Organization behauvior-Effective of leadership styles; management theory and motivation

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Organization behauvior-Effective of leadership styles; management theory and motivation

  1. 1. NATIONALECONOMICSUNIVERSITY BTECHNDINBUSINESSANDMANAGEMENT AssignmentCoverSheet GROUPNAME ............................................................... NAMEOFSTUDENT ............................................................... REG.NO. .................................... NAMEOFSTUDENT ............................................................... REG.NO. .................................... NAMEOFSTUDENT ............................................................... REG.NO. .................................... NAMEOFSTUDENT ............................................................... REG.NO. .................................... UNITTITLEOrganisationsandBehaviour(H/601/0551) ASSESSOR WilHoang ASSIGNMENTTITLETake-homeassignment Fri.15thNovember2013,10am-Hardcopy SUBMISSIONDEADLINESat.16thNovember2013,10am-Softcopy WORD COUNT .................................... I,onbehalfoftheabovenamedgroup,herebyconfirmthatthisassignmentisourownworkandisnot copiedorplagiarisedfromanysource.Ihavereferencedthesourcesfromwhichinformationis obtainedbymeforthisassignment.Iunderstandthatanyplagiarismwillresultinareferralgradefor theseoutcomesandpossibledisqualificationfromthemodule. Themembersofthegroupunderstandthatlackofcontributiontothisgroupassignmentmayresultin thoseindividualsbeinggivenareferralgrade. Signature ................................................................................................... DATE ......./......./....... FOROFFICIALUSEONLY LEARNINGOBJECTIVE PASS/REFERRAL 2a ☐ 2b ☐ 2c ☐ 3a ☐ 3b ☐ 3c ☐ MERITS 1 ☐ 2 ☐ 3 ☐ DISTINCTIONS ☐ ☐ ASSESSORSIGNATURE: .......................................................................................... VERIFIED ☐YES DATE ......./......./....... ☐NO VERIFIEDBY:........................................................................................................... SIGNATURE:............................................................................................................ DATE ......./......./....... 1
  2. 2. Assessmentcriteria Feedback Assessor’s decision Internal Verification 2a Comparethe effectivenessof differentleadership stylesindifferent organisations 2b Explainhow organisationaltheory underpinsthepractice ofmanagement 2c Evaluatethedifferent approachesto managementusedby differentorganisations 2
  3. 3. Assessmentcriteria Feedback Assessor’s decision Internal Verification 3a Discusstheimpactthat differentleadership stylesmayhaveon motivationin organisationsinperiods ofchange 3b Comparetheapplication ofdifferent motivationaltheories andtheirapplication withintheworkplace 3c Evaluatetheusefulness ofamotivationtheory formanagers Feedbackhasbeenreceivedby: STUDENTSIGNATURE: ….................................................................................... DATE ......./......./....... NAME: …........................................................................................................... 3
  4. 4. Contents ASSIGNMENT .................................................................................................... 5 Major Finding ...................................................................................................... 5 Task 1: .............................................................................................................. 5 Task 2: .............................................................................................................. 7 Task 3: .............................................................................................................. 9 Task 4: ............................................................................................................ 12 Task 5: ............................................................................................................ 14 Reference:........................................................................................................... 16 Group: TheAnonymous-12th 4
  5. 5. ASSIGNMENT Major Finding Task1: Mr. Hung‟s leadership style is Authoritative leadership. Because Hung‟s NPD team is under his leadership and he create his vision for future. His leadership might not effective with a team include people so skilled. This leadership creates so many problems in management issues and job performance. For example, Mr. Hung exerts absolute control in guiding new direction for employees and making decision.Mr. Hung does not care about what employees need, why they disagree with his vision. Authoritative leadership is special and powerful when in company, employees lack of making-decision, skilled or in situation where time is necessary, leader need to make decision quickly. However, Mr. Hung is in a manufacture company, and his staffs are skilled, if he choose Authoritative leadership, he will reduce sprit of team, reduce the achievement of team, and decline the employees who will support directly for him. ★ there any other of Goleman‟s (2000) leadership styles that you think might be more Are effective? Why? In this case, with leadership are Mr. Hung and their employees are high skills people, he use Authoritative leadership style will be made decrease performance of his team. If he want to be more effective, he might use coaching, democratic and affiliative leadership style. There is common things in three leadership style that a leader will focus on their subordinates whereas his current style focuses more on task. That styles builds trusts, emotional, relationship and special employee‟s ability. The employees can be share their ideas, their solution to help company and the leader has more community with employees. Then, in long term and short term, Mr. Hung can be lead the team to reach more result and high performance. Group: TheAnonymous-12th 5
  6. 6. Hersey and Blanchard (1969) Hersey and Blanchard create a theory base on the level of leader‟s influence and ability of employees. This style like a manager tool for Mr. Hung because it pull people closer together, maintain the confidence of staff in leadership and improve the performance. Mr. Hung are using Directing style, he tell with his subordinates what to do and how to do it. However this style are suitable for staffs are new or inexperienced, Mr. Hung‟s employees are skilled, they will be worked passive by use this style. Perhaps he need to use Delegating style. Because leaders who will monitor and track progress, Mr. Hung's staff will have more space to develop the skills that they have and they do job better. Blake and Mouton (1964) According Mr. Hung‟s team, if he want to reach a high performance, he need to use Middle-of-the-road leadership style and Team leadership style.For the first time, with a new vision, Mr. Hung should keep in balance and average product and relationships. He might use this style to set for average performance. after achieving stability, "Team Leadership - High Production / High People" is style Mr. Hungary will set. This period employees understood team benefit, they will commit to team and have common goal with NPD. This make a good environment with trust and respect between staffs and Mr. Hung, and the result is high production. Transactional and Transformative Transactional: Giving employees a clear job direction is the way Mr. Hung use mission and result to control them. However Mr. Hung choose the wrong way to motivation his employees specially high skill employees (bonus wage). Because with the workers are highly skilled and experienced, they want to have a work environment freedom, satisfaction and emotional between top and staffs which are lack in Mr. Hung‟s team. Group: TheAnonymous-12th 6
  7. 7. Transformative:The most obvious change is that he will bring his vision applies to all groups, personal vision to bring into a group. Mr. Hung confirm his vision will be team‟s vision, ignore staffs ‟s situation when they disinteresting with his vision. Task 2: 2.1: Frederick W. Taylor who has known as “Father of Scientific Management”, was thinking about “the principle of scientific management” when he saw the worker's work lack of efficiency. His opinion mentioned to 5 main principles: Standardization, Time and task study, Systematic selection and training, Pay incentives, Cooperation between managers and operatives. With Mr. Hung‟s company, standardization is very important, it keep the stable performance and improve the quantity and the quality of product. Time and task study is not important as Systematic selection and training with DZL because if training good, working will good. Moreover, Pay incentives and Cooperation between managers and operatives will Mr. Hung easy to control the task and performance by linking with other manager in company. Other theory, according to Taylor, Henry Gantt was changed some aspects and put minimum wage with a standard bonus to suitable with planning and controlling work. Mr. Hung need to identify and reduce employee stress (by giving them more free time, deadline extend or even create some company holiday), he must know why increase the salary will narrow their focus and only work for mechanical job (Pink, 2009). The emotional is more important, giving them the perspective to do the job by their own will, not because they are forced to do it. Hung can design the job to fit every team member, which will make them satisfy more about the job. But the Scientific manager is not consider workers as human, but as machines that only working and working all the time, that is what make it not very effective. 2.2: Classical Administration is also one main part in organizational theory which Mr. Hung will take care to apply to his organization. The most important elements are: Group: TheAnonymous-12th 7
  8. 8. Planning: This work can help the team get the steps explicitly, analyze and predict possible outcomes Coordinating: Chunked and glued the team to do part of job to forward a unity of mission to make the their job become easier and quickly. Commanding and Control: in production, if there is a two-way communication between management and staff will help work to achieve the best stability. And because of management control of the company, top can predict the surplus or shortage before the number of products, saving and increased efficiency within the company Division of Labor : If the works are broken down, it will be easier to employee to work faster, better and they would not feel it too hard for them, which motivate people very well Hierarchy of Authority: By give the worker more power, they will be more responsible to the job, in order to direct and focus them to the whole team or organization objective. However, this management still make the employees become a tool, lack of emotional, so sometime, the staffs can be stress, and don‟t want to continue the job. 2.3: The last theory which we must find out is Human Relations Theory. This theory based on Hawthorne studies which conducted by Elton Mayo (1924). It wants to increase worker performance through provides all resources, condition to please worker. For that reason, it will provide a knowledge about motivation, group dynamics and so on, Mr. Hung can assess the capacity of employees, employee trust and employee connect more closely with managers. Moreover it change our mind about the employee ( they are not a tool, they are an appreciated resource and they are important with DZL). However, Mr. Hung should consider before applying this theory because it can be limited if employees have unpredictable behavior and it take more time to analysis the reality final result. Group: TheAnonymous-12th 8
  9. 9. In case of DZL company, in the design process, Mr. Hung always try to make motivation for the employees. Moreover people in New Product Design and Development is a skilled worker so that it is suitable with Human Relations Theory. However, Mr. Hung still lack of strength to control his employee so that he can coordinate between Classical Administration and Scientific Management to find out the best ways to control his employee because they still not follow Hung’s activities. In the manufacturing process, they also have some similar problems like design department, but they should concentrate on Scientific Management. 2.4: Unlike traditional management theories, management theories today to focus on the job flexibility, convenience and improve productivity work. So that an employee is promoted to a maximum of their individual capabilities, these employees are grouped to increase productivity and save time. The academic exchange and apply knowledge on the job is complete freedom. Now work has clearly driven, multi-dimensional and flexible with high expertise. In addition, the manager also encourages its employees to share ideas, raise the relationship to colleagues can do a better job Task3: 3.1. Resistance of changing: Three-step model (Lewis, 1951) is considered the backbone frame helps Mr. Hung can be used to change. The first thing to do is to change his employee's mind about old habits, old cognitive and old style of work. The second step Mr. Hung needs to guide your employees about the new changes, explain and instruct them, to give them trust and belief in the new vision. And the final step is to freeze it again, Mr. Hung should ensure its employees will act in an efficient manner based on the new changes, smoother, more stable and they are not come back with old habits. Regarding the case study, Mr. Hung's team are facing two major problems need to be solved immediately . The first thing is Mr. Hung's team did not accept the new vision which Group: TheAnonymous-12th 9
  10. 10. he imposed on the entire team . They feel stressed and uncomfortable because they hardly understand the purpose of that vision , they do not see results for them and for company . The second thing is that they feel a disconnect between management and staff , lack of affection and they are working like machines . This can be explained by the way Mr. Hung adequate guidance to staff but they did not try to understand or do not want to do . What the important is here, the staff has not seen the trust , Mr. Hung just like they did as the machine , which missed the main feedback from his employees, they feel not respected 3.2. Manager the resistance Changes to capital is still very difficult in contemporary society. To be able to change, the most essential factor is still time. Therefore Mr. Hung should have a time frame for employees to adapt to the new vision. Moreover, during this period, Mr. Hung needs to improve relationships with employees, communicating with them more comfortable and absorb ideas from employees to improve the job performance. Besides, Mr. Hung should have the motivation for promoting the spirit of our employees, reducing resistance. From the personal views, there is two main techniques for Mr. Hung to manager the resistance (KOTTER AND SCHLESINGER, 1979) Education and commitment: In this case, Mr. Hung need to show his vision for his team, give more clearly information about the change in the future. For example, he should spend time and money helping his subordinates to understand the plan. The most important is Mr. Hung must convince staffs about their value with company, and the benefit will bring for company. In addition, this technique is the element to increase the employee‟s motivation because Mr. Hung has shown the benefit of vision, they can be put the trust into his vision. Group: TheAnonymous-12th 10
  11. 11. Facilitation and support: Change the habits, the style of his work is not easy, it takes a lot of time and material, can sometimes affect people's feelings. Therefore, providing emotional and material will help the employees feel comfortable and have motivation. In outcome 2, management organization, if Mr. Hung is not wise in the use of management methods (like Classical Administration and Human Relaytion Theory), his employees can be feel like a tool, machines, lack of emotional or “Misunderstand and Lack of trust Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007” with him. Then this technique help to solve this problem. However taking much time, DZL can be stable in long term with agreeable from the staffs because they feel the emotion, have interest from the manager. 3.3. Changing’s effect In DZL Vietnam, so many problem to reach the increase resistance, it is from both the management and staffs. For example: from the employees views, they are people who has many years working in DZL company, so they are old-fashioned, backward and conservative, so they are not accept the new vision easily (Low tolerance to change (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007) and Contradictory assessment (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007)). They will have some negative response with Mr. Hung. This make high resistance for company. Other site, from Mr. Hung‟s view, he want to save time, save money training, but he does not understand changing need the time, and he does not care about the employee‟s felling, care about their stress. (Misunderstanding and lack of trust (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007)). If Mr. Hung cannot improve their relationship, there are a big gap in DZL‟s system, will make performance of company decline. Group: TheAnonymous-12th 11
  12. 12. 3.4. Leadership style: Mr. Hung can use some leadership to improve his motivation: Affiliative Mr. Hung use this style because it reconcile the emotional connection leadership between employees and directors. Besides, it improve and connect (Goleman, 2000) people closer together to do the task better. This style enhance human feeling rather than trying to make them work like a machine. This style can be used in Change Progress (Lewis, 1951) This style can be really good for DZL company. Mr. Hung use this Coaching leadership(Goleman, style to set a long term object, he should spend more time to analysis this team‟s weakness in both Change and Refreeze Progress (Lewis, 2000) 1951) to develop people personality. Moreover his subordinates can be more flexible to do what they do best in job. Situational This leadership can be used in Change Process (Lewis, 1951), Mr. leadership (Hersey Hung need to analysis the situational to keep employee‟s at high and Blanchard, level. However, each of staffs, each of employees, Mr. Hung should 1969) have different motivation for reducing stress and resistance. Task4: Each of motivation theories, each of way to applying for DZL to increase or reduce performance.  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Manager of DZL can increase high lever in hierarchy of needs of employees. For example, the company can increase the wage for staffs, improve employee's life, bonus monetary, promote for someone who has many years in good performance. If a person does not need Group: TheAnonymous-12th 12
  13. 13. fulfil some components of the hierarchy, company should create a stability, comfortable environment for them. This motivation take more time to change, to analysis the cultural or staffs, but it not so expensive  McGregor’s theory:DZL‟s top manager can use this motivation theory Y to build the relationship and trust with employees. This theory is one of the modern theory that was applying in many organization. DZL‟s employees will feel self-motivated, self-control and self-responsibility what they do. This satisfaction from the staff will create motivation for themselves to reach the highest vision of DZL.  Herzberg's Two Factor Theory:can call this the most complete model for DZL, it has similarities with the two models above, but expand and provide stability. DZL can create motivation by filling employee‟s Hygiene factors, after that, DZL should open opportunity for promote, etc. Employees will feel sense of personal achievement, will have promotion to growth position in company and increase performance.  Vroom’s expectancy theory:evaluates the strength of motivation based on the individual's perception about probability of earning expected result though by expectancy, valence and instrumentality. If Mr. Hung want to max expectancy, he should make staff believe they can achieve the performance level, he must support work effort, training workers to use the best ability. To max instrumentality, he might make the employees feel confident in what they are following by have clear goal setting process (Hoang, 2013). To max valence, Mr. Hung can identify the staffs need and demonstrate value of various possible rewards.  Maccoby theory:is the theory mention the social character and personality (Maccoby, 1998) or the motivation come from the social relationship. Group: TheAnonymous-12th 13
  14. 14. Mr. Hung can apply this for designing the job through match other value. In various of situation, employees ’s value will be motivating because they know what people expert on them, help them and they will be create innovation for themselves and self-develop. Other theory about social character and personality is Costa & McCrae theory. It include five factor theory. This particular model was based on a circular rules, derived from “Openness to Experience” and finish in this point. In DZL, Mr. Hung should create a learning environment and encourages its employees to participateenable them to new experiences, new experiences to apply to the job. NPD team include people who has high skills and experience, if Mr. Hung want to increase performance, he need to make good use to of each member ability, and he should change. Perhaps, he may create bonus for staff of month or year plus monetary bonus. This make motivation for employees who want to increase their wage and have anindividual titles, more and more create ideas and do the job better. Task5: Motivation is an important element in a job, it boosts morale of staffs and increases their motivation. In DZL, Mr. Hung are using bonus money system, however it has not all positive impact on all employees. It only satisfies the needs of employee safety in hierarchy of needs (Maslow, 1954). Mr. Hung need to do more than it. Regarding candle experiment of Karl Duncker in 1945, his emphasis on the fixed function. If the job is easy, clear end point and Mr. Hung put the high lever for bonus, the final result will lower than expectation, negative impact. That why Mr. Hung monetary bonus has good impact for someone, not for all. The bonus money narrow vision, ideas, creativity restrictions, focusing the attention of the staff Group: TheAnonymous-12th 14
  15. 15. into a target too obvious end point. Every will be easy for dummies not for Mr. Hung‟s teams Who has high skills and experiences. They just focus only money include bonus and wage, not focus on increasing job performance, creating new ideas. In a job design, detail in NPD team, the final result based on monetary bonus make employees perform rather than pushing the high creative and innovation. The staffs just do the way that they can be achieve the monetary bonus. In other side, the final reward based on non-monetary (can be promise of an opportunity, work time off, etc.) are the employees work toward to reach, it is motivating employees behavior. However, in DZL, monetary bonus can be efficient than non-monetary because all of staffs always want to increase their total compensation. Now, Mr. Hung should use monetary bonus system plus a new system is ROWE(Results Only Work Environment) that was created by both Jody Thompson and Cali Ressler. This system give employees more opportunities for self-governance, freedom to work, freedom to choose form working. DZL‟s staffs can easy to do the job, they can be improve more and more about creating, satisfaction. Mr. Hung can increase commitment of staffs, reduce employee‟s pressure and intensify work‟s performance. Moreover, a very important thing that Mr. Hungary needs to do is putting inspired on the staffs. Because they will do the best job when they like it, want to do it and has motivation to do it. Group: TheAnonymous-12th 15
  16. 16. Reference: Fayol, H. (1967) General and Industrial Management. London: Pitman Goleman, D. (2000) Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, Mar-Apr Hersey and Blandchard Herzberg, F. (1968) Work and the Nature of Man. Cleverland: World Hoang, W. C. H. (2013) Change management. [PowerPoint slides]. Presented at 10th OB lecture at National Economics University. Hoang, W. C. H. (2013) Leadership theory. [PowerPoint slides]. Presented at 7th OB lecture at National Economics University. Hoang, W. C. H. (2013) Theories of motivation. [PowerPoint slides]. Presented at 11th OB lecture at National Economics University. Hyczynski, D. A. and Bunchanan, A. (2007) Organisational Behaviour. Pearson, pp.597-599 Group: TheAnonymous-12th 16
  17. 17. Kotter and Schlesinger Lewin, K. (1946) Field Theory in Social Science. London: Tavistock Maslow, A. (1954) Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row Mayo, E. (1975) Social Problems of an Industrial Civilisation. London: Routledge Taylor, F. (1911) The Principle of Scientific Management. Reprinted 1947. New York: Harper and Row Vroom, V. (1964) Some Personality Determinants of the Effects of Participation. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Walton, Sam and John Huey. (1996). Sam Walton: Made in America: My Story. Canada: Bantam Books. Jim, R 2012, Motivation Theory – Herzberg,tutor2u, viewed November 15, 2013 http://www.tutor2u.net/business/people/motivation_theory_herzberg.asp. Dana C. Ackley, 2012, Six Leadership Styles: Selecting the Right Leader, eqleader, viewed November 15, 2013, http://www.eqleader.net/six_leadership_styles.htm. „Space flight‟, 2012, Authoritarian Leadership: Use Sparingly!, educational-business-articles, viewed November 15, 2013, http://www.educational-business-articles.com/authoritarianleadership.html. Group: TheAnonymous-12th 17
  18. 18. Billie, N 2012, Authoritative Leadership Styles, yourbusiness.azcentral, viewed November 15, 2013,http://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/authoritative-leadership-styles-16647.html. Kendra, C 2012,What Is Transformational Leadership?, psychology.about, viewed November 15, 2013, http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/transformational.htm. Jared, L 2012, Differences Between Monetary and Non-Monetary Incentives?, smallbusiness.chron, viewed November 15, 2013, http://smallbusiness.chron.com/differencesbetween-monetary-nonmonetary-incentives-26139.html Group: TheAnonymous-12th 18

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