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Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
Colonial Society
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Colonial Society


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  1. Colonial Society<br />
  2. Themes<br /><ul><li>Family & community life in New England & Chesapeake Bay
  3. Colonial economy & politics
  4. History of ideas:
  5. Enlightenment & the Great Awakening</li></li></ul><li>
  6. New England Society<br />Thomas Smith Self-Portrait<br /><ul><li>Sailing scene in the background
  7. Skull - Brevity of human life
  8. Poem - “The Eternal” would “Crowne me with Glory”</li></li></ul><li>New England Society<br />Education<br /><ul><li>Towns with more than 50 households were required to appoint teachers
  9. Harvard College was founded in 1636 to train ministers</li></li></ul><li>New England Society<br />Education & Literacy<br /><ul><li>About 90% of adult white men & 40% of adult white women could sign their names
  10. No more than 50% in other colonies
  11. In England, only about 33% could read & write</li></li></ul><li>New England Society<br />Community Life<br /><ul><li>Centered around the Meeting House
  12. Homes were close to one another
  13. Led to a high population density in town center
  14. Created an atmosphere of “watchfulness”
  15. Supported the overall goal of a “city upon a hill” without dissent
  16. Easy to help one another & work together</li></li></ul><li>
  17. New England Society<br />Family Life<br /><ul><li>Family Organization
  18. Father - Head of the family
  19. Mother - Manage the household
  20. Children - Provide a labor force
  21. Stability
  22. 80% of children reach adulthood
  23. Life expectancy - Men: 65</li></li></ul><li>New England Society<br />Punishments<br /><ul><li>Convicted criminals were exposed to public ridicule
  24. Meant to serve as a warning to others</li></li></ul><li>
  25. Chesapeake Society<br /><ul><li>Tobacco cultivation dominated the region
  26. Large profits could be made, but prices fluctuated
  27. Indentured servants & slaves were common on the plantations</li></li></ul><li>Chesapeake Society<br />Community Life<br /><ul><li>Centered around large plantation homes
  28. Homes were spread out & situated along the banks of rivers or streams
  29. Led to a low population density – about 6 people per sq. mile</li></li></ul><li>
  30. Chesapeake Society<br />Family Life<br /><ul><li>Chaotic
  31. 50% of children reach adulthood
  32. Life expectancy - Men: 48
  33. Complex households</li></li></ul><li>Indentured Servants<br />Headright System<br /><ul><li>Virginia Company awarded 50 acres to anyone who paid a servant’s travel costs
  34. Between 1630-1700 – 110,000 migrated from England to the Chesapeake Bay
  35. Up to 90% were indentured servants
  36. About 40% died within 6 years</li></li></ul><li>Indentured Servants<br /><ul><li>Living standards declined along with wages
  37. Population increased while land became scarce</li></li></ul><li>Indentured Servants<br /><ul><li>Owners paid for passage across the Atlantic
  38. Worked for 4-7 years
  39. Often faced very poor treatment
  40. Could be bought & sold
  41. Sometimes used as gambling stakes
  42. Given supplies & reduced land rates at the end of their terms</li></li></ul><li>Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)<br />Background<br /><ul><li>Tension developed between large landowners & former indentured servants
  43. Growing gap between the rich & poor
  44. The price of tobacco plummeted </li></li></ul><li>
  45. Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)<br />Background<br /><ul><li>Tension developed between large landowners & former indentured servants
  46. Growing gap between the rich & poor
  47. The price of tobacco plummeted
  48. Conflict with Native Americans</li></li></ul><li>Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)<br />Conflict with Native Americans<br /><ul><li>Settlers (often former servants) encroached on land reserved for Native Americans
  49. Indians retaliated
  50. Virginia’s governor proposed a series of forts along the western frontier
  51. Settlers took matters into their own hands
  52. Led by Nathaniel Bacon</li></li></ul><li>Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)<br /><ul><li>Wanted to exterminate Native Americans along Virginia’s western frontier
  53. Clashed with Governor Berkley & his supporters
  54. Issued the Declaration of the People of Virginia
  55. Burned Jamestown to the ground
  56. Bacon died suddenly of dysentery
  57. Ended the rebellion</li></li></ul><li>Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)<br />Aftermath<br /><ul><li>Shocked many of the elites of the region
  58. Contributing factor in the shift from indentured servants to slave labor</li></li></ul><li>Slavery in the Chesapeake<br /><ul><li>1619 – First documented slaves arrived in Jamestown
  59. 1660 – Fewer than 1000 slaves in the region
  60. 1700 – At least 20,000 slaves in the region
  61. (22% of the population)</li></li></ul><li>Slavery Outside the Chesapeake<br /><ul><li>By the early 1700s, slave labor was used extensively in South Carolina
  62. Slavery existed in all of England’s North American colonies
  63. Slaves made up 20% of New York City’s population in the mid-1700s</li></li></ul><li>Mercantilism<br /><ul><li>A nation’s power was determined by its wealth
  64. Required nations to export more than they imported
  65. Encouraged nations to produce everything they needed in order to avoid importing goods
  66. Relied upon colonies to meet this goal</li></li></ul><li>Triangular Trade<br /><ul><li>Colonies provided raw materials – tobacco, sugar, rice, etc.
  67. Colonists purchased finished products manufactured in England</li></li></ul><li>Navigation Acts<br /><ul><li>All goods entering the colonies had to be transported on English ships
  68. Certain goods such as sugar, tobacco, & indigo had to be sold in England or in English colonies
  69. All foreign goods had to travel through England before reaching the colonies</li></li></ul><li>Colonial Governments<br /><ul><li>Governor – Appointed by the King or Proprietor
  70. Rhode Island & Connecticut were exceptions
  71. Council – Chosen by the Governor & served as advisors
  72. Assembly – Elected by voters
  73. Had the power to pass laws, levy taxes, & control budgets
  74. Controlled the Governors’ salaries</li></li></ul><li>Colonial Governments<br />Voting & Holding Office<br /><ul><li>Women & non-whites were not eligible voters
  75. Most adult white males over 40 had the right to vote
  76. Wealthy elites tended to dominate the Assemblies</li></li></ul><li>Great Awakening<br /><ul><li>Early 1700s – church membership & attendance began to decline
  77. 1730s-40s – religious fervor spread across the colonies with large revivals meeting under tents on the outskirts of town
  78. Led by “New Light” ministers who emphasized an emotional & personal connection to God</li></li></ul><li>Great Awakening<br />Jonathan Edwards<br /><ul><li>Encouraged parishioners to absolve their sins & pay penance by praying for salvation
  79. “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”</li></li></ul><li>Great Awakening<br />George Whitefield<br /><ul><li>Proclaimed that ordinary people could understand the Gospel without the leadership of the church
  80. Called for public admissions of sins & followers being “saved” in front of the congregation</li></li></ul><li>The Great Awakening<br />Legacy<br /><ul><li>Promoted the growth of New Light institutions such as Princeton, Dartmouth, & Rutgers
  81. Led to new divisions within the Protestant faith & a greater diversity of religion in the colonies
  82. Shaped church life & worship in America
  83. Encouraged egalitarian democracy</li>