Chapter 14 Notes

585 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Business, Lifestyle
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
585
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 14 Notes

  1. 1. AMERICAN SOCIETY & ECONOMY TRANSFORMED
  2. 2. Population Patterns  US Population:  1790 – 4 million, most east of the Appalachian Mountains  1840 – 17 million, 1/3 west of the Appalachian Mountains  Population grew in parts of the old Northwest Territory, including Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, & Wisconsin  Ohio – 1800 – 45,000 1820 – 581,000 1840 – 1.5 million
  3. 3. Population Patterns
  4. 4. Farm Economy  Most initially practiced subsistence agriculture  Men: Responsible for “heavy” work like clearing land & plowing  Women: Variety of chores – often endless  Sold eggs, butter, cheese, & other goods in order to supplement income
  5. 5. Old Northwest Territory  Saw an increase in commercial farming  Exported goods outside of the United States or shipping them to markets in the East  Soon replaced the northeast as the center of American agriculture
  6. 6. Commercial Farming  The East had become more urban & industrialized  Western farms benefitted from newer technologies due to differences in the landscape  McCormick’s Reaper  John Deere’s Steel Plow
  7. 7. Impact of Commercial Farming  Debt increased among farmers  Financial “Panics” in 1819 & 1837 hurt many as credit was tightened  Farmers grew reliant upon outside market forces
  8. 8. Old Southwest Territory
  9. 9. Old Southwest Territory  Commercial farming & technology also impacted the old Southwest Territory  Settlement increased as cotton became the leading US export  Alabama & Mississippi produced nearly 50% of US cotton by 1820s
  10. 10. Impact of Commercial Farming  Eli Whitney’s cotton gin led to the expansion of cotton plantations  Processed cotton was shipped to British & US textile mills  Caused an increase in the demand for slave labor
  11. 11. Transportation Changes  Steamboats transformed the transportation of goods & people via rivers  Canals made transporting western goods more practical  By the 1830s, investment in railroad construction outpaced that of canals
  12. 12. Growth of Railroads
  13. 13. Rise of Industry  Lowell, MA was an important center for textile manufacturing  Production increased from 4 million to 323 million yards between 1817 & 1843  Some people, especially urban men, began to purchase ready- made clothing
  14. 14. Rise of Industry  80% of factory workers in Lowell & Waltham textile mills were young, unmarried women  Worked long hours in hot, humid conditions  Worsened in economic hard times when hours were extended & the pace of machines was sped up to increase production
  15. 15. Urbanization  In 1820s, most cities were seaports  Over the next 40 years, US population increased considerably due to high birth rates & increased immigration
  16. 16. Rise of Industry  By 1860, nine cities had populations over 100,000 people  New York’s population had reached 800,000  Led to an increased inequality between the rich and the poor living in cities
  17. 17. Gap Between Rich & Poor  Case Study: Boston  1833 – The richest 4% owned 59% of the city’s wealth  1848 – They owned about 65%  Case Study: New York  1828 – The richest 4% owned 50% of the city’s wealth  1848 – They owned about 65%
  18. 18. Immigrants & Persecution  Immigrants often faced persecution – especially true for the Irish during this time period  Native born workers were resentful and believed that large immigrant populations led to lower wages
  19. 19. US Immigration

×