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Chapter 12 Notes

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    Chapter 12 Notes Chapter 12 Notes Presentation Transcript

    • The Second War for Independence
      &
      The Upsurge of Nationalism
      (1812-1824)
    • War of 1812: Causes
      Napoleonic Wars
      • When the Napoleonic Wars began in Europe in1803, they became a threat to American shipping
      • By 1805, Britain & France each blocked the other’s trade & both began seizing American ships
    • War of 1812: Causes
      Impressment of Sailors
      • Pay and working conditions were poor for British sailors
      • Many deserted & joined American ships
      • Royal Navy forced British sailors to return
      • About 6000 Americans were pressed into service between 1803-1812
    • War of 1812: Causes
      The Chesapeake Affair
      • USS Chesapeake (warship) refused to be boarded
      • HMS Leopard fired its cannons, killing 3 Americans & wounding others
      • Many in the US called for war
    • War of 1812: Causes
      The Embargo Act (1807)
      • Prohibited ALL US exports
      • Goal: European alliance on American goods would force recognition of neutral rights
      • Result: Complete failure – unemployment rose & the policy was very unpopular in the United States
    • War of 1812: Causes
      Madison’s Response
      • Supported loosening the embargo, but US ships were again seized by the French & British
      • Since the British controlled the seas, Americans turned their anger toward the British
    • War of 1812: Causes
      Conflict in the Northwest Territory
      • Indian leaders objected to treaties negotiated with Indians who had no authority to speak with American officials
      • American settlers often violated the terms of treaties
      • The British used these tensions to their advantage
    • War of 1812: Causes
      Tecumseh
      • A respected & charismatic warrior
      • Worked with his brother, known as the Prophet
      • Goal: To create confederation of ALL Indian people to resist American expansion
    • War of 1812: Causes
      Battle of Tippecanoe (1811)
      • Indiana governor William Henry Harrison grew concerned about Tecumseh & Indian resistance
      • The Prophet called for an attack on Harrison’s forces – Indians were defeated & the town was burned
      • Results:
      • Harrison became an American hero
      • Tecumseh allied with the British
    • War of 1812: Causes
      Election of War Hawks
      • Name given to vocal supporters of war with Great Britain
      • Strongest support in the South & West
      • Led by Henry Clay & John C. Calhoun
    • Declaration of War
      Opposition to war was strongest in New England & New York
      In June 1812, Congress issued a declaration of war – the first in US history
      Critics labeled it “Mr. Madison’s War”
    • War of 1812
      Americans led several unsuccessful invasions of Canada
      Oliver Perry defeated the British the Battle of Lake Erie
      Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames in 1813
      Thomas Macdonough won a surprise victory at the Battle of Plattsburgh
    • War of 1812
      Battle of Bladensburg left Washington, DC unprotected
      • While in Washington, the British burned the White House along with several other buildings
      • The US Capitol building also suffered damage
      • The British withdrew the next day
    • Treaty of Ghent
      Negotiators from the US & Britain agreed to end hostilities
      • The terms of the treaty restored relations to their pre-war staus
      • Issues such as the impressment of sailors & shipping rights were not addressed
      • News of the agreement took nearly 2 months to reach the US
    • Battle of New Orleans
      Andrew Jackson led American forces to victory against 8000 British troops
      • Most decisive victory of the war
      • The British suffered 2000 casualties in the period of ½ hour
      • The Americans only lost 70 men in the same period of time