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Ch17 Notes
Ch17 Notes
Ch17 Notes
Ch17 Notes
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Ch17 Notes
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Ch17 Notes
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Ch17 Notes
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Ch17 Notes

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  • 1. Manifest Destiny<br />(1841-1848)<br />
  • 2. Manifest Destiny<br />The term Manifest Destiny was popularized by a journalist in 1845<br />Assumed that God had granted all of the land between the Atlantic &amp; Pacific Oceans to the United States<br />
  • 3. Manifest Destiny<br />By 1840, thousands were settling the region that would become Texas; by 1843, thousands more were traveling the dangerous Oregon Trail<br />Families traveled the route in caravans of 10-20 covered wagons, advancing no more than 15 miles per day on a journey that took approximately 6 months<br />Transformed the lives of women who became more than the traditional mother/homemaker<br />
  • 4. Manifest Destiny<br />Settlers &amp; Sioux Indians pushing westward to hunt buffalo began to displace the Native Americans who had lived on the Great Plains for centuries.<br />The Sioux used guns &amp; horses to their advantage.<br />By the early 1800s, they had control over much of the Great Plains.<br />
  • 5. The Accession of “Tyler Too”<br />John Tyler became president when William Henry Harrison died in 1840<br />Tyler was more like a Democrat, but ran as a Whig because he didn’t like Jackson.<br />He disagreed with his party on almost ever major issue:<br />Whigs were pro-bank, pro-protective tariff, and pro-internal improvements – Tyler, not so much<br />
  • 6. A President without a Party<br />Henry Clay (Senate) and Daniel Webster (Secretary of State) had hoped to dominate the Harrison administration<br />They pushed legislation ending the Nat’l Treasury (set up under Van Buren) – Tyler signed<br />Next, they created legislation establishing a new Bank of the United States – Tyler vetoed <br />
  • 7. A President without a Party<br />Tyler was eventually expelled from the Whig party, &amp; his entire Cabinet resigned (except Daniel Webster who was busy with British negotiations)<br />
  • 8. Tensions with Britain<br />1837 - Canadian insurrection against the British<br />Americans provided military supplies and helped fight, even though the federal government attempted to uphold neutrality<br />An American steamer, the Caroline, was attacked by the British while carrying supplies to Canadian insurgents across Niagara River.<br />1841 - British officials in the Bahamas offered asylum to 130 escaped slaves who had captured the American ship Creole<br />
  • 9. Maine<br />1842 - Maine Boundary Dispute<br />The British wanted to build a road from Halifax to Quebec.<br />The plans, however, ran through disputed Maine territory.<br />The situation worsened during the “Aroostook War” when local lumberjacks clashed with one another.<br />Eventually, the two sides agreed to “split-the-difference” with the Webster-AshburtonTreaty Line.<br />
  • 10. Texas<br />Not recognized by Mexico as independent<br />Threatened war against U.S. if annexed<br />To maintain protection (costly), Texans were forced to enter negotiations with Britain and France for protectorate status<br />
  • 11. British Interest in Texas<br />British wanted an independent Texas, puppetedby Britain<br />Check Southern movement of America<br />Abolition<br />If they were successful in abolishing in Texas, maybe incite a slave rebellion by the southern U.S.<br />Cotton – less dependence on American cotton<br />
  • 12. Election of 1844<br />Annexation of Texas became primary issue of 1844 Election<br />Pro-expansion Democrats triumph under James K. Polk<br />
  • 13. Annexing Texas<br />Texas – Tyler believed he had a “mandate” from the people to annex Texas (pro-expansionist platform)<br />Election results<br />Desire to “save” his troubled presidency<br />Not really clear “mandate” – Tyler (a Democrat in Whig’s clothing) signed 3 days before leaving office<br />
  • 14. Oregon<br />1818 – Americans want to divide @ 49th parallel<br />British wanted Columbia River – vital trade<br />Joint Occupation<br />1840s - U.S. settlement increases<br />Oregon Trail<br />British are losing the settlement race – look for negotiations<br /> Issue tossed into election of 1844<br />Polk offers 49th parallel (again)<br />1846 -- British accept<br />
  • 15. James K. Polk<br />4 point program<br />Lower Tariff – 32 to 25% w/ Walker Tariff of 1846<br />Restoration of an independent Treasury – dismantled by Clay (signed by John Tyler)<br />Settlement of Oregon dispute – agreed on 49th Parallel<br />Acquisition of California<br />Polk wanted to buy California from Mexico<br />Problem: Tyler had severed diplomatic ties had been severed after annexation of Texas<br />Sends John Slidell with $ 25 million<br />Mexican government refuses to allow Slidell to present offer<br />
  • 16. Mexico<br />Polk orders 4,000 men from the Nueces River to the Rio Grande under General Zachary Taylor<br />April 25, 1846 – Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attack<br />Polk calls for war – “American Blood on American Soil!”<br />
  • 17. Did Polk Provoke War?<br />Bent the truth to bend American public toward war<br />Mexicans had good reason to regard California as their own<br />Mexico would not sell California – his plan<br />Haste – British might lay claim<br />
  • 18. Mexico<br />Polk wanted California, but not war<br />When war came, he wanted to limit its scope<br />Led by Gen. Zachary Taylor<br />5,000 against 20,000<br />Became “Hero of Buena Vista”<br />On to Mexico City (1847)<br />General Winfield Scott<br />Inadequate numbers, terrain, enemy, disease<br />
  • 19. Peace<br />Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)<br />U.S. acquires Texas and area westward to Oregon and the Pacific (including California) = 1/2 of Mexico<br />U.S. pays $15 million<br />Needed congressional approval quickly<br />Anti-slavery Whigs were threatening<br />Some expansionists were calling for ALL of Mexico<br />Final total = $18,250,000 (usually winners don’t pay)<br />
  • 20. Results<br />U.S. increased land holdings by 1/3<br />Experience for officers that would later fight in the Civil War<br />Increased respect of American military<br />
  • 21. Results<br />Relations with Latin America deteriorated<br />“Colossus of the North” – greedy and untrustworthy bully<br />Issue of Slavery Resurfaced<br />Wilmot Proviso – Slavery should never exist in any of the territory gained from Mexico.<br />Never became federal law<br />

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