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Ch17 Notes

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  • 1. Manifest Destiny
    (1841-1848)
  • 2. Manifest Destiny
    The term Manifest Destiny was popularized by a journalist in 1845
    Assumed that God had granted all of the land between the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans to the United States
  • 3. Manifest Destiny
    By 1840, thousands were settling the region that would become Texas; by 1843, thousands more were traveling the dangerous Oregon Trail
    Families traveled the route in caravans of 10-20 covered wagons, advancing no more than 15 miles per day on a journey that took approximately 6 months
    Transformed the lives of women who became more than the traditional mother/homemaker
  • 4. Manifest Destiny
    Settlers & Sioux Indians pushing westward to hunt buffalo began to displace the Native Americans who had lived on the Great Plains for centuries.
    The Sioux used guns & horses to their advantage.
    By the early 1800s, they had control over much of the Great Plains.
  • 5. The Accession of “Tyler Too”
    John Tyler became president when William Henry Harrison died in 1840
    Tyler was more like a Democrat, but ran as a Whig because he didn’t like Jackson.
    He disagreed with his party on almost ever major issue:
    Whigs were pro-bank, pro-protective tariff, and pro-internal improvements – Tyler, not so much
  • 6. A President without a Party
    Henry Clay (Senate) and Daniel Webster (Secretary of State) had hoped to dominate the Harrison administration
    They pushed legislation ending the Nat’l Treasury (set up under Van Buren) – Tyler signed
    Next, they created legislation establishing a new Bank of the United States – Tyler vetoed
  • 7. A President without a Party
    Tyler was eventually expelled from the Whig party, & his entire Cabinet resigned (except Daniel Webster who was busy with British negotiations)
  • 8. Tensions with Britain
    1837 - Canadian insurrection against the British
    Americans provided military supplies and helped fight, even though the federal government attempted to uphold neutrality
    An American steamer, the Caroline, was attacked by the British while carrying supplies to Canadian insurgents across Niagara River.
    1841 - British officials in the Bahamas offered asylum to 130 escaped slaves who had captured the American ship Creole
  • 9. Maine
    1842 - Maine Boundary Dispute
    The British wanted to build a road from Halifax to Quebec.
    The plans, however, ran through disputed Maine territory.
    The situation worsened during the “Aroostook War” when local lumberjacks clashed with one another.
    Eventually, the two sides agreed to “split-the-difference” with the Webster-AshburtonTreaty Line.
  • 10. Texas
    Not recognized by Mexico as independent
    Threatened war against U.S. if annexed
    To maintain protection (costly), Texans were forced to enter negotiations with Britain and France for protectorate status
  • 11. British Interest in Texas
    British wanted an independent Texas, puppetedby Britain
    Check Southern movement of America
    Abolition
    If they were successful in abolishing in Texas, maybe incite a slave rebellion by the southern U.S.
    Cotton – less dependence on American cotton
  • 12. Election of 1844
    Annexation of Texas became primary issue of 1844 Election
    Pro-expansion Democrats triumph under James K. Polk
  • 13. Annexing Texas
    Texas – Tyler believed he had a “mandate” from the people to annex Texas (pro-expansionist platform)
    Election results
    Desire to “save” his troubled presidency
    Not really clear “mandate” – Tyler (a Democrat in Whig’s clothing) signed 3 days before leaving office
  • 14. Oregon
    1818 – Americans want to divide @ 49th parallel
    British wanted Columbia River – vital trade
    Joint Occupation
    1840s - U.S. settlement increases
    Oregon Trail
    British are losing the settlement race – look for negotiations
    Issue tossed into election of 1844
    Polk offers 49th parallel (again)
    1846 -- British accept
  • 15. James K. Polk
    4 point program
    Lower Tariff – 32 to 25% w/ Walker Tariff of 1846
    Restoration of an independent Treasury – dismantled by Clay (signed by John Tyler)
    Settlement of Oregon dispute – agreed on 49th Parallel
    Acquisition of California
    Polk wanted to buy California from Mexico
    Problem: Tyler had severed diplomatic ties had been severed after annexation of Texas
    Sends John Slidell with $ 25 million
    Mexican government refuses to allow Slidell to present offer
  • 16. Mexico
    Polk orders 4,000 men from the Nueces River to the Rio Grande under General Zachary Taylor
    April 25, 1846 – Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attack
    Polk calls for war – “American Blood on American Soil!”
  • 17. Did Polk Provoke War?
    Bent the truth to bend American public toward war
    Mexicans had good reason to regard California as their own
    Mexico would not sell California – his plan
    Haste – British might lay claim
  • 18. Mexico
    Polk wanted California, but not war
    When war came, he wanted to limit its scope
    Led by Gen. Zachary Taylor
    5,000 against 20,000
    Became “Hero of Buena Vista”
    On to Mexico City (1847)
    General Winfield Scott
    Inadequate numbers, terrain, enemy, disease
  • 19. Peace
    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
    U.S. acquires Texas and area westward to Oregon and the Pacific (including California) = 1/2 of Mexico
    U.S. pays $15 million
    Needed congressional approval quickly
    Anti-slavery Whigs were threatening
    Some expansionists were calling for ALL of Mexico
    Final total = $18,250,000 (usually winners don’t pay)
  • 20. Results
    U.S. increased land holdings by 1/3
    Experience for officers that would later fight in the Civil War
    Increased respect of American military
  • 21. Results
    Relations with Latin America deteriorated
    “Colossus of the North” – greedy and untrustworthy bully
    Issue of Slavery Resurfaced
    Wilmot Proviso – Slavery should never exist in any of the territory gained from Mexico.
    Never became federal law