Comparatives: A Primer

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This presentation goes through the various constructions of English comparatives. See my other grammar slideshows on this site.

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Comparatives: A Primer

  1. 1. Comparatives and Superlatives“Mine is bigger than yours” 1 Peter Mangiaracina
  2. 2. IntroductionComparatives are used to show similarities or differencesbetween things.Each slide will show an explanation, an example and aformula.At the end, a table of common comparatives. 2 Peter Mangiaracina
  3. 3. Key to FormulaeIn each of the slides explaining a comparative or superlative, you will see a“formula,” or a way to structure a sentence using that comparative. Below is anexplanation of the elements of the formulae.Subject The doer of an action. Usually appears at the beginning of a main clause. In the sentence “Bobis taller than Jill,” Bob is the subjectVerb “to be” Though many verbs can be used with the comparative, one of the most frequent is the verb “tobe” conjugated for whatever tense and person (is, are, was, were, has been, etc.)Object The receiver of an action. Usually appears after the verb. In the sentence, “The dog catches theball,” ball is the object.Adjective•An adjective modifies a noun. In the sentence, “Bob throws the red ball,” red is an adjective. 3 Peter Mangiaracina
  4. 4. Equal / Not EqualTo indicate or negate an equal quality: Example: Bob is (not) as tall as George.subject + <to be> + (not) + as + adjective + as + object.subject + <to be> + (not) + as + adjective + as + object. 4 Peter Mangiaracina
  5. 5. Difference Type I Indicating a difference between two or more things, usually when the adjective has one or two syllables: Example: Bob is (not) taller than George.subject + <to be> + (not) + adjective + {-er} + than + object.subject + <to be> + (not) + adjective + {-er} + than + object. 5 Peter Mangiaracina
  6. 6. Difference Type II Indicating a difference between two or more things, usually when the adjective has two or more syllables* Example: The red car is (not) less /more expensive than the blue car.subject + <to be> + (not) + more/less + adjective + than + object.subject + <to be> + (not) + more/less + adjective + than + object. 6 Peter Mangiaracina
  7. 7. Superlatives Type I Indicating that the quality something possesses can not be equaled, usually when the adjective has one or two syllables: Example: Bob is (not) the tallest student in the class.subject + <to be> + (not) + the + adjective + {-est} + object..subject + <to be> + (not) + the + adjective + {-est} + object.. 7 Peter Mangiaracina
  8. 8. Superlatives Type II Indicating that the quality something possesses can not be equaled, usually when the adjective has two or more syllables: Example: Linda is (not) the most/least intelligent person in the class.subject + <to be> + (not) + the + most/least + adjective +object.subject + <to be> + (not) + the + most/least + adjective +object. 8 Peter Mangiaracina
  9. 9. Special Constructio n The more I try not to be nervous, the more nervous Ifeel. The more I eat, the hungrier I get. The fewer people who know about this the better. The more I work, the less I earn. 9 Peter Mangiaracina
  10. 10. When to Use Type IIWhen verbs are functioning as adjectives (verbals).I am more tired today than yesterday.“Must” is the most over-used modal.When the adjective has three syllables.I am more intelligent than Australopithecus.Hailey Atwell is the most beautiful actress I haveseen.When using an adverb.My office is more well-decorated than your office.Apple is the most highly-respected company in theworld. 10 Peter Mangiaracina
  11. 11. Common Comparatives and Superlatives Type 1 as ___ as _____ than The _____ pretty prettier prettiest quick quicker quickest slow slower slowest cheap cheaper cheapest tall taller tallest good better best bad worse worst easy easier easiest nice nicer nicest 11 Peter Mangiaracina
  12. 12. Common Comparatives and Superlatives Type II More/less most/least intelligent fun interesting boring beautiful exciting comfortable difficult dangerous 12 Peter Mangiaracina

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