - 2.0 0.62-0.5 Block Variable (3) 1.08 0.92 Crushed Variable 1.4 - 1.5 0.71 -0.66 block Ice consumption [RMS 01/4] Estimated time chilled fish to reach 00 C (320F) 0 Fish Layers Initial Fish Temperature ( C) Time (hours) 5 1.5 7.5 cm 10 2.0 15 3.0 5 6.0 15 cm 10 8.0 15 10.0 Estimated Ice added to chill 1 Kilogram of fish at 00 C (320F) 0 Initial Fish Temperature ( C) Ice (Kilogram) 30 0.38 25 0.31 20 0.25 15 0.19 10 0.13 5 0.07 INDO CENTRAL MARINE CORPORATION (Processing Department) RMS-01 | Page 1
  2. 2. HACCP Standard of: Raw Material Handling &Selection Good Manufacturing Practices (Checking, Grading and Cold Storing) Estimated Ice melted during 12 hours at various temperatures Environment Temperature at 10 Kg Fish Box at 40 Kg Fish Box 30 4.0 Kg 9.2 Kg 25 3.5 Kg 7.8 Kg 20 3.0 Kg 6.4 Kg 15 2.5 Kg 5.0 Kg 10 2.0 Kg 3.5 Kg Typical stowage rates, materials and methods of stowage [RMS 01/5] Material Method of stowage Stowage rate (kg/m3) Ice, crushed 550 Ice, flake 420-480 Small fish (e.g. sardine or similar) Without ice 800-900 Small fish (e.g. sardine or similar) In bulk with ice 650 Small fish (e.g. sardine or similar) In CSW 700 Average to large fish In bulk with ice 500 Average to large fish In boxes with ice 350 Stowage rates for shelf, boxed and bulk methods [RMS 01/6] Method of stowage Average stowage rate Average stowage rate (m3/tonne of fish) (ft3/tonne of fish) Shelf (2:1 fish:ice) 4.5 160 Box (2:1 fish:ice) 2.7 96 Bulk (2:1 fish:ice) 2.0 70 Type of ice and visual observations [RMS 01/7] Hours Shell Flake Block (crushed) 0 Ice shells vary in size (10- Ice flakes 30 mm × 2 Appears like heavy dense snow interspersed with 100 mm) and approx. 6 mm thick clear single chunks of ice (10-100 mm) mm thick Flakes irregular in Ice tends to clump (retain) shape of boxes No large clumps, poured shape loosely into insulated No clumping, poured container/box with lid into insulated container/box with lid 24 Shrinkage 5 mm from sides Shrinkage 10 mm from Surface solid with some single solid fragments Individual pieces retain sides shape Lost “flakey” appearance Some small clumps Developing glazed crust Somewhat dirty appearance 48 Shrinkage 10 mm from Surface essentially solid Solid sides crust Individual pieces smaller Shovel bent during test with pitted surface appearance 96 Shrinkage 10 mm + Solid surface Shrinkage 20 mm Pieces noticeably smaller Quite dirty surface Solid, odd single fragments and small bits of Ice tends to stick together clumping, snow-like particles but still breaks up and Quite dirty shovels easily 168 Shrinkage 20-40 mm Shrinkage 20-50 mm (192 h) Noticeably dirty Shrinkage 30 mm No real clumping, breaks Very difficult to push shovel into ice up easily INDO CENTRAL MARINE CORPORATION (Processing Department) RMS-01 | Page 2
  3. 3. HACCP Standard of: Raw Material Handling &Selection Good Manufacturing Practices (Checking, Grading and Cold Storing) Shelf-life of some marine and freshwater fish species stored in ice [RMS 01/8] Species Shelf-life (days in ice) Remarks Temperate Tropical waters waters Marine 2-24 6-35 Shelf-life for tropical fish tends to be longer. species Cod, Haddock 9-15 White-fleshed lean Whiting 7-9 White-fleshed lean Hake 7-15 White-fleshed lean Bream 10-31 Lean/low fat Croaker 8-22 Lean Snapper 10-28 Lean Grouper 6-28 Lean Catfish 16-19 Lean Pandora 8-21 Lean Jobfish 16-35 Lean Spadefish 21-26 Lean/low fat Batfish 21-24 Lean Sole, Plaice 7-21 21 Flat fish Flounder 7-18 Flat fish Halibut 21-24 Flat fish Mackerel 4-19 14-18 Pelagic fish; high/low fat Summer 2-6 Pelagic fish; high fat herring Winter herring 7-12 Pelagic fish; low fat Sardine 3-8 9-16 Pelagic fish; high fat Freshwater 9-17 6-40 Shelf-life for tropical fish tends to be longer. species Catfish 12-13 15-27 Lean Trout 9-11 16-24 Low fat Perch 8-17 13-32 Lean/low fat Tilapia 10-27 Lean Mullet 12-26 Lean Carp 16-21 Lean/low fat Lungfish 11-25 Lean/low fat Shad 25 Medium fat Corvina 30 Medium fat Pacu 40 Fatty Bagre (type of 25 Medium fat catfish) Chincuna 40 Fatty Intrinsic factors affecting the spoilage rate of chilled fish [RMS 01/9] Intrinsic factors Relative spoilage rate of fish stored in ice Slow rate Fast rate Shape Flat fish Round fish Size Large fish Small fish Fat content in the flesh Lean species Fatty species Skin characteristics Thick skin Thin skin INDO CENTRAL MARINE CORPORATION (Processing Department) RMS-01 | Page 3
  4. 4. HACCP Standard of: Raw Material Handling &Selection CODE Good Manufacturing Practices (Checking, Grading and Cold Storing) RMS No.: 02/RMS/ICM/02-2008 02 (The freshness standard of fish) Reception of chilled fish: [RMS 02/1] 1. Fish temperature on arrival = 50C or less 2. Freshness grade score = 3 for each partial inspected is accepted 3. Freshness grade score < 3 for each partial inspected is rejected; provide the initial training for the supplier (Fish handling training) through a brochure / simple or advanced explanation (depending on educational background & field condition) Criteria Freshness Grade Part of 3 2 1 0 fish inspected Appearance 1 Skin Bright, iridescent Pigmentation bright Pigmentation in the Dull pigmentation pigmentation, no but not lustrous process of discoloration becoming Opaque mucus Slightly cloudy discolored and dull Aqueous, transparent, mucus mucus Milky mucus 1 Eye Convex (bulging) Convex and slightly Flat Concave in the sunken centre Transparent cornea Opalescent Slightly opalescent cornea Milky cornea Black, bright pupil cornea Opaque pupil Grey pupil Black, dull pupil 1 Gills Bright color Less colored Becoming Yellowish discolored No mucus Slight traces of clear Milky mucus mucus Opaque mucus 1 Flesh (cut Bluish, translucent, Velvety, waxy, dull Slightly opaque Opaque from smooth, shining abdomen) Color slightly No change in original changed color 1 Color Uncolored Slightly pink Pink Red (along vertebral column) Organs Kidneys and residues Kidneys and Kidneys and Kidneys and of other organs should residues of other residues of other residues of other be bright red, as organs should be organs and blood organs and should should the blood dull red; blood should be pale red be brownish in color inside the aorta becoming discolored Condition 1 Flesh Firm and elastic Less elastic Slightly soft Soft (flaccid) (flaccid), less Smooth surface elastic Scales easily detached from skin, Waxy (velvety) and surface rather dull surface wrinkled, inclining to mealy 1 Vertebral Breaks instead of Sticks Sticks slightly Does not stick column coming away 1 Peritoneum Sticks completely to Sticks Sticks slightly Does not stick flesh Smell 1 Gills, skin Seaweed No smell of seaweed Slightly sour Sour abdominal or any bad smell cavity INDO CENTRAL MARINE CORPORATION (Processing Department) RMS-02 | Page 4
  5. 5. HACCP Standard of: Raw Material Handling &Selection CODE Good Manufacturing Practices (Checking, Grading and Cold Storing) RMS 03 4. Conduct the training to a small group of fisherman at least (2-3) people if necessary 5. The training scope : use of ice on fishing vessel, fish box standard material and cleaning, boat/vessel sanitation, fish handling and storage , moving the fish from supplier site to the processing plant/factory. Explain it as simple as possible 6. Recruit a new group continually to conduct a training if necessary Requirements shall be meeting in whole chilled fish (visual check): [RMS 02/2] 1. It shall have natural gills without mucous and opaque shining eyes with translucent cornea 2. It shall be free from foul odors, and shall have its specific odor 3. The fish shall be clean, free from scratches and wounds. Its surface shall not be dull and its slime shall be transparent. 4. The flesh of the fish shall be spongy when pressed by finger and shall become normal after the pressure is removed 5. The scales shall not be easily separated in scaled fish; whereas scale-less fish shall have. 6. Smooth uncurled skin No.: 03/RMS/ICM/02-2008 (Laboratory Test) Tested by appropriate methods of sampling and examination, the product: [RMS 03/1] 1. Shall be free from microorganism substances originating from microorganism in amounts which may present a hazard to health in accordance with standard established (SNI/Standar Nasional Indonesia, and other related international standard) 2. Shall not contain histamine that exceeds 20mg/100g. This applies only to species of: Scombridae (plate:96-97), Clupeidae (plate:6), Pamotomidae (plate:40) and Coryphaenedae (plate:39) Family Histamine Production Rates The five histamine-producing isolates identified in this study were further o characterized by their rate of histamine production at 25 and 37 C .Because all five bacterial isolates were slow to grow, incubation time was increased from 24 to 48 hrs. This observation is consistent with results reported by Kim et al (17) for a strain of Morganella morganii that produced higher histamine concentration in 48 hrs at o o o 37 C than it did in 24 hrs at either 25 C or 37 C. However, Babu et al. (3) found that histamine production by Streptococcus cremoris decreased from 24 to 48 hrs when o incubated at 37 C, suggesting that each bacterial isolate may have different histamine production profiles None of the five bacterial isolates identified were high histamine producers [>1000 o ppm in 24 hrs at >15 C (2, 27)]. INDO CENTRAL MARINE CORPORATION (Processing Department) RMS-02/03 | Page 5
  6. 6. HACCP Standard of: Raw Material Handling &Selection Good Manufacturing Practices (Checking, Grading and Cold Storing) Raoultella planticola (ATCC 43176) was found to be a medium producer of histamine o (250-1000 ppm in 48 hrs at > 15 C) under the two incubation temperatures studied. Contrary to our results, Kanki et al. (16) reported that Raoultella planticola (ATCC 43176) produced histamine levels of 4,550 ppm using 2 ml media volume and an o incubation of 18 hrs at 30 C. Bacteria isolated by Tsai et al. (27) and Ababouch et al. (2) reported histamine production rates between o 1000 to 4000 ppm in 24 hrs at 37 C. Frank et al (10) reported that mesophilic histamine producing bacteria could achieve concentrations of >10,000 ppm in 24 hrs o at 32 C. The five bacterial isolates were low histamine producers, defined as <100 ppm in 24 o o hrs at > 15 C or <250 ppm in 48 hrs at > 15 C (2,27). However, isolates 4077 and o 4086 did produce > 100 ppm histamine at 37 C but in 48 hrs rather than the 24 hrs as reported in previously published studies. Tsai et al. (26) reported low histamine- o producing Gram negative rods around 100 ppm in 24 hrs at 37 C and Ababoch et al. o (2) found similar levels produced at 35 C. Streptococcus cremoris was reported by o Babu et al. (3) to produce a concentration of 43 ppm in 24 hrs at 30 C, a concentration lower than any of the Gram negative isolates identified in this study. The majority of bacterial isolates reported by Frank et al. (10) produced histamine concentrations between10-50 ppm, with about a third acquiring concentrations of o 10,000 ppm or more in 24 hrs at 32 C. 3. The content of contaminating mineral elements in chilled fish shall not exceed to the corresponding proportion (P.P.M), shown against each: Cadmium = 0.5 ppm Mercury = 1.0 ppm Lead = 2.0 ppm 4. The microbiological limits shall not be greater than the following Limits/gram Microorganism n c m M Total aerobic bacterial count 5 3 5x105 107 Escherichia coli 5 3 11 5x102 n = Number of sample units to be examined m = value or level of microbiological criterion to be meet in the food product c = The maximum number of sample units allowed to have a microbiological criterion value greater than m and below the value of M M = The maximum criterion value that should not be achieved or exceeded by any of (n) units 5. The concentration of total volatile nitrogen shall not be greater than 30 mg/100g INDO CENTRAL MARINE CORPORATION (Processing Department) RMS-03 | Page 6
  7. 7. HACCP Standard of: Raw Material Handling & Selection CODE Good Manufacturing Practices (Checking, Grading and Cold Storing) RMS No.: 04/RMS/ICM/02-2008 (Grading, Transporting, cold storing of Raw Material) 04 Chilling (0° to 5° C C) Storage of fish at temperatures between 0° to 5° C C Chilling and Grading Procedure (at processing plant): [RMS 04/1] 1. Apply the personal hygiene standard 2. Crushed ice preparation 3. Fish box storage/container preparation Fish boxes/container allowing the drainage of melt-water from upper into lower boxes, made from suitable, hygienic and clean materials and shall not leads to the contamination of the product. 4. Species selection (fast handling & carefully to prevent damage and prevent a longer directly contact with air which is caused oxidation) | apply ice if necessary 5. Weight selection fast handling & carefully to prevent damage and prevent a longer directly contact with air which is caused oxidation) | apply ice if necessary 6. Place the fish into fish box and layering with sufficient ice. Fish shall be horizontally arranged, with layers of finely ground ice between, on the top, and the bottom of fish layers, use a tin layer of plastic if necessary. Close the fish box container as soon as possible and avoid the direct sun light 7. Labeling : (receiving date, species, weight grade, total weight per box/container, checker name/code) 8. Storing at raw material space area (do not store the raw material into cold storage/cold room which is finished product is storage in. 9. Prepare the daily report of incoming raw material Fish container : Polyurethane Plastic (easily to clean, strong and durable, no-chemical contaminated) Ice: Crushed ice or flake ice Ice application: RMS-01 | Page 1 Scale: Use digital scale for grading (and place -2% of weight tolerance), use mechanic scale per minimum 50 Kg fish and above. Chilling and Storing Procedure (at supplier site) and On Board site : [RMS 04/2] [RMS 04/1]: point = 1, 2, 3, 4&5 (optional), 6 Transporting chilled fish from supplier site to processing plant : [RMS 04/3] [RMS 01/2], [RMS 04/1], do not re-use Styrofoam box. INDO CENTRAL MARINE CORPORATION (Processing Department) RMS-04 | Page 7

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