Our English Heritage Notes

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  • 1. Our English Heritage
  • 2. Learning Target I can evaluate the extent to which our government, & the men who wrote our Constitution, were influenced by their experiences with the British government & its history.
  • 3. Time Line of British History 1066 William the Conqueror becomes King Introduces the feudal system
  • 4. THE FEUDAL SYSTEM
      • Introduced to England by William the Conqueror
      • Introduced in the year 1066
  • 5. THE FEUDAL SYSTEM Under the feudal system, the people of England belonged to one of the three following groups: 1.   Royalty Includes the monarch (king or queen) and his/her family
  • 6. THE FEUDAL SYSTEM Under the feudal system, the people of England belonged to one of the three following groups: 2.   Nobility Lords and ladies who held titles such as earl, duke, baron Worked for the King so he could rule
  • 7. THE FEUDAL SYSTEM Under the feudal system, the people of England belonged to one of the three following groups: 3.  Common People Included serfs & peasants
  • 8. Time Line of British History 1066 1215 King John signs the Magna Carta
  • 9. THE MAGNA CARTA
      • Translates as the Great Charter
      • Signed by King John of England
      • Signed in the year 1215
  • 10. THE MAGNA CARTA The Magna Carta was a major step in the growth of English constitutional government. It contained 4 important ideas: 1. Limited Government There are limits to the powers of both the king & his nobles.
  • 11. THE MAGNA CARTA The Magna Carta was a major step in the growth of English constitutional government. It contained 4 important ideas: 2. Rule of Law Laws exist, & all citizens must obey them. The king is not above the law.
  • 12. THE MAGNA CARTA The Magna Carta was a major step in the growth of English constitutional government. It contained 4 important ideas: 3. Taxation The king cannot increase taxes without the “consent of the realm.”
  • 13. THE MAGNA CARTA The Magna Carta was a major step in the growth of English constitutional government. It contained 4 important ideas: 4. Trial by Jury The guilt or innocence of a citizen accused of a crime will be decided by a jury of his peers.
  • 14. THE MAGNA CARTA It is important to remember that most people in England were not a part of this agreement. Men who owned property were given far more rights than other people. Men without property, women, & children had fewer rights. However, the Magna Carta was an important step in establishing a constitutional government.
  • 15. Time Line of British History William the Conqueror becomes King Introduces the Feudal System 1066 1215 King John signs the Magna Carta Meeting of the Model Parliament 1295
  • 16. THE RISE OF PARLIAMENT
      • Parliament comes from the French word parler, meaning to talk
      • Met in the year 1295
      • Called for by Edward I
  • 17. THE RISE OF PARLIAMENT Parliament was made up of two houses which represented the most powerful groups in the kingdom: 1. House of Lords Represented the nobility 2. House of Commons Represented the non-noble property owners
  • 18. THE RISE OF PARLIAMENT Eventually, Parliament became so important that it was able to act without the king’s support. The struggle for ultimate power in England’s government came to a head in the 1600s when the Stuart kings & their Parliaments fought over a variety of issues including money, religion, & foreign policy.
  • 19. THE RISE OF PARLIAMENT At the heart of these struggles was a key constitutional issue:
          • Can kings act independently?
      • OR
          • Must they wait for Parliament's consent?
  • 20. Time Line of British History William the Conqueror becomes King Introduces the Feudal System 1066 1215 King John signs the Magna Carta Meeting of the Model Parliament 1295 1628 Charles I signs the Petition of Right
  • 21. THE PETITION OF RIGHT
      • Signed by King Charles I
      • Signed in the year 1628
  • 22. The Petition of Right strengthened the idea that English subjects enjoyed certain fundamental rights that no government can deny. THE PETITION OF RIGHT
  • 23. Time Line of British History William the Conqueror becomes King Introduces the Feudal System 1066 1215 King John signs the Magna Carta Meeting of the Model Parliament 1295 1628 Charles I signs the Petition of Right 1678 Charles II signs the Habeas Corpus Act
  • 24. THE HABEAS CORPUS ACT
      • Translates as “to have the body”
      • Adopted in the year 1678
    A writ a habeas corpus orders the government to… … deliver the person it has arrested to a court & to explain why the arrest was made.
  • 25. The struggle between the King & Parliament eventually resulted in a bloodless revolution known as the Glorious Revolution. As a result, King James II was overthrown & forced to flee the country. THE ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS
  • 26. THE ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS
      • Who took the king’s place? William & Mary
      • In what year? 1688
      • What was the condition of their succession?
    • English Bill of Rights
  • 27. The English Bill of Rights established and/or reinforced several important constitutional principles: THE ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS 1. Government by consent & contract 2. Rule of Law 3. Trial by Jury 4. Parliamentary Supremacy
  • 28. Evolution of English Monarchy ABSOLUTE MONARCHY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY William the Conqueror
  • 29. Evolution of English Monarchy ABSOLUTE MONARCHY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY King John
  • 30. Evolution of English Monarchy ABSOLUTE MONARCHY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY Elizabeth I Charles I
  • 31. Evolution of English Monarchy ABSOLUTE MONARCHY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY Charles I
  • 32. Evolution of English Monarchy ABSOLUTE MONARCHY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY William & Mary
  • 33. Evolution of English Monarchy ABSOLUTE MONARCHY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY Elizabeth II