Presentations of nemathelminthes

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Presentations of nemathelminthes

  1. 1. Phylum Nematoda • Parasites • Don’t eat raw meat • Heavy infestation can cause anemia, retardation • Anal itching
  2. 2. Body Plan of a Rotifer mouth modified pharynx one of two ciliated lobes at head cluster of nerve cells gastric gland protonephridium stomach intestine cloaca anus gland that secretes cementing substance for “toe” one of two “toes”
  3. 3. 12,000 species caracteristic 500,000 possible Cylindrical body Only longitudinal muscles Noncellular cuticle with several layers Pseudocoelomate Mouth and anus Found everywhere Soil Oceans Polar ice Hot springs Parasites of nearly all plant and animal species!
  4. 4. caracteristic 1. 2. 3. 4. Bilateral, triploblastic, unsegmented worms Acoelomate; body cavity is hemocoel Presence of cuticle that is molted Body round and under high pressure due to compressed state of muscles and inelastic cuticle 5. Aquatic or found in a thin film of water; gas exchange by diffusion 6. Digestive system (complete): Mouth, muscular pharynx, intestine, anus 7. Nervous system: Brain with dorsal and ventral nerve cords; cytoplasmic extensions from muscles to nerves 8. Presence of cephalic sense organs called amphids 9. Presence of dorsal and ventral longitudinal muscles; move by alternative contraction and relaxation of muscles (Circular muscles not required due to HP) 10. Dioecious with separate sexes; internal fertilization
  5. 5. Ciri umum Bentuk tubuh bulat spt benang Tidak beruas-ruas Saluran pencernaan sempurna krn memiliki mulut dan anus Ada yang mikroskopis dan ada yang makroskopis Bersifat gonokoris, betina lebih besar dari pada jantan Ada yang parasit ada yang hidup bebas
  6. 6. Dibedakan menjadi 2 kelas : 1. Kelas Nematoda Contoh : 1. Ascaris lumbricoides 2. Wuchereria brancrofti 3. Enterobius vermicularis 5. Ancylostoma duodenale 2. Kelas Nematomorpha Contoh : 1. Gordius sp 2. Nectonema
  7. 7. Sistim reproduksi 7
  8. 8. Ascaris lumbricoides • Roundworm of man • 1.2 billion people – Many in southeast US • Females lay 200,000 eggs a day • Unsanitary habits contaminate ground • Night soil 9
  9. 9. Life Cycle of Ascaris Lumbricoides Source: Redrawn From Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA. 10
  10. 10. Enterobius vermicularis • Pin worm • 50% of children in US • Spread – Fecal oral route – airborne 13
  11. 11. Life Cycle of Enterobius Vermicularis Source: Redrawn From Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA. 14
  12. 12. Enterobius vermicularis (cacing kremi)
  13. 13. Hookworms • • • • • Anterior end hooks Necator americanus Ancylostoma duodenale Feed on blood Cause anemia 16
  14. 14. Life Cycle of Necator Americanus Source: Redrawn From Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA. 17
  15. 15. Ancylostoma caninum 18
  16. 16. Ancylostoma duodenale (cacing tambang)
  17. 17. Cutaneous Larval Migrans • Hookworms from dogs and cats 20
  18. 18. Trichinella spiralis • Trichina worm • Pigs, bear, dogs, cats, rats and man • Trichinosis – Encysts in muscles 21
  19. 19. Life Cycle of Trichinella Spiralis Source: (a) Redrawn From Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA. (b) Photo © Steve Miller 22
  20. 20. Wuchereria bancrofti • Lives in lymphatic system • Obstruct lymph to cause swelling – Elephantiasis 23
  21. 21. Life Cycle of Wucheria spp.
  22. 22. • Dog Heart worms • elephantiasis worm • Pin worms • Video: round worm in caecum of 55 yr. old man
  23. 23. Loa loa • Eye worm 26
  24. 24. Loa-loa (cacing mata)
  25. 25. Dracunculus medinesis • Fiery serpent 30
  26. 26. Dirofilaria immitis • Dog heart worm 32

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