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Can’t Live Without It!Our relationship with the mediaby. Ichsan RasyidCONTENT Prologue Learning from media theories Media system dependencies theory Uses and gratification theory Thoughts on ‘audience – media’ relationship
PrologueToday’s media development enrichpeople’s option of daily mediaconsumption. Indeed,it’s prettymuch cluttered and fragmented,and it’s because they’re having aprivate affair.PEOPLE CHOOSEMEDIA FOR A REASON
PrologueConventional Media Online Media Social MediaTelevision, Radio, Magazine,Newspaper, Out of HomeSearch Engine, Websites,BlogsSocial Networks, Microblog,vlog, podcast, etcTV Channel (Cable, Terrestrial,Internet Protocol), Print MediaGroup, Integrated MediaGroup, Radio Channel.Search Engine Portal, OnlineNews Portal, E-CommercePortal, etcSocial Networks Sites,Microblog sites, online forumsites, etcAdvertising spot, advertorialspot, build in program, adlibs,etcOnline Banner, Rich MediaBanner, Microsite, Advertorial,etcOnline Forum, social mediaapplication, viral video, etcThat is why it is veryrelevant to talk about‘relationship’ asindividualrespectively developties with certainmedium.MANYOPTIONS FORINDIVIDUAL
Learning from media theoryMedia system dependency theoryWhat the theory said?
#1 Media System DependencyMEDIA SYSTEM DEPENDENCYTHEORY (MSDT), developed by SandraBall-Rokeach and Melvin DeFleur (1976), a‘large scale, suprasystem’ theory thatexplain the relationship between media,society, individual, and its effect. Naturally,it should be studied in the context of alarger social system, however the the basicdependency hypothesis states that...THEMORE A PERSON DEPENDS ON MEDIATOMEET NEEDS, THE MORE IMPORTANTMEDIA WILL BE IN A PERSONS LIFE, ANDTHEREFORE THE MORE EFFECTS MEDIAWILL HAVE ON A PERSON.SOCIETY(Degree of structuralstability varies)MEDIA(Number and centrality ofinfo function varies)AUDIENCE(Degree of dependency onmedia information varies)EFFECT(Cognitive, Affective,Behavioral)However, audience’s dependency depart fromtheir needs and conditions.
#1 Media System DependencyMEDIA(Number and centrality ofinfo function varies)AUDIENCE(Degree of dependency onmedia information varies)According to Ball-Rokeach andDeFleur, three media needsdetermine how importantmedia is to a person at anygiven moment:• The need to understandones social world(surveillance)• The need to actmeaningfully and effectivelyin that world (social utility)• The need to escape fromthat world when tensionsare high (fantasy-escape)The theory also said twospecific conditions wheredependency for media arehigh: 1) media centrality, and2) in case of social change/conflict/ movement.
Learning from media theoryUses and gratification theoryWhat the theory said?
#2 Uses and GratificationUses and Gratification theory (UGT) isan approach to understanding whyand how people actively seek outspecific media to satisfy specific needsDiffer from other media effecttheories, its basic assumption givesthe consumer power to discern whatmedia they consume, with theassumption that the consumer has aclear intent and use.Different from the previous theory that said the audience depend to the media, UGTconceived the audience as active which deliberately choose their media consumptionbased on their needs. So, what are the needs?
#2 Uses and GratificationGoals for media use can be grouped intofive uses:• Be informed or educated• Identify with characters of thesituation in the media environment• Simple entertainment• Enhance Social Interaction• Escape from the stresses of daily lifeMcQuail, Denis (2010). Mass communication theory: anintroduction. London: Sage Publications. pp. 420–430.ISBN 1849202923.
Thoughts on ‘audience – media’ relationshipWhat we can conclude from the theory?
Relationship with the MediaFrom the MSDT, at least I can learn that peopledevelop these two relationship with the media.1.The Lamb - Sheperd Relationship2.TheTherapist RelationshipAnd from the UGT, at least I can also learn thatpeople develop these four types of relationshipwith the media.3.The Student –Teacher Relationship4.The Observer Relationship5.The Liaison Officer Relationship6.TheTherapist Relationship (same as MSDT)
Relationship with the MediaThe Lamb - Sheperd RelationshipThe world is a strange place. Media provide information to theaudience about this strange world on how to behave, how tointeract, what to do, what is appreciated, why do and dont dothis, and etc In the context of social life, media subtly tellsaudience what’s cool, what to wear, what to eat, where to go,and etc. In the context of social change/ conflict/ movement,frequently media tells the audiences who to hate, who to love,what to support, why we should do it, and etc.This relationship can be established not only because of social movement and media centrality likethe MSDT said, community fanaticism, psycological condition, and mundane individual fantasy couldtake someone into this type of relationship. For instance, the consertives and Fox News, youth andMTV, moms and infotainment, and pornography.
Relationship with the MediaTheTherapist RelationshipAs the degree of stress heighten,thus audiences use media to escapefrom their stressful world. Audience consume media for the sake ofstress relief.For instance, watching How I MetYour Mother (Sitcom) in theweekend, listening to radio while driving back home, browsingyoutube videos in between administrative works, or reading jokescolumn in the newspaper.The Student –Teacher RelationshipThe UGT consider audience as an active party when interact whenmedia. Audience use the media to equipped themselves withknowledge on current issue, science, and social situation. In thisrelationship, the audience “play” themselves as student who’sactively look for information, guidance, hints, and etc to theirteacher (media).
Relationship with the MediaThe Observer RelationshipFor some people, learning can be done by observation. Differentfrom the diligent student, who’s very active seeking specificinformation from the media, an observer tend to turn on theTV,radio, online news portal, or newspaper and simply scan theheadline of today’s news or information.They just need to get aglimps of what happen today.The Liaison Officer RelationshipToday’s people use media to be more social. It enable geek to be “cool” andeven can give them “persona” to interact with the world.The most currentexample of media’s social facilitation is the avatar, where one can have anonline identity (could be different from the real identity) and confidently makeconversation with the others.
CONCLUSIONACTIVE PASSIVESUBSTANTIALINSUBSTANTIALLamb - SheperdObserverTherapistLiaison OfficerStudent –TeacherAt least from the the two theories, I can drawn this degree ofactiveness. However, the quality of media consumptionv(interm of content and context) in each relationship can be vary.What kind of relationship are you having right now?Whatever your type is, MAKE SURE ITS BENEFICIAL.THEQUESTIONOFCONTENTQUALITY