SCULPTURE
Three-Dimensional Artwork

Prepared by Roland Lorenzo M. Ruben
SCULPTURE
• Sculpture is a threedimensional form constructed
to represent a natural or

imaginary shape.
TYPES OF SCULPTURE
1. Full Round
2. Relief
3. Linear
1. FREE-STANDING
OR FULL-ROUND.
threedimensional space

• It inhibits

in the same way that living things do.
• Sculpture ...
Votive statue, Tell
Asmar
(Mesopotamia)
2750-2600 BCE
29.5cm
Roman bronze
copy, 2nd
century,
Discobolis

Kouros, marble, Archaic Greek, 600 BCE
2. RELIEF SCULPTURE
• A relief sculpture grows out of flat,

two-

dimensional background, and its

projection into three-...
RELIEF: ATTACHED TO A SURFACE
High Relief

Bas Relief
Akhenaten- New Kingdom
(1350 BCE)

Centaur & Laptih relief,
metopes, Parthenon
Alexander Calder: Untitled
Linear sculptures emphasizes construction with thin,
tubular items such as wire or neon tubing.
My sculpture "insect" got its name
because its wings reminded me of
an insect, while at the same time I
refer to secans.

...
METHODS OF EXECUTION
1. Subtraction / carving – cut away
unwanted raw material; carving away
2. Manipulation/ modeling – s...
METHODS 1:
SUBTRACTION/CARVING
• Carving is the process of creating a sculpture
by cutting or chipping a form from a solid...
Michelangelo's
David, perhaps the
most famous
sculpture in history,
was carved from a
block of solid
marble.
Granite sculpture by Verena Schwippert, 2007- By the
Hands of Humans #3
Queen & son Pepi II, 6th
dynasty Egyptian, alabaster
2. MANIPULATION/MODELING
• Modeling is a process in which the artist uses a soft,
pliable material such as wax, clay or pl...
2300BCE China, funerary storage jar
• Mimbres pottery, fish with
human headed animal
and net trying to catch
the fish, 1000 ce
Sung Dynasty celadon vase, 1000 CE
3. SUBSTUTION/CASTING
• In the casting process, an artist creates a sculpture from a
soft, malleable substance such as wax...
Sculpture by Kylo
Chua (2009)
http://www.verylgoodnight.com/casting3.html
CIRE-PERDUE
• Lost wax technique (cire-perdue)- cast sculpture
in which the basic mold uses a wax model which is then
melt...
Akan Brass Weights: based on Islamic
ounce. A wedding gift could be a set
of weights for a bridegroom.
Cycladic: 17th century BCE. Gold Ibex
statue. Lost wax
Africa: lost wax bronze, Benin kingdom, late 15th c.
4. FABRICATION
•

•

The most modern sculpting technique, also known as
construction.
The artist will take existing materi...
•Assemblage:
assembling found
objects in unique
ways.

Joseph Cornel
By Lirio Salvador
• Kinetic
Sculpture:
movable parts
(wind)

Alexander Calder: the mobile
SCULPTURAL ART
ELEMENTS
 Mass (literal)
 Line & Form: open & closed
 Space / Negative space
 Color
 Texture
NEGATIVE SPACE

Henry Moore: Reclining Figure, 1938. Elmwood
MASS (LITERAL)
• Venus of Willendorf,
24,000- 22,000 BCE, 4 ¾ “
tall
COLOR
• Alexander Calder,
The Four Elements,
1961
TEXTURE
• Capitoline wolf, bronze, 5th c
TEXTURE
• Kii-Hulu Manu 18th
c. Believed to
represent Ku Ka Ili
Moku
TEXTURE

Three Goddesses, pediment, Parthenon
DESIGN PRINCIPLES
 Proportion – relative relationship of shapes to
one another
 Repetition – rhythm, harmony, variation
...
PROPORTION
• proportion is the
relative relationship
of shapes to one
another within the
sculpture itself.

Olmec 400-800 ...
• whenever you have an
element that occurs
multiple times

REPETITION

Frank Gaylord, Korean Memorial, 19
Great Temple of Ramses II- 1290 BCE
ASYMMETRICAL
BALANCE

• Jacques Lipchitz: La
Joie de Vivre, 1927
ARTICULATION
• articulation is how the
different parts of the
sculpture seem to be
joined together

Marshland Two, 2013, s...
• Sculptors, like painters or
any other visual artists,
must concern themselves
with drawing our

eye to those areas of

t...
FOUND
• when a sculptor makes
their sculpture out of a
raw material but more
or less is just kind of
picked up either from...
• Bernard Pras
makes piles of
trash that
from most
angles look
like he’s just
another
litterbug, but
when you
look at them...
By Lirio Salvador

SANDATA NI BERNARDO CARPIO
Mixed Media
108×46×7 cm
2008

Drone Transit
Mixed Media
85×221× 24 cm
2009
Lirio says "It's all about
the merging of my native
oriental culture and the
present industrial
environment that is
slowly...
EPHEMERAL
• is one that is

transitory that
means it's meant
only to last for a
short amount of
time…

• conceptual,
trans...
INTERACTIVITY
• the viewer
somehow
changes the
sculpture and
that's an
intention…
• you can make
sculptures that
somehow
p...
Titled “Cloud”, the installation was created by
Canadian artist Caitlind Brown for a late night art
festival, Nuit Blanche...
COLOR AND AGE

Bird in Space, Bancusi, 1923

The Kiss, Rodin, 1889
there's not a high level of dynamics
great sense of dynamics

Bernini, David, 1623–1624

Michelangelo, David, 1501–1504
SCALE
The Little Fourteen-YearOld Dancer; cast in
1922 from a mixedmedia sculpture
modeled ca. 1879–80
Edgar Degas (French,
1834...
New Jersey-based artist Sue Beatrice, aka All Natural Arts, creates spectacular steampunk
sculptures made out of old watch...
ARTIST DISGUISING THE
MATERIAL

La Danaïde (1885) by Auguste Rodin
- to highlight the material and
make the material look exactly like
what it is

GLYPTIC
SCULPTURE

It highlights exactly w...
LIGHTING AND
ENVIRONMENT
Wax sculpture of
Tupac Shakur

Easter Island
carvings outside
“

IDENTIFY THE
SCULPTURAL
ELEMENTS

”
Part 3
Surrounded Islands, Biscayne Bay, 2 weeks 1983, 6.5 million
sq. feet of fabric- underlined various elements and ways
the p...
Sculpture(2)
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  • Manny Pacquaio statue at MOA by Fred Baldemor, bronzeStation of the Cross by Napoleon AbuevaLinear sculpture by Lucien den Arend
  • Found Objects: changes the context of objects, combines objects in a different way, or decides an object has an aesthetic reference and presents it that way
  • In 1926-27, Bird in Space was the subject of a court battle over its taxation by U.S. Customs. In October 1926, Bird in Space, along with 19 other Brâncuși sculptures, arrived in New York harbor aboard the steamship Paris.[5] While works of art are not subject to custom duties, the customs officials refused to believe that the tall, thin piece of polished bronze was art and so imposed the tariff for manufactured metal objects, 40% of the sale price or about $230[6] (over $2800 in 2010 U.S. dollars). Marcel Duchamp (who accompanied the sculptures from Europe), American photographer Edward Steichen (who was to take possession of Bird in Space after exhibition), and Brâncuși himself were indignant; the sculptures were set to appear at the Brummer Gallery in New York City and then the Arts Club in Chicago. Under pressure from the press and artists, U.S. customs agreed to rethink their classification of the items, releasing the sculptures on bond (under "Kitchen Utensils and Hospital Supplies") until a decision could be reached. However, customs appraiser F. J. H. Kracke eventually confirmed the initial classification of items and said that they were subject to duty. Kracke told the New York Evening Post that "several men, high in the art world were asked to express their opinions for the Government.... One of them told us, 'If that's art, hereafter I'm a bricklayer.' Another said, 'Dots and dashes are as artistic as Brâncuși's work.' In general, it was their opinion that Brâncuși left too much to the imagination."[5] The next month, Steichen filed an appeal to the U.S. Customs' decision.Under the 1922 Tariff Act, for a sculpture to count as duty-free it must be an original work of art, with no practical purpose, made by a professional sculptor.[5] No one argued that the piece had a practical purpose, but whether or not the sculpture was art was hotly contested. The 1916 case United States v. Olivotti has established that sculptures were art only if they were carved or chiseled representations of natural objects "in their true proportions." A series of artists and art experts testified for both the defense and the prosecution about the definition of art and who decides exactly what art is.[5]Brâncuși's sworn affidavit to the American Consulate explained process of creating the piece, establishing its originality:[5]I conceived it to be created in bronze and I made a plaster model of it. This I gave to the founder, together with the formula for the bronze alloy and other necessary indications. When the roughcast was delivered to me, I had to stop up the air holes and the core hole, to correct the various defects, and to polish the bronze with files and very fine emery. All this I did myself, by hand; this artistic finishing takes a very long time and is equivalent to beginning the whole work over again. I did not allow anybody else to do any of this finishing work, as the subject of the bronze was my own special creation and nobody but myself could have carried it out to my satisfaction. Despite the varied opinions on what qualifies as art presented to the court, in November 1928 Judges Young and Waite found in favor of the artist. The decision drafted by Waite concluded:[5]The object now under consideration . . . is beautiful and symmetrical in outline, and while some difficulty might be encountered in associating it with a bird, it is nevertheless pleasing to look at and highly ornamental, and as we hold under the evidence that it is the original production of a professional sculptor and is in fact a piece of sculpture and a work of art according to the authorities above referred to, we sustain the protest and find that it is entitled to free entry. This was the first court decision that accepted that non-representational sculpture could be considered art.[7]
  • Ephemeral = Surrounded Islands, Biscayne Bay, 2 weeks 1983, 6.5 million sq. feet of fabric- underlined various elements and ways the people of Miami live between land and water
  • Sculpture(2)

    1. 1. SCULPTURE Three-Dimensional Artwork Prepared by Roland Lorenzo M. Ruben
    2. 2. SCULPTURE • Sculpture is a threedimensional form constructed to represent a natural or imaginary shape.
    3. 3. TYPES OF SCULPTURE 1. Full Round 2. Relief 3. Linear
    4. 4. 1. FREE-STANDING OR FULL-ROUND. threedimensional space • It inhibits in the same way that living things do. • Sculpture in the round cannot be appreciated from only a single viewpoint but must be circled and explored.
    5. 5. Votive statue, Tell Asmar (Mesopotamia) 2750-2600 BCE 29.5cm
    6. 6. Roman bronze copy, 2nd century, Discobolis Kouros, marble, Archaic Greek, 600 BCE
    7. 7. 2. RELIEF SCULPTURE • A relief sculpture grows out of flat, two- dimensional background, and its projection into three-dimensional space is relatively shallow. • The back of the relief sculpture is not meant to be seen, the entire design can be understood from a frontal view. • Relief sculptures are usually used in combinations with architecture as wall decorations.
    8. 8. RELIEF: ATTACHED TO A SURFACE High Relief Bas Relief
    9. 9. Akhenaten- New Kingdom (1350 BCE) Centaur & Laptih relief, metopes, Parthenon
    10. 10. Alexander Calder: Untitled Linear sculptures emphasizes construction with thin, tubular items such as wire or neon tubing.
    11. 11. My sculpture "insect" got its name because its wings reminded me of an insect, while at the same time I refer to secans. Lucien den Arend This is a very elementary sculpture. The two curved lines meet at a ninety degree angle, the point where they meet being mittered. If the mitered surface would have been a moveable joint, the two half circled could be turned until the circle closed. - See more at: http://www.denarend.com/linear-sculpture/index.htm#sthash.xhDDMKZs.dpuf
    12. 12. METHODS OF EXECUTION 1. Subtraction / carving – cut away unwanted raw material; carving away 2. Manipulation/ modeling – shape material with the use of hands 3. Substitution/ casting – material that is cast from one state to another 4. Construction/ fabrication – add element to element
    13. 13. METHODS 1: SUBTRACTION/CARVING • Carving is the process of creating a sculpture by cutting or chipping a form from a solid mass of material using some sort of chisel or carving tool. • Because material is taken away from the mass, carving is known as a subtractive method of sculpture. The most common materials used in carving sculptures are stone and wood. In fact, most sculptures throughout history were made using this method.
    14. 14. Michelangelo's David, perhaps the most famous sculpture in history, was carved from a block of solid marble.
    15. 15. Granite sculpture by Verena Schwippert, 2007- By the Hands of Humans #3
    16. 16. Queen & son Pepi II, 6th dynasty Egyptian, alabaster
    17. 17. 2. MANIPULATION/MODELING • Modeling is a process in which the artist uses a soft, pliable material such as wax, clay or plaster that is gradually built up and shaped until the desired form is attained. Unlike carving, modeling is an additive method, as the sculptor is continually adding material to the form. • The material will typically be constructed atop some sort of metal frame or skeleton to lend support to the soft material, so it will be able to maintain its shape.
    18. 18. 2300BCE China, funerary storage jar
    19. 19. • Mimbres pottery, fish with human headed animal and net trying to catch the fish, 1000 ce
    20. 20. Sung Dynasty celadon vase, 1000 CE
    21. 21. 3. SUBSTUTION/CASTING • In the casting process, an artist creates a sculpture from a soft, malleable substance such as wax, plaster or clay. This sculpture will serve as the model that will be encased in plaster, silica or some other substance to make a cast. • Eventually, a fireproof cast is produced that can be filled with molten metal such as bronze. When the metal cools, the result is a metal version of the original sculpture. • The major benefit of casting is that the artist may be able to produce multiple copies of the sculpture using the same cast.
    22. 22. Sculpture by Kylo Chua (2009) http://www.verylgoodnight.com/casting3.html
    23. 23. CIRE-PERDUE • Lost wax technique (cire-perdue)- cast sculpture in which the basic mold uses a wax model which is then melted to leave desired spaces in the mold • often used for jewelry or small sculptures http://library.thinkquest.org/23492/data/bronze.htm?tqskip1=1&tqtime=0318
    24. 24. Akan Brass Weights: based on Islamic ounce. A wedding gift could be a set of weights for a bridegroom.
    25. 25. Cycladic: 17th century BCE. Gold Ibex statue. Lost wax
    26. 26. Africa: lost wax bronze, Benin kingdom, late 15th c.
    27. 27. 4. FABRICATION • • The most modern sculpting technique, also known as construction. The artist will take existing materials and attach them together in some fashion, with the resulting combination of materials • forming the sculpture. Sculptures created through this process typically use found objects, such as scrap metal pieces that are welded together. A creation of art is done through joining or fastening. It also includes welding, gluing, stapling, soldering, nailing materials together.
    28. 28. •Assemblage: assembling found objects in unique ways. Joseph Cornel
    29. 29. By Lirio Salvador
    30. 30. • Kinetic Sculpture: movable parts (wind) Alexander Calder: the mobile
    31. 31. SCULPTURAL ART ELEMENTS  Mass (literal)  Line & Form: open & closed  Space / Negative space  Color  Texture
    32. 32. NEGATIVE SPACE Henry Moore: Reclining Figure, 1938. Elmwood
    33. 33. MASS (LITERAL) • Venus of Willendorf, 24,000- 22,000 BCE, 4 ¾ “ tall
    34. 34. COLOR • Alexander Calder, The Four Elements, 1961
    35. 35. TEXTURE • Capitoline wolf, bronze, 5th c
    36. 36. TEXTURE • Kii-Hulu Manu 18th c. Believed to represent Ku Ka Ili Moku
    37. 37. TEXTURE Three Goddesses, pediment, Parthenon
    38. 38. DESIGN PRINCIPLES  Proportion – relative relationship of shapes to one another  Repetition – rhythm, harmony, variation  Articulation – manner by which we move from one element to the next (how the artist has repeated, varied, harmonized, & related its parts and the movement from one part to another)  Focal area – emphasis  Scale – size in relation to standard  Balance – Biomorphic / geometric forms
    39. 39. PROPORTION • proportion is the relative relationship of shapes to one another within the sculpture itself. Olmec 400-800 BCE
    40. 40. • whenever you have an element that occurs multiple times REPETITION Frank Gaylord, Korean Memorial, 19
    41. 41. Great Temple of Ramses II- 1290 BCE
    42. 42. ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE • Jacques Lipchitz: La Joie de Vivre, 1927
    43. 43. ARTICULATION • articulation is how the different parts of the sculpture seem to be joined together Marshland Two, 2013, steel, H 187cm Anthony Smart
    44. 44. • Sculptors, like painters or any other visual artists, must concern themselves with drawing our eye to those areas of their work that are central to what they wish to communicate. FOCAL AREA Bernini, The ecstasy of St. Teresa, 1647–1652
    45. 45. FOUND • when a sculptor makes their sculpture out of a raw material but more or less is just kind of picked up either from the natural world toward using other people’s discarded items sometimes just finding things on the street or on the sidewalk and sort of using that as raw material… Kitchen Utensil Skull Subodh Gupta cooked up this giant skull sculpture out of dinner plates, pots, whisks, and other kitchen utensils.
    46. 46. • Bernard Pras makes piles of trash that from most angles look like he’s just another litterbug, but when you look at them just right you see masterpieces.
    47. 47. By Lirio Salvador SANDATA NI BERNARDO CARPIO Mixed Media 108×46×7 cm 2008 Drone Transit Mixed Media 85×221× 24 cm 2009
    48. 48. Lirio says "It's all about the merging of my native oriental culture and the present industrial environment that is slowly corrupting my native land". He creates his assemblage of musical instruments using day to day materials that are found in his present environment, including bicycle gears, drain cleaning springs and stainless steel tubes. Elemento in action
    49. 49. EPHEMERAL • is one that is transitory that means it's meant only to last for a short amount of time… • conceptual, transitory, and makes statement then ceases to exist
    50. 50. INTERACTIVITY • the viewer somehow changes the sculpture and that's an intention… • you can make sculptures that somehow people can interact with Flow 5.0 is an interactive landscape made out of hundreds of fans which reacts to your sound and motion. By walking and interacting the visitor creates an illusive landscape of transparencies and artificial wind.
    51. 51. Titled “Cloud”, the installation was created by Canadian artist Caitlind Brown for a late night art festival, Nuit Blanche in Calgary. The viewers were able to turn on the 1,000 functioning bulbs (the other 5,000 were burnt-out bulbs donated by the public) by pulling on metal chains that were attached to them, causing a giant sparking and flickering effect.
    52. 52. COLOR AND AGE Bird in Space, Bancusi, 1923 The Kiss, Rodin, 1889
    53. 53. there's not a high level of dynamics great sense of dynamics Bernini, David, 1623–1624 Michelangelo, David, 1501–1504
    54. 54. SCALE
    55. 55. The Little Fourteen-YearOld Dancer; cast in 1922 from a mixedmedia sculpture modeled ca. 1879–80 Edgar Degas (French, 1834–1917) Venus of Willendorf, 24,000 B.C.E – 22,000 B.C.E. man cutting his toenails, 18-19thc.
    56. 56. New Jersey-based artist Sue Beatrice, aka All Natural Arts, creates spectacular steampunk sculptures made out of old watch parts. With the environment in mind, her clever little creations are made entirely out of recycled materials that offer a bit of whimsy. The discarded and found objects (gears, sprockets, vintage pocket watches, etc.) are upcycled and repurposed into unique items that boast themes of nature.
    57. 57. ARTIST DISGUISING THE MATERIAL La Danaïde (1885) by Auguste Rodin
    58. 58. - to highlight the material and make the material look exactly like what it is GLYPTIC SCULPTURE It highlights exactly what wood looks like it's the color of wood, the shape of wood. The roughness of the rock actually becomes but one of the important things that we're really seeing in the sculpture.
    59. 59. LIGHTING AND ENVIRONMENT Wax sculpture of Tupac Shakur Easter Island carvings outside
    60. 60. “ IDENTIFY THE SCULPTURAL ELEMENTS ”
    61. 61. Part 3
    62. 62. Surrounded Islands, Biscayne Bay, 2 weeks 1983, 6.5 million sq. feet of fabric- underlined various elements and ways the people of Miami live between land and water
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