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Colonial Society
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  • 1. Colonial Society
  • 2. Themes
    • Family & community life in New England & Chesapeake Bay
    • 3. Colonial economy & politics
    • 4. History of ideas:
    • 5. Enlightenment & the Great Awakening
  • 6. New England Society
    Thomas Smith Self-Portrait
    • Sailing scene in the background
    • 7. Skull - Brevity of human life
    • 8. Poem - “The Eternal” would “Crowne me with Glory”
  • New England Society
    Education
    • Towns with more than 50 households were required to appoint teachers
    • 9. Harvard College was founded in 1636 to train ministers
  • New England Society
    Education & Literacy
    • About 90% of adult white men & 40% of adult white women could sign their names
    • 10. No more than 50% in other colonies
    • 11. In England, only about 33% could read & write
  • New England Society
    Community Life
    • Centered around the Meeting House
    • 12. Homes were close to one another
    • 13. Led to a high population density in town center
    • 14. Created an atmosphere of “watchfulness”
    • 15. Supported the overall goal of a “city upon a hill” without dissent
    • 16. Easy to help one another & work together
  • 17. New England Society
    Family Life
    • Family Organization
    • 18. Father - Head of the family
    • 19. Mother - Manage the household
    • 20. Children - Provide a labor force
    • 21. Stability
    • 22. 80% of children reach adulthood
    • 23. Life expectancy - Men: 65
  • New England Society
    Punishments
    • Convicted criminals were exposed to public ridicule
    • 24. Meant to serve as a warning to others
  • 25. Chesapeake Society
    • Tobacco cultivation dominated the region
    • 26. Large profits could be made, but prices fluctuated
    • 27. Indentured servants & slaves were common on the plantations
  • Chesapeake Society
    Community Life
    • Centered around large plantation homes
    • 28. Homes were spread out & situated along the banks of rivers or streams
    • 29. Led to a low population density – about 6 people per sq. mile
  • 30. Chesapeake Society
    Family Life
    • Chaotic
    • 31. 50% of children reach adulthood
    • 32. Life expectancy - Men: 48
    • 33. Complex households
  • Indentured Servants
    Headright System
    • Virginia Company awarded 50 acres to anyone who paid a servant’s travel costs
    • 34. Between 1630-1700 – 110,000 migrated from England to the Chesapeake Bay
    • 35. Up to 90% were indentured servants
    • 36. About 40% died within 6 years
  • Indentured Servants
    • Living standards declined along with wages
    • 37. Population increased while land became scarce
  • Indentured Servants
    • Owners paid for passage across the Atlantic
    • 38. Worked for 4-7 years
    • 39. Often faced very poor treatment
    • 40. Could be bought & sold
    • 41. Sometimes used as gambling stakes
    • 42. Given supplies & reduced land rates at the end of their terms
  • Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
    Background
    • Tension developed between large landowners & former indentured servants
    • 43. Growing gap between the rich & poor
    • 44. The price of tobacco plummeted
  • 45. Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
    Background
    • Tension developed between large landowners & former indentured servants
    • 46. Growing gap between the rich & poor
    • 47. The price of tobacco plummeted
    • 48. Conflict with Native Americans
  • Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
    Conflict with Native Americans
    • Settlers (often former servants) encroached on land reserved for Native Americans
    • 49. Indians retaliated
    • 50. Virginia’s governor proposed a series of forts along the western frontier
    • 51. Settlers took matters into their own hands
    • 52. Led by Nathaniel Bacon
  • Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
    • Wanted to exterminate Native Americans along Virginia’s western frontier
    • 53. Clashed with Governor Berkley & his supporters
    • 54. Issued the Declaration of the People of Virginia
    • 55. Burned Jamestown to the ground
    • 56. Bacon died suddenly of dysentery
    • 57. Ended the rebellion
  • Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
    Aftermath
    • Shocked many of the elites of the region
    • 58. Contributing factor in the shift from indentured servants to slave labor
  • Slavery in the Chesapeake
    • 1619 – First documented slaves arrived in Jamestown
    • 59. 1660 – Fewer than 1000 slaves in the region
    • 60. 1700 – At least 20,000 slaves in the region
    • 61. (22% of the population)
  • Slavery Outside the Chesapeake
    • By the early 1700s, slave labor was used extensively in South Carolina
    • 62. Slavery existed in all of England’s North American colonies
    • 63. Slaves made up 20% of New York City’s population in the mid-1700s
  • Mercantilism
    • A nation’s power was determined by its wealth
    • 64. Required nations to export more than they imported
    • 65. Encouraged nations to produce everything they needed in order to avoid importing goods
    • 66. Relied upon colonies to meet this goal
  • Triangular Trade
    • Colonies provided raw materials – tobacco, sugar, rice, etc.
    • 67. Colonists purchased finished products manufactured in England
  • Navigation Acts
    • All goods entering the colonies had to be transported on English ships
    • 68. Certain goods such as sugar, tobacco, & indigo had to be sold in England or in English colonies
    • 69. All foreign goods had to travel through England before reaching the colonies
  • Colonial Governments
    • Governor – Appointed by the King or Proprietor
    • 70. Rhode Island & Connecticut were exceptions
    • 71. Council – Chosen by the Governor & served as advisors
    • 72. Assembly – Elected by voters
    • 73. Had the power to pass laws, levy taxes, & control budgets
    • 74. Controlled the Governors’ salaries
  • Colonial Governments
    Voting & Holding Office
    • Women & non-whites were not eligible voters
    • 75. Most adult white males over 40 had the right to vote
    • 76. Wealthy elites tended to dominate the Assemblies
  • Great Awakening
    • Early 1700s – church membership & attendance began to decline
    • 77. 1730s-40s – religious fervor spread across the colonies with large revivals meeting under tents on the outskirts of town
    • 78. Led by “New Light” ministers who emphasized an emotional & personal connection to God
  • Great Awakening
    Jonathan Edwards
    • Encouraged parishioners to absolve their sins & pay penance by praying for salvation
    • 79. “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
  • Great Awakening
    George Whitefield
    • Proclaimed that ordinary people could understand the Gospel without the leadership of the church
    • 80. Called for public admissions of sins & followers being “saved” in front of the congregation
  • The Great Awakening
    Legacy
    • Promoted the growth of New Light institutions such as Princeton, Dartmouth, & Rutgers
    • 81. Led to new divisions within the Protestant faith & a greater diversity of religion in the colonies
    • 82. Shaped church life & worship in America
    • 83. Encouraged egalitarian democracy