A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

“A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT”
WITH REFERENCE TO NEW MANGALORE PORT TRUST, MAN...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Mangalore – 575 001
2010-2011
“A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT”
WITH REFERENCE TO...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES
MANGALORE – 575 001
2010-2011

DECLARATION
I...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

DEDICATED TO
My beloved Parents Gangyanaik, Pujar & Gouribai
My Well Wishers
And
All ...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Acknowledgement
‘The value of special people cannot be measured but only treasured’
A...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Department of Social Work, Srinivas Institute of Management Studies, for input
guidan...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER
1.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

A. INTRODUCTION

01-19

B. COMPANY PROFILE

20-26

2.

R...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
3...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

Employees are motivated to attend the training
prog...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION
Training and Development is the framework for helping employees to devel...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

training and development. Hence employees have a chance to negotiate as well as
emplo...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Every organization needs to have well – trained and experienced people to perform
the...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Training is different form education; particularly formal education. The education
is...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

of this is, sending a little group or an individual for a training programme under a
...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Raw human resources can make only limited contribution to the organization to
achieve...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

training that provides employees with competencies for anticipated future jobs and
ro...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

• An ongoing process of performance improvement that is directly measurable
rather th...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

“Michael Armstrong” “Training is the systematic modification of behavior
through lear...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

 Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher level
jobs (promotio...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

management. It is the result of some outside motivation. Training seeks to meet the
c...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Technical skills:
The employee is taught a specific skill (e.g. operating a machine, ...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

and ready to take on emerging challenges. It is conducted at regular intervals by
tak...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

abilities at the actual workplace. Off-the-job training on the other hand, requires
t...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

with trainees; procedure are agreed upon and the trainees is given enough
authority t...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

departments. The cross-trained personnel offer a great amount of flexibility for
orga...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

training range from a few days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to
practice in t...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

ups and slides; in some cases the lecture are videotapes or audio taped. Even
the tra...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

IMPARTANCE OF TRAINING:
The importance of training can best be appreciated with the h...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

A well planned and systematically organized training programmes reduces the
time and ...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

2. Setting training objectives
3. Designing training methods
4. Administration of tra...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

B.COMPANY PROFILE

SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE

Page 31
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE

Page 32
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Port is a junction of land and ocean transports and provides a connecting link
betwee...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

New Mangalore Port Trust

Mission: To become a leading liquid and multi-cargo port by...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

New Mangalore Port is well connected by Rail, Road and Air and is
strategically place...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

 To create modern/latest infrastructure facilities to handle projected traffic
more ...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

on these boards by the central government, representatives, interests and
workers emp...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

and shippers. Besides, this division prepares review reports on various operational
p...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

The maintenance and operation of all mechanical equipments, installation of
cargo han...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

OF
LITERATURE

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A review of literature on evaluation of training ...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Kirkpatrick (1971)
Kirkpatrick’s first level of measurement, reaction, is defined as ...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

British Airways assessed the effectiveness of the Managing People First (MPF)
trainin...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

components. Four scoring methods were evaluated including one that used a
unique meas...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Lookatch (1991) and ASTD (2002) reported that only one in ten organizations
attempted...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

to explore the impact of importing behavioral skill through training programme
result...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Jan (1999) in his study “Training and Development” reveals that a majority of
trainin...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

programs. Many training and development professionals believed that ROI was
too diffi...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

with an on- line pretest and an on- line LSI. The pretest included seven
demographic ...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Fancsali (2002) Recommends that staff development occur on an ongoing basis.
More spe...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

feedback from many youth-serving organizations 8 and their staff, and ultimately
deci...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

employees. Training function, in fact, has become the corner stone of sound
managemen...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

not respond to this pressure it man find itself rapidly losing whatever share of the
...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Scott (1970) He told about “Instruction can help employees increase their level of
pe...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

METHODOLOGY

METHODOLOGY

SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE

Page 54
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

The research methods refer to the different methods which are used in research
studie...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Training is act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a
par...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

HYPOTHESIS:
 “Training is necessary for the overall development of any organization”...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

 Executive Employers and Employees are excluded from the study.
 Dock workers are e...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

The information collected from the respondents through above mentioned method
has bee...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER - 4
 ANALYSIS
 AND

INTERPRETATION

SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIE...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Analysis and interpretation are central steps in the rese...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Sl.
Sex of the
No Respondents
01 Male

No of
Respondents
30

Per
cent
60.00

02 Femal...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

From the above Table out of total 50 respondents more than half 30 respondents
(60.00...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

From the above Table out of total 50 respondents, less than quarter 33 respondents
(6...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

From the above table show that among 50 respondents, more than half i.e. 29
responden...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Above table shows that out of 50 respondents, just above the quarter i.e. 26(52.00
pe...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

From above table out of total 50 respondents just more than half 35 respondents
(70.0...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

From the above table out of 50 respondents, more than half i.e. 34 respondents
(68.00...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

From the above table out of total 50 respondents, just below half 23 (46.00 per
cent)...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

From the above table we can see that 28 (56.00 per cent) of the respondents say
that ...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

From above table out of 50 respondents, more than half 37 (74.00 per cent) of the
res...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

05 Any other
Total

00
50

00.00
100.00

From above table out of 50 respondents 34 (6...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

From above table out of 50 respondents 25 (50.00 per cent) respondents opinioned
that...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Total

50

100.00

From above table out of 50 respondents 26 (52.00 per cent) respond...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

02 Agree to some
extent
03 Agree

28
11

22.00

50

Total

56.00

100.00

From above ...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

04 Not well
05 Very poor

06
00

12.00
00.00

Total

50

100.00

From the above table...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

02 No

11
50

Total

22.00
100.00

From above table out of 50 respondents, more than ...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

01 Yes

40

80.00

02 No

10

20.00

50

100.00

Total

From above table out of 50 re...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

01
02
03
04
05
06

Random
Need based
Seniority
Appraisal
Departments
Any other
Total
...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

From above table out of 50 respondents, more than half 43 (86.00 per cent) of the
res...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Total

50

100.00

From above table out of 50 respondents, more than half 31 (62.00 p...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

02 Employer
03 Both
Total

11
24
50

22.00
48.00
100.00

From above table out of 50 r...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

02 No

06
50

Total

12.00
100.00

From the above table shows out of 50 respondents m...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Sl.
Response of the
No
respondents
01 Yes

No of the
Respondents
14

Per
cent
28.00

...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

01
02
03
04

Skills development
Aptitude development
Updating the existing knowledge
...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

01

Yes

42

84.00

02

No

08
50

16.00
100.00

Total

From the above table shows ou...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

01

Yes

31

62.00

02

No

19

38.00

50

100.00

Total

From above table out of 50 ...
A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Sl.
No
01
02
03
04

Response of the
respondents
Strongly agree
Agree
Somewhat agree
D...
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  1. 1. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT “A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT” WITH REFERENCE TO NEW MANGALORE PORT TRUST, MANGALORE. DHANARAJ NAIK. P.G (Reg No: 092130508) UNDER OF THE GUIDE Mr.PRADEEP.M.D DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 1
  2. 2. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Mangalore – 575 001 2010-2011 “A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT” WITH REFERENCE TO NEW MANGALORE PORT TRUST, MANGALORE. DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO MANGALORE UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQIUREMENTS FOR MASTERS DEGREE IN SOCIAL WORK (M.S.W) SUBMITTED BY DHANARAJ NAIK P.G. (Reg.092130508) DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 2
  3. 3. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE – 575 001 2010-2011 DECLARATION I hereby declare that the study was carried out by me in the year 20102011 as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Masters’ degree in Social Work (M.S.W) in Mangalore University, under the guidance of Mr.Pradeep.M.D B.A.(Law), LL.B., M.S.W., (LL.M) Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Srinivas Institute of Management Studies, Pandeshwar, Mangalore. The research work, either fully or partially, has not previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma or other similar title in any organization/institution/universities. Place: Mangalore Date: /04/2011 DHANARAJ NAIK.P.G. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 3
  4. 4. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT DEDICATED TO My beloved Parents Gangyanaik, Pujar & Gouribai My Well Wishers And All My Sweet Friends and College Staff SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 4
  5. 5. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Acknowledgement ‘The value of special people cannot be measured but only treasured’ At the outset I would like to express my sincere appreciation thanks and gratitude to my guide, Mr.Pradeep.M.D B.A. (Law), LL.B., M.S.W., (LL.M) Lecturer, SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 5
  6. 6. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Department of Social Work, Srinivas Institute of Management Studies, for input guidance, valuable suggestions, content, encouragement and appreciation throughout the period of study. I express my sincere gratitude to Mr. P. Tamilvanan, Chairman, New Mangalore Port Trust and Mr. C. Harichandran, Secretary, New Mangalore Port Trust, for giving me an opportunity to carry out the research project in their esteemed organization. I also extend my thanks to Mr. T. Khalid, Statistical and Research Officer, Management Services Division, New Mangalore Port Trust, Mr. Osmond Fernandez, Senior Research Assistant, Mr. Sadashiva B. R., Deputy Traffic Manager, HRD cell of NMPT and employees and staff of New Mangalore Port trust. My heartfelt thanks to all my friends, field mates and class mates for helping and sharing materials in success of my study. Last but not the least, I would say that it is the love and prayer of my parents, my sister, my friend and my family and also their moral support and a lot more than words can express to complete this dissertation work. Place: Mangalore Date: /04/2011 DHANARAJ NAIK P.G. CONTENTS SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 6
  7. 7. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1. TITLE PAGE NO. A. INTRODUCTION 01-19 B. COMPANY PROFILE 20-26 2. REVIEW OF LITREATURE 27-39 3. METHODOLOGY 40-45 4. ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 46-87 5. MAJOR FINDINGS, SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION 88-92 ANNEXURE – 1 B IBLIOGRAPHY 93-94 ANNEXURE - 2 95-101 QUESTIONNAIRE LIST OF TABLES SI. NO 01 02 Title Sex of the Respondents. Age of the Respondents. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page. No 46-87 46 47 Page 7
  8. 8. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Marital status of the Respondents. Educational Qualification. Work experience Training programmes are conducted. Necessary for the Training Programme Opinion regarding duration of Training programme. Opinion to get trained in the areas of their preference. Kind of Training getting from the organization. Adequate importance is given for the training Senior line managers are eager in helping juniors to develop them through training. Adequate free time is given to the employees to reflect and plan for improvement after the training. Training programmes are organized well. Evident change in the performance after getting training. Training programmes will provide an opportunity to bring out the hidden skills. Aware of the selection procedure for training. Development of the personality after attending the training. Procedure of training need to be changed. Interest that will be considered while setting the objectives of the training programme. Training will improve confidence in work. Trained on safety measures. Developments after getting the training. Training centre is well equipped to organize the training programmes. Resource person of the training progrmme are efficient. The organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy. Number of training programmes attended in a year. Trainings are more for. Important barriers to training and development progarammes. Mode of training method used. Enough practicals are conducted during the training sessions. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 Page 8
  9. 9. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Employees are motivated to attend the training programmes. Duration needed for the implementation of the training programmes. The kind of training imparted for the newly recruited employees. Training and development programmes needed to make their carrier aspirations to come true. The conditions that have to be improved during the training session. Skills that should be possessed by the trainer to make it effective. Reason for the shortage of skilled man power at workplace. Training needed to perform other jobs. General complaints about the training sessions. Degree to which the training objective is met. Come across with any problems during the training sessions. 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 CHAPTER -1 A. INTRODUCTION SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 9
  10. 10. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION Training and Development is the framework for helping employees to develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers. All employees want to be valuable and remain competitive in the labour market at all times, because they make some demand for employees in the labour market. This can only be achieved through employee SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 10
  11. 11. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT training and development. Hence employees have a chance to negotiate as well as employer has a good opportunity to select most suitable person for his vacancy. Employees will always want to develop career-enhancing skills, which will always lead to employee motivation. There is no doubt that a well trained and developed staff will be a valuable asset to the company and thereby increasing the chances of his efficiency in discharging his or her duties. Trainings in an organization can be mainly of two types; Internal and External training sessions. Internal training involves when training is organized in-house by the human resources department or training department using either a senior staff or any talented staff in the particular department as a resource person. The game of economic confutation as rules. This requires responding to customers’ needs for quality, variety, customization convince timeliness. Meeting these new standards requires a workforce that is technically trained in all respects. It requires people who are capable analyzing solving job related problem working comparatively in teams and ‘changing hats’ and shifting from job as well. Training has in increased in importance in today’s environment where jobs are complex and change rapidly. Companies that pay lip-service to the need for training, by lazily setting aside a few hours a year, will soon find themselves at the receiving end when talented employees leave in frustration and other employees find it difficult to beat rivals with new products, sophisticated designs and improving ways of selling .to survive and flourish in the present day corporate jungle companies should invest time and money in upgrading the knowledge and skills of their employees constantly. For any company that stops injecting itself with intelligence is going to die. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 11
  12. 12. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Every organization needs to have well – trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. The effective functioning of any organization requires that employees learn to perform their jobs at satisfactory level of proficiency. An effective organization wishes to have amongst its ranks individuals that are qualified to accept increasing responsibilities. So that organization needs in their present jobs, but also to develop their capabilities of other jobs, for which they might later be considered. Training enables the employee to get acquainted with jobs and also increase their aptitude, skills and knowledge. It makes newly recruited employees fully productive in the minimum of time. Even for the old workers, it is necessary to refresh them and to enable them to keep up with new methods and techniques as well as new machine and equipments for doing the work. Thus, training is not a ‘One step process’ but it is a ‘continuous or never ending process’ because it increase the knowledge and skills of new employees in performing their jobs and serves as a refresher course for the old employees training job will never be finished as long as organization remains operation. Training can be introduced simply as a process of assisting a person for enhancing his efficiency and effectiveness to a particular work area by getting more knowledge and practices. Also training is important to establish specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. For an organization, training and development are important as well as organizational growth, because the organizational growth and profit are also dependent on the training. But the training is not a core of organizational development. It is a function of the organizational development. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 12
  13. 13. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training is different form education; particularly formal education. The education is concerned mainly with enhancement of knowledge, but the aims of training are increasing knowledge while changing attitudes and Competences in good manner. Basically the education is formulated with in the framework and to syllabus, but the training is not formed in to the frame and as well as syllabus. It may differ from one employee to another, one group to another, even the group in the same class. The reason for that can be mentioned as difference of attitudes and skills from one person to another. Even the situation is that, after good training programme, all different type skilled one group of employees can get in to similar capacity, similar skilled group. That is an advantage of the trainings .In the field of Human Resources Management, Training and Development is the field concern with organizational activities which are aimed to bettering individual and group performances in organizational settings. It has been known by many names in the field HRM, such as employee development, human resources development, learning and development etc. Training is really developing employees’ capacities through learning and practicing. On the other hand external training is normally arranged outside the firm and is mostly organized by training institutes or consultants. Whichever training, it is very important for all staff and helps in building career positioning and preparing staff for greater challenges in developing world. However the training is costly. Because of that, people who work at firms do not receive external trainings most of times. The cost is a major issue for the lack of training programmes in Sri Lanka. But nowadays, a new concept has come with these trainings which is “Trainers through trainees”. While training their employees in large quantities, many countries use that method in present days to reduce their training costs. The theory SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 13
  14. 14. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT of this is, sending a little group or an individual for a training programme under a bonding agreement or without a bond. When they come back to work, the externally trained employees train the employees who have not participated for above training programme by internal training programmes. Employers of labour should enable employees to pursue training and development in a direction that they choose and are interested in, not just in company-assigned directions. Companies should support learning, in general, and not just in support of knowledge needed for the employee's current or next anticipated job. It should be noted that the key factor is keeping the employee interested, attending, engaged, motivated and retained. For every employee to perform well, especially Supervisors and Managers, there is a need for constant training and development. The right employee training, development and education provides big payoffs for the employer in increased productivity, knowledge, loyalty, and contribution to general growth of the firm. In most cases external trainings for instance provide participants with the avenue to meet new set of people in the same field and network. The meeting will give them the chance to compare issues and find out what is obtainable in each others environment. This for sure will introduce positive changes where necessary. It is not mentioned in any where that the employers, managers and supervisors are not suitable for training programmes. They also must be highly trained if they are expected to do their best for the organization. Through that they will have best abilities and competencies to manage the organization. Training employees not only creates a more positive corporate culture, but also add a value to its key resources. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 14
  15. 15. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Raw human resources can make only limited contribution to the organization to achieve its goals and objectives. Hence the demands for the developed employees are continuously increasing. Thus the training is a kind of investment. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Training often has been referred to as teaching specific skills and behavior. It is usually reserved for people who have to be brought up to performing level in some specific skills. The skills are almost always behavioral as distinct from conceptual or intelligence. Development, in contrast is considered to be more general than training and more oriented to individual needs in addition to organizational needs and it is most often aimed towards management people. There is more theory involved with such education and hence less concern with specific behavior than is the case with training. Usually the intent of development is to provide knowledge and understanding will enable people to carry out non technical organizational functions more effectively such as problem solving, decision making and relating to people. Meaning The term ‘Training’ is concerned with impacting specific skills for a particular purpose. Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies. These competencies include knowledge, skills, or behaviours that are critical for successful job performance in the immediate term or near future. This is in contrast with development, which is SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 15
  16. 16. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT training that provides employees with competencies for anticipated future jobs and roles. The goal of training is for employees to master the knowledge, skill, and behaviours emphasized in training programs and to apply them to their day-to-day activities. High-leverage training is linked to strategic business goals and objectives, uses an instructional design process to ensure that training is effective, and compares or benchmarks the company’s training programs against training programs in other companies. High-leverage training practices also help to create working conditions that encourage continuous learning. Continuous learning requires employees to understand the entire work system, including the relationships among their jobs, their work units, and the company. Employees are expected to acquire new skills and knowledge, apply them on the job, and share this information with other employees. Managers take an active role in identifying training needs and help to ensure that employees use training in their work. To facilitate the sharing of knowledge, managers may use informational maps that show where knowledge lies within the company (for example, directories and/or skills inventories that list what individuals do as well as the specialized knowledge they possess) and use technology such as groupware or the internet that allows employees in various business units to work simultaneously on problems and share Information. Training is used to improve employee performance, which leads to improved business results. Training is seen as one of several possible solutions to improve performance. Other solutions can include such actions as changing the job or increasing employee motivation through pay and incentives. Today there is a greater emphasis on: • Providing educational opportunities for all employees. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 16
  17. 17. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT • An ongoing process of performance improvement that is directly measurable rather than organizing one-time training events. • The need to demonstrate to executives, managers, and trainees the benefits of training. • Learning as a lifelong event in which senior management, trainer managers, and employees have ownership. • Training being used to help attain strategic business objectives, which help companies, gains a competitive advantage. Measuring the return on investment in research and development, marketing, sales, and human resources is key for demonstrating the value to the business. Each of Medtronic’s businesses uses a scorecard to measure success and return on investment. Medtronic is currently developing metrics to measure how training contributes to the company’s success. Definitions: “Edwin. B.Ellppo” has defined “Training as the cut of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job”. “Michael Armstrong” defines “Training as the systematic development of the knowledge skills and attitudes acquired by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job”. “Michael J.Jucious” “Training is any process by which the attitude, skills and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are improved”. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 17
  18. 18. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT “Michael Armstrong” “Training is the systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development. The above definition suggests that training enhance the skill and capabilities of the individuals in an organization. For training to be successful, the employees have to be convinced of its utility and effectiveness. A successful training program, which in turn enhance organizational performance. THEORETICAL FRAME WORK The Efficiency of an organization depends on the capacity and talents of its personnel and how motivated they are capability of the depends on his ability to work and type of training he receives. After the employees have been selected for various positions in an organization, training them for the specific tasks to which they been assigned assumes great importance. It is true in many originations that before employees are fitted into a harmonious working relationship with the other employees, he is given adequate training. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for performing a particular job. The major outcome of training is learning. Trainees learn new habits, refined skills and useful knowledge during the training that helps him improve performance. Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job. Training is needed to serve the following purposes.  Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively. Instruction, guidance, coaching help them to handle jobs competently without any wastage. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 18
  19. 19. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT  Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher level jobs (promotion).  Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest development operation. In face of rapid technological changes, this is an absolute necessity.  Training is necessary when a person moves from one job to another (transfer). After training the employee can change jobs quickly, improve his performance levels and achieve career goals comfortable.  Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organizational needs.  Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employees has and what the job demands. Training is needed to make employees more productive and useful in the long run.  Training is needed for employees to again acceptance from peers (learning a job quickly and being able to pull their own weight is one of the best ways for them to gain acceptance. Thus, training is meant for operatives and development is meant for managers. Training tries to improve a specific skill relating to a job whereas development aims at improving the total personality of an individual. Training is one-shot deal; whereas development is an ongoing continuous process. The scope of training is on individual employee, whereas eth scope of development is on the entire work group or the organization. Training is mostly the result of initiatives taken by SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 19
  20. 20. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT management. It is the result of some outside motivation. Training seeks to meet the current recruitment of the jobs and the individual; whereas development aims at meeting the future needs of the job and the individual. In other words, training is a reactive process whereas development is a proactive process. Development is future oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employee. Learning Training Development Dimension  Meant for Operatives Executives  Focus Current job Current and future jobs  Scope Individual employee Work group or organization Fix current skill deficit Prepare for future work demands Management The individual  Goal  Initiated by  Content  Time – Frame Specific job related General knowledge information Immediate Long term AREAS OF TRAINING: The areas of training in which training is offered may be classified into the following categories. Knowledge: Here the trainee learns about a set of rules and regulations about the job, the staff and the products or service offered by the company. The aim is to make the new employee fully aware of what goes on inside and outside the company. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 20
  21. 21. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Technical skills: The employee is taught a specific skill (e.g. operating a machine, handling computer etc) so that he can acquire that shill and contribute meaningfully. Social skills: The employee is made to learn about himself and others, and to develop a right mental attitude towards the job, colleagues and the company. The principal focus is on teaching the employees hoe to be a teach member and get ahead. TYPES OF TRAINING: There many approaches to training. We focus here on the types of training that are commonly employed in present day organizations. Skills Training: This type of training is most common in the organization. The process here is fairly simple. The need for training in basic skills (such as reading, writing, computing, speaking, listening, problem soloing, man gaining oneself, knowing how to learn, working as part of a team, leading others) is identified through assessment. Specific training objectives are set and training content is developed to meet those objectives. Several methods are available for imparting these basic skills in modern organization (such as lecture, apprenticeship, on- the job, coaching etc). Refresher Training: Rapid changes in technology may force companies to go in for this kind of training. By organizing short term course which in corporate that latest development in a particular field, the company may keep its employees up-to-date SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 21
  22. 22. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT and ready to take on emerging challenges. It is conducted at regular intervals by taking the help of outside consultants who specialize in a particular descriptive. Cross – functional Training: Cross functional training involves training employees to perform operations in areas other than their assigned job. There are many approaches to cross functional training. Job rotation can be used to provide a manager in one functional area with a broader perspective than he would otherwise have. Department can exchange personnel for a certain period so that each employee understands how other department functions. Team Training: Team training generally covers two areas: content task and group processes. Content tasks specify the team’s goal such as cost control and problem solving. Group processes reflect the way the member function as team – for example how they interact with other, how they sort out difference, how they participate etc. Diversity Training: Diversity training considers all of the diverse dimensions in the work place – race, gender, age lifestyles, culture, education, ideas, and background- while designing training programmes. It aims to create better cross – cultural sensitivity with the aims of fostering more harmonious and fruitful working relationship among firm’s employees. TRAINING METHODS: Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction. On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skill and SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 22
  23. 23. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT abilities at the actual workplace. Off-the-job training on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at a location other than the real work spot. 1. Job Instruction Training (JIT) The JIT method is a four – step instructional preparation, presentation, and performance try out and follow up. It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. A Trainer, supervisor or co- worker acts as the coach. The four steps followed in the JIT methods are: i. The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its desired outcomes, with clear focus on the relevance of training. ii. The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. iii. Next, the employee is permitted to copy the trainer’s way. Demonstrates by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job. iv. Finally, the employee does job independently without supervision. 1. Coaching : Coaching is a kind of daily training and feedback given to employee by immediate supervision. It involves a continuous process of learning by doing. It may defined as an informal, unplanned training and development activity provided by supervisor and peers. In coaching, the supervisor explain things and answer questions; he throws light on why things are done the way they are; he offers a model for trainees to copy ; conducts lot of decision making meeting SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 23
  24. 24. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT with trainees; procedure are agreed upon and the trainees is given enough authority to make divisions and even commit mistakes. Coaching can be taxing job in that the coach may not possess requisite skills to guide the learner in a systematic way. Sometimes, doing a full day’s work may be more important than putting the learner on track. 2. Mentoring: Mentoring is relationship in which a senior manager in organization assumes the responsibility for grooming a junior person. Technical, interpersonal and political skills are generally conveyed in such a relationship from the more experienced person. A mentor is a teacher, suppose, counselor, developer of skills and intellect, host, guide exemplar and most importantly, supporter and facilitator in the realization of the vision the young person has about the kind of life he wants as an adult. The main objective of mentoring is to help an employee attain psychological maturity and effectiveness and get integrated with the organization. 3. Job rotation: This kind of training involves the movement of trainee one job to another. This helps him to have a general understanding of how the organization functions. The purpose of job rotation is to provide trainees with a larger organizational perspective and a greater understanding of different functional areas as well as a better sense if their own career objectives and interests. Apart from reliving boredom, job rotation allows trainees to build rapport cooperation among SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 24
  25. 25. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT departments. The cross-trained personnel offer a great amount of flexibility for organizations when transfers, promotions or replacement become inevitable. 4. Apprenticeship Training: Most croft workers such as plumbers and carpenters are trained through formal apprenticeship programmes. Apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amount of time working with an experienced guide, coach or trainer. Apprenticeships and internships are similar to apprenticeship because that also demand high levels of participation from the trainee. An internship is a kind of on the job training that usually combines job training with classroom instruction in trade schools, colleges or universities. It is also likely that it in these of rapid changes I technology, old skills may get outdated quickly. Trainees who spend years learning specific skills may find, upon completion of their programmes, that the job skills they acquired are no longer appropriate. OFF-THE- JOB METHODS: Under this method of training, the trainee is separated from the job situation ad his attention is focused upon learning the materials related to his future job performance. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. Off-the-job methods are as follows: a) Vestibule Training: In this method, actual work conditions are simulated in a class room. Material, files and equipment- those that are used in actual job performance are also used in the training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. The duration of this SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 25
  26. 26. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT training range from a few days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this method. b) Role playing: It is defined as method of human interaction that involves realistic behavior in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters such as the production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineer, quality control inspector, foremen, workers and the like. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations. c) Lecture method: The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. An advantage of lecture method is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. Thus, costs and time involved are reduced. The major limitation of the lecture method is that it does not provide for transfer of training effectively. d) Conference / discussion approach: In this method, the trainers deliver a lecture and involve the trainee in a discussion so that his doubts about the job get clarified. When big organization use this method, the trainer uses audio-visual aids such as black board, mock SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 26
  27. 27. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ups and slides; in some cases the lecture are videotapes or audio taped. Even the trainee’s presentation can be taped for self confrontation and selfassessment. The conference is, thus a group-centered where there is a clarification of ideas, communication of procedures and standards to the trainees. Those individuals who have a general educational background and whatever specific skills are required- such as typing, shorthand, office equipment operation, filling, indexing, recording etc- may be provided with specific instructions to handle their respective jobs. e) Programmed Instruction: This method has becomes popular in recent years. The subject matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instructions. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is, thus, expensive and time-consuming. NEED FOR TRAINING: Training is the act of improving one’s knowledge and skill to improve his/her job performance. Training is job – oriented. It bridges the gap between what the employee has and what the job demands. For that matter, imparting to employees working in all organized sectors of human activity is longer a matter of debate. The need for training has been recognized as essential activity not only in the business organizations, but also in academic institution, professional bodies and the government department. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 27
  28. 28. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IMPARTANCE OF TRAINING: The importance of training can best be appreciated with the help of various advantages it offers to both employees and employer. 1. Better performance: Training improves employee’s ability and skills, in turn improves employee’s performance both in quality and quantity. Better or increased employee performance directly leads to increased operational productivity and increased organizational profits. Improvements in employee performance / productivity in development countries lend support to this statement. 2. Improved Quality: In formal training programmes, the best methods of performing jobs are standardized and then taught to employees. This offers two – fold benefits. Firstly uniformity in work performance helps improve the quality of work or service. Secondly better informed or say trained workers are less likely to make operational mistakes. 3. Less supervision: A trained worker is self reliant. He knows his work and way to perform it well. Therefore, his work requires less supervision. The supervision can devote his time on more urgent works. 4. Less learning period: SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 28
  29. 29. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT A well planned and systematically organized training programmes reduces the time and cost involved in learning. Training enables to avoid waste of time and efforts in learning through trial and error method. 5. High morale: Training not only improves the ability and skills of the employees, but also changes employees’ attitude towards positive. Higher performance, job satisfaction, job security and avenues for internal promotion lead to high morale among the employees. High morale, in turn, makes employees more loyal to the organization. 6. Personal Growth: Training improves employee’s ability knowledge and skills and thus, prevents employee’s obsolesce. This makes employees growth- oriented. 7. Favorable Organizational Climate: The aforesaid advantage combined lead to improves and favorable organizational climate characterized by better industrial relation and disciplines, reduced resistance to change, reduced absenteeism and turnover of employees and improves stability of organization. STEP IN TRAINING PROGRAMMES The various step activities involved in developing training programmes can be broadly classified into five steps as follows; 1. Identification of training needs SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 29
  30. 30. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 2. Setting training objectives 3. Designing training methods 4. Administration of training programmes 5. Evaluation of training Training could be traced far back at the Stone Age when people used to transfer knowledge in particular activity through signs and deeds to others. It was only during industrial revolution the formal and vocational training was started to instruct the apprentices about the about the operation of machines. Since then there is no looking back in this regard. Today training has become the most important organizational activity not only in the business organizations but in the educational institution also. It is fact that many organizations have realized the need of the training created infrastructure and provided financial support. The result of many training programmes have been far less than the desired ones because of non-alignment of training programmes with the overall human resources development (HRD) strategies of the organization. CHAPTER - 1 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 30
  31. 31. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT B.COMPANY PROFILE SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 31
  32. 32. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 32
  33. 33. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Port is a junction of land and ocean transports and provides a connecting link between land and sea. It acts as a gateway to the land from the as well as a gateway to the sea from the land. It is through the port that a country’s foreign trade is carried on. The exportable surplus or brought to the port for being loaded into the ships and sent to other countries. The imports from foreign countries arrive at the port where they are unloaded for distribution inside the country. In fact the main function of a port is to develop country’s foreign trade, Export and Import. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 33
  34. 34. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT New Mangalore Port Trust Mission: To become a leading liquid and multi-cargo port by adopting state of the art technology, infrastructure and cargo handling systems, complying with environmental, social, safety and security standards. The New Mangalore harbor project started in 1962 was complete in May 1974. The New Mangalore Port was declared as the 9 th Major port on 4th May 1974 and was formally inaugurated by the former Prime Minister of India, Smt.Indira Gandhi on 11th January 1975. Till 31st March 1980, Government of India centrally administered both the project and the port. On 1st April 1980, the port trust board was set up under the major port trust Act 1963 and was inaugurated by the minister for shipping and transport, Mr. A.P.Sharma on 31st March 1980. Since then, the port has been functioning as the 10th major port trust and is fallen in line with other major port trusts functioning in the country. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 34
  35. 35. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT New Mangalore Port is well connected by Rail, Road and Air and is strategically placed. The New Mangalore Port is popularly known as “THE GATEWAY OF KARNATAKA. Historical background: Even though the Minor Port of Mangalore was one among the 19 such ports in the state of Karnataka with a sea-coast of 285 k/ms, the Mangalore Port had a long maritime history of its own as is evident from the fact that the geographer Ptolemy of second century AD has made a mention of Mangalore in his travelogue. The old port of Mangalore had played a vital role in the golden ore of Karnataka when it served as an important gateway to the illustrious Hindu Empire of Vijayanagar for brisk trade in silk and spices. Being a natural outlet of strategic importance, Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan the former rulers of Mysore maintained a dockyard and arsenal at Mangalore in 18th century. The defeat of Tippu Sultan by the British brought this region of south Karnataka under presidency of Madras Province and this position was retained till the re-organization of the state in 1956, when the South Kanara and other were merged with Karnataka state. Objectives  To provide port users a high level of customer satisfaction, i.e., quick, economical, safe, reliable and efficient service.  To achieve a good long term user friendly relationship.  To make a realistic long term traffic and commensurate perspective plan. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 35
  36. 36. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT  To create modern/latest infrastructure facilities to handle projected traffic more efficiently.  To attract continuous general cargo traffic.  To generate and to manage adequate internal resources to attain self sufficiency for understanding various development works and to ensure a fair return on capital employed. Organizational structure: Mi nister of surface transport is the supreme head representing central government for NMPT. He overall responsibility for efficient management and operation of major ports vests in central government followed by board of trustees with strength of 17 members. Major ports are autonomous bodies run by the Board of trustees, constituted under the major ports act 1963. The trustees, appointed SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 36
  37. 37. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT on these boards by the central government, representatives, interests and workers employed in port. Organization structure and responsibilities (i) Civil engineering department: The department maintains and operates all civil maintenance works related to port operation and execute revenue and capital works related to infrastructural development works as well as management of estate. The department is also in charge of capital and maintenance dredging. (ii) Financial department: The important functions of the financial department are general accounting, revenue collection, establishment costs analysis, budgeting, auditing and advice the Chief Executive regarding financial matters. The electronic data processing unit also functions under this department. (iii) Traffic department: The department administers all cargo handling operation. The department takes care of the marketing functions. The management service division, registered cargo handling workers, administrative wing and dock safety units are working under this department. (iv) Management services division: Management service division of the part is administered by traffic department. Its functions include preparing presentations as a part of the business development to highlight the achievements of the port to various port users, trade SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 37
  38. 38. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT and shippers. Besides, this division prepares review reports on various operational parameters and monitors the port operation to reduce non working time and improve the turnaround time of the vessels called at the port. Deputy Director is the head of the port. Deputy Director is the head of the M.S.D. preceded by other staff. (v) Marine department: The following are the function of marine department:-General conservancy of this port.  Ensure safety by providing fire fighting arrangements.  Providing pilots for pilot age of vessels.  Providing tugs and launches to vessels at distress or availing port facility. Maintain tugs and all floating crafts in a good condition for service. The Deputy Conservator exercises the overall control over the Marine Department. He is held responsible for crisis management, vessel related charges such as port dues, pilot age etc. (vi) Administration department: The personal management and administration co-ordination which includes arrangements of legal, welfare, labour, public, industrial relations are under the control of this department. The onsite training programs through the National Institute of Port Management (NIPM) and India Institute of Port Management (IIPM) to officers and employees are arranged by port and managed by administration. The secretary exercises the overall control over the administration department. (vii) Mechanical engineering department: SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 38
  39. 39. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT The maintenance and operation of all mechanical equipments, installation of cargo handling equipments, staff cars, electrical installation, port workshop and central stores are some of the functions of this department. The Chief Mechanical Engineer is the head of the department. (viii) Medical department: This department is headed by a Chief Medical Officer, who is a professional doctor. Services provided by the Medical Department are: Port health care service.  Round the clock services including ambulance van facilities available in the port trust hospital.  Providing first aid facilities in wharf, workshops etc. CHAPTER - 2 REVIEW SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 39
  40. 40. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OF LITERATURE REVIEW OF LITERATURE A review of literature on evaluation of training was conducted to identify methods of effectiveness evaluation for training programs. Five definitions of evaluation were identified in the literature. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 40
  41. 41. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Kirkpatrick (1971) Kirkpatrick’s first level of measurement, reaction, is defined as how well the trainees liked the training program. The second measurement level, learning, is designated as the determination of what knowledge, attitudes, and skills were learned in the training. The third measurement level is defined as behavior. Behavior outlines a relationship of learning (the previous measurement le vel) to the actualization of doing. Kirkpatrick recognized a big difference between knowing principles and techniques and using those principles and techniques on the job. The fourth measurement level, results, is the expected outcomes of most educational training programs such as reduced costs, reduced turnover and absenteeism, reduced grievances, improved profits or morale, and increased quality and quantity of production. Paquet,Kasl, Weinstein, & Waite, (1987). One study was found by a major corporation that measured change in productivity and ROI of a training program. CIGNA Corporation’s corporate management development and training department, which provides training for employees of CIGNA Corporation’s operating subsidiaries, initiated an evaluation program to prove management training made a business contribution. The research question posed was, “Does management training result in improved productivity in the manager’s workplace?” The team conducting the research identified that data collection needed to be built into the training program for optimal data gathering. If managers could use the evaluation data for their own benefit as part of their training, they would be more likely to cooperate. Paulet & Moult, 1987 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 41
  42. 42. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT British Airways assessed the effectiveness of the Managing People First (MPF) training by measuring the value shift, commitment, and empowerment of the trainees. An in-depth interview was used to measure the action potential (energy generated in the participants by the course) and level of action as a result of the course. A want level was used to measure the action potential and a do level for the action. Each measurement was assigned a value of high, medium, or low. However, high, medium, and low were not defined. Robert (1988) in his study “The Pygmalion Effect” personal journal describes the “Pygmalion Effect” or the “Behavior Science Principle” which states that an employees’ success is directly related to the company’s expectation. Good management training practice is discussed. Such as recognizing employees potential for improved performance showing confidence in the staff marinating an in-going dialogue setting, high performance standards complimenting, criticizing constructively and with empathy, helping people advance and overcome selfdefects. Alliger and Horowitz (1989) Numerous studies reported use of components of the Kirkpatrick Model; however, no study was found that applied all four levels of the model. Although level one is the least complex of the measures of evaluation developed by Kirkpatrick, no studies were found that reported use of level one as a sole measure of training. One application of the second level of evaluation, knowledge, was reported by. In this study the IBM Corporation incorporated knowledge tests into internally developed training. To ensure the best design, IBM conducted a study to identify the optimal test for internally developed courses. Four separate tests composed of 25 questions each were developed based on ten key learning SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 42
  43. 43. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT components. Four scoring methods were evaluated including one that used a unique measure of confidence. The confidence measurement assessed how confident the trainee was with answers given. Bushnell (1990) also created a modification to the Kirkpatrick Model by identifying a four-step process of evaluation. Bushnell’s model included evaluation of training from the development through the delivery and impact. Step one involved the analysis of the System Performance Indicators that included the trainee’s qualifications, instructor abilities, instructional materials, facilities, and training dollars. Step two involved the evaluation of the development process that included the plan, design, development, and delivery. Step three was defined as output which equated to the first three levels of the Kirkpatrick Model. Step three involves trainees’ reactions, knowledge and skills gained, and improved job performance. Bushnell separated outcomes or results of the training into the fourth step. Outcomes were defined as profits, customer satisfaction, and productivity. This model was applied by IBM’s global education network, although specific results were not found in the literature. Phillips (1991) stated the Kirkpatrick Model was probably the most well known framework for classifying areas of evaluation. This was confirmed in 1997 when the America Society for Training and Development (ASTD) assessed the nationwide prevalence of the importance of measurement and evaluation to human resources department (HRD) executives by surveying a panel of 300 HRD executives from a variety of types of U.S. organizations. Survey results indicated the majority (81%) of HRD executives attached some level of importance to evaluation and over half (67%) used the Kirkpatrick Model. The most frequently reported challenge was determining them impact of the training (ASTD, 1997). SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 43
  44. 44. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Lookatch (1991) and ASTD (2002) reported that only one in ten organizations attempted to gather any results-based evaluation. In 1952, Donald Kirkpatrick (1996) conducted doctoral research to evaluate a supervisory training program. Kirkpatrick’s goal was to measure the participants’ reaction to the program, the amount of learning that took place, the extent of behavior change after participants returned to their jobs, and any final results from a change in behavior achieved by participants after they returned to work. Wagner & Roland, (1992). Over 20 organizations and 5,000 participants were studied. Three measures were used to determine behavioral changes. Measure one was a questionnaire completed by participant s both before and after training. The second measure was supervisory reports completed on the functioning of work groups before and after training. The third measure was interviews with managers, other than the immediate supervisor, to obtain reactions to individual and workgroup performance after an OBERT program. Results reported showed no significant changes in behavior. Hopkins (1995) There are several ways managers can use professional development to increase the competence, skills, and leadership capacity of their employees. One way to do this involves managers encouraging employees to pursue continuing education opportunities and/or empowering employees through various leadership opportunities within the organization. Singh has conducted a study on “Attitude Change through Training” in 1998. The study was conducted with the thirty five officers from different central/state government/ public sector units/ nationalized banks. And the study was conducted SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 44
  45. 45. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT to explore the impact of importing behavioral skill through training programme resulting impersonalized attitude and co-operative attitude. Results reveal that training led to change in attitudes. Experimental training and belief in the source of communication, facilitated attitude change. Kirkpatrick, (1998) From Kirkpatrick’s doctoral research, the concept of the four Kirkpatrick measurement levels of evaluation emerged. While writing an article about training in 1959, Kirkpatrick (1996) referred to these four measurement levels as the four steps of a training evaluation. It is unclear even to Kirkpatrick how these four steps became known as the Kirkpatrick Model, but this description persists today). As reported in the literature, this model is most frequently applied to either educational or technical training. Holli and Calabrese (1998) defined evaluation as comparisons of an observed value or quality to a standard or criteria of comparison. Evaluation is the process of forming value judgments about the quality of programs, products, and goals. Kirkpatrick (1998) recommended that as many as possible of the four levels of evaluation be conducted. In order to make the best use of organizational resources of time, money, materials, space, equipment, and manpower, continued efforts are needed to assess all levels of effectiveness of training programs. Trainers from all disciplines should develop evaluation plans for training and share the results of these initiatives. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 45
  46. 46. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Jan (1999) in his study “Training and Development” reveals that a majority of training programme relay that a majority of training programme relay on western technique. Traditional Vedic approaches to knowledge focusing on the relation of the athma, pure consciousness serves as the creativity and intelligence should be viewed as an alternative approach to conduct training. Warr, Allan and Birdie (1999) evaluated a two-day technical training course involving 123 mo tor-vehicle technicians over a seven- month period in a longitudinal study using a variation of the Kirkpatrick Model. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate that training improved performance, thereby justifying the investment in the training as appropriate. Warr et al.(1999) suggested that the levels in the Kirkpatrick Model may be interrelated. They investigated six trainee features and one organizational characteristic that might predict outcomes at each measurement level. The six trainee features studied were learning motivation, confidence about the learning task, learning strategies, technical qualifications, tenure, and age. The one organizational feature evaluated was transfer climate which was defined as the extent to which the learning from the training was actually applied on the job. Boulmetis and Dutwin (2000) defined evaluation as the systematic process of collecting and analyzing data in order to determine whether and to what degree objectives were or are being achieved. Phillips and Pulliam (2000) reported an additional measure of training effectiveness,return on investment (ROI), was used by companies because of the pressures placed on Human Resource Departments to produce measures of output for total quality management (TQM) and continuous quality improvements (CQI) and the threat of outsourcing due to downsizing. Great debate was found in the training and development literature about the use of ROI measures of training SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 46
  47. 47. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT programs. Many training and development professionals believed that ROI was too difficult and unreliable a measure to use for training evaluation (Barron, 1997). A study was conducted by HUMAN CAPITAL (2001); a leading pesticides company provided excellent training for sales executives on selling techniques. The trainees felt that they could make use of the selling techniques with great advantage in the market place. Regional managers made no efforts to follow up new ideas and suggestions. Consequently, sales executives were unable to adapt techniques learned during the training program. Schalock (2001) defined effectiveness evaluation as the determination of the extent to which a program has met its stated performance goals and objectives. Stufflebeam (2001) defined evaluation as a study designed and conducted to assist some audience to assess an object's merit and worth. Stufflebeam's (2001) definition of evaluation was used to assess the methods of evaluation found in this literature review. The reason for selecting Stufflebeam’s definition was based on the applicability of the definition across multiple disciplines. Based on this definition of evaluation, the Kirkpatrick Model was the most frequently reported model of evaluation. Radhakrishna, Plank, and Mitchell (2001) used a learning style instrument (LSI) and a demographic profile in addition to reaction measures and learning measures. The three training objectives were to assess knowledge gained through a Web-based training, to determine participant reaction to Web-based material and Listserv discussions, and to describe both the demographic profile and the learning style of the participants. The evaluation of the training began SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 47
  48. 48. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT with an on- line pretest and an on- line LSI. The pretest included seven demographic questions. The LSI, pretest and posttest, and LSI questionnaire were paired by the agent's social security numbers. Fifty- five agents of the available (106) agents completed all four instruments and were included in this study. According to Heathfield (2001) there six tips to which helps training and development that will transfer skills back to the job. • Provide information for the employee about exactly what training session will involve, prior to the training. Explain what is expected of the employees at the training session. • Make clear to the employee that the training is OMS responsibility and she needs to take the training seriously. • Make sure that internal or external training providers supply pre-training assignments. Reading or thought- provoking exercises in advance of the session promote thoughtful consideration of training content. Exercises or self assessment, provided and scored in advance of the session, save precious training time for interaction and new information. • Train supervisors and managers either first or simultaneously so they know and understand the skills and information provided in the training session. • Ask supervisors to meet with employees prior to the training session. Determine if key learning points are important for the organization in return for the investment of his time in the training. Identify any obstacles the employee may expect to experience as he transfers the training to the workplace. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 48
  49. 49. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Fancsali (2002) Recommends that staff development occur on an ongoing basis. More specifically, the National Staff Development Council suggests that “educators” spend at least a quarter of their work time on staff development activities (Richardson 1997). Bozionelos (2002) Placing employees in staff mentorship positions as mentors is another method that has been identified as increasing employees’ skills and efficiency, while also enhancing their reputation among managers, which can lead to greater career success. Astroth (2004) Recommend that training should address what the position entails and the skills necessary for competency. Jackson (2006) With regard to scheduling staff development, suggests that the timing of staff development can affect the success of the development program, itself. Consequently, she recommends that the timing of the training schedule be developed with consideration of staff needs and wants. In terms of strategies for effective implementation. As for the ideal format of staff development, recommends that trainings focus on the “main points” and take into account diverse learning modalities, by including “hands on” activities as well as time for discussion and questions. Current Training Needs for Staff Given the importance of a strong staff in shaping successful youth development programs, Astroth and Taylor (2004) report on the National Collaboration for Youth’s (NCY) efforts to define what successful youth workers are doing. Essentially, NCY reviewed existing competencies circulating in the field, sought SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 49
  50. 50. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT feedback from many youth-serving organizations 8 and their staff, and ultimately decided on a set of ten core competencies that “entry-level workers, including parttime and full-time staff and volunteers, should possess when they begin a job or should acquire during the first few years to be effective when working with youth,” According to a report published by the Community Network for Youth Development, the fast growing need for skilled youth workers highlights the fact that there is little professional development support for these workers. Little to no new skill development, low compensation and unclear career ladders may force youth workers to move from job to job in order to obtain higher wages and/or new skills and creating barriers for recruitment. Furthermore, this high turnover detrimentally affects the youth they serve. California is among several states creating professional support groups, youth development worker mentorship programs, standards, core competencies for training, opportunities for higher education, and clearer career pathways for youth workers. In fact, the CNYD report, “Moving from Knowledge to Action in San Francisco: Creating a Comprehensive Youth Work Professional Workforce System” lists a number of Bay P.C. TRIPATHI AND P.N.REDDY (2007) After the selection of people for various jobs, the next function of management is to arrange for their training and development. This is because a person, however carefully selected is not moulded to specifications and rarely meets the demands of his job adequately. Formerly, it was thought that the training of personnel was unnecessary on the ground that the new employees would gradually pick up all the particulars of the job. But as the processes and techniques of production are becoming more and more complicated, it is being increasingly released that the formal training is very important not only for new recruit’s bus also for existing SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 50
  51. 51. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT employees. Training function, in fact, has become the corner stone of sound management.(Principles of Management page no 176 3 rd edition Tata McGraw- Hill publishing company limited New Delhi.) K ASWATHAPPA (2008) In simple terms, training and development refer to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. “More clearly, training and development may be understood as any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training and development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training and development need = standard performance – Actual performance.” (Human resource management page no 206, 5th edition Tata McGraw-Hill publishing company limited New Delhi.) According to Dr. N. Venkateshwara Rao Acharya Nagarjuna University, A need for HRD, HRD times oct.(2006) Pp.23: training is another sub system. It refers to the organizations efforts to improve the individual’s ability to perform a job or organizational role. Training in often conducted in order to improve productivity, quality of performance reduce in efficiency and minimize the accidents it is advisable for ever organization to arrange for its systematic training for its employees. According to Arun Monappa and Mirz saiyadain, personal management, (1990) volume 2 Himalaya publishing house, Pp 179-180: the primary concern of on organization in its viability, and hence its efficiency and if the organization does SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 51
  52. 52. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT not respond to this pressure it man find itself rapidly losing whatever share of the market it has, employee training, therefore imports specific skills and knowledge to employees in order that they contribute to the organization efficiency, and be able to cope with the pressures of changing environment . Based on study conducted by Dr.K.N.Ramanuram, Annamalai Nagar, Management role in productivity HRD times may- (2006) Pp 31 denotes that training In a shortterm process utilizing a systematic and organizing procedure by which nonmanagerial personal learn technical knowledge’s and skills for a definite purpose of course, all the employees entering the enterprise could not at once learn a new technology. There in a need for adequate training to employees, it is sure and certain that will increase per head productivity in the long run. Beyond Training: Training and Development Carter (2003) reported that training is generally defines as “ change in behavior” – Yet, how many trainers and managers forget that, using the term training only as applicable to “ skills training”? What about the human element? What about those very same people we want to “train”? What about their individual beliefs, backgrounds, ideas, needs, and aspiration? In order to achieve long – term results through training, they broaden their vision to include people development as part of our strategic planning. Although training covers a broad range of subjects under the term “training” without linking it to development narrows our concept of the training function and leads us to failure. Cambell (1971), “Training courses are typically designed for a short – term, started set purpose, such as the operation of some piece of machinery, while development involves a broader education for long – term purpose.” SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 52
  53. 53. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Scott (1970) He told about “Instruction can help employees increase their level of performance on their present assignment. Increased human performance often directly leads to increased operational productivity and increased company profit. CHAPTER - 3 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 53
  54. 54. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY METHODOLOGY SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 54
  55. 55. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT The research methods refer to the different methods which are used in research studies. So, before starting any research a preliminary plan has to be drawn out. The aim of the study and available resources should be understand at the outset. Research is common parlance refer to research for knowledge. It is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge. Making of its advancement it is the help of study observation comparison and experiment. In this chapter the research present a clear idea about research methodology which is followed to conduct this study. The validity of any research lines to a great extent in the methodology is “The systematic and scientific description of how a particular study has been carried out.” An enquiry would be neither if is done along certain methodological lines methodology includes the generis of the study the objectives the universe. The sampling technique adopted the tools of data collection the research design the limitation of the study undertaken. The level of systematic research depend upon proper sampling, collection of data, keen observation of existing condition, classification and interpretation of data. At the end of formulation of relation suggestion and conclusion. Title of Study: The study which researcher has undertaken is “A study on Training and Development”, with special reference to the NMPT, Mangalore. PROBLEM FORMULATION: SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 55
  56. 56. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training is act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. Training is employed as techniques of control and also gives information for developing new skills of a job. The primary concern of any organization is to respond to this pressure, it may find itself rapidly losing whatever share of the market it has. The employee training imparts specific skills and knowledge to the employees, so that they contribute to the organization efficiency and be able to cope with the pressure of a changing environment. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the problem. In order to find out the truth involved in or problems, certain steps must be taken. In a certain order and the ordered steps are called a method. This research methodology is very essential. AIM OF THE STUDY: Aim of the researcher is to find out the level of satisfaction of employee and to know about the different methods of training in the organization. Objective of Study:  To study the socio- demographic status of the respondents.  To study the various Training programmers provided to employees.  To understand the satisfaction levels of the employees towards Training programme.  To study the importance of Training in maintaining good human relation.  To understand the importance of Training in acquiring the skills and efficiency of employees.  To draw suggestion though interpretation of employees feedback for improvement of Training programme. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 56
  57. 57. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT HYPOTHESIS:  “Training is necessary for the overall development of any organization”. Universe of the study: The universe of this study includes 1557 employees of New Mangalore Port Trust. Employees presently working, among them research selected only 50 respondents for the study. The researcher believes that this is the good representation of the universe. The purpose of the study: The purpose of the study is to gain more knowledge about Training and Development to motivate the employees and to study about the training programmes provided to the employees of the organization. Sampling Technique: The researcher used the simple random sampling method to collecting data. Under simple random sampling every item of the universe has equal chance of inclusion in the sample. Researcher selected this type of sampling because it gives each event in the population an equal probability of being a sample. INCLUSION CRITERIA:  All the operational employees were taken for the study.  All the employees from various departments such as cargo handling Employees, Training department, Traffic department, Statistical and Research department. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 57
  58. 58. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT  Executive Employers and Employees are excluded from the study.  Dock workers are excluded from the study. RESEARCH DESIGN: The researcher adopted the descriptive research design for the study. Description studies aim at pertaining accurately the characteristics of particular group or situation researcher wants to study the practice of training at NMPT. The descriptive research design helps to researcher to get a detailed study of practice of training facilities at NMPT, Mangalore. DATA COLLECTION: The data and information has been collected through two sources namely primary and secondary sources. Primary Data: The researcher collected data through questionnaire method the researcher collected responses from 50 employees belonging to various department of NMPT. Secondary Data: The secondary data collected with the help of research guide at NMPT by asking different details about the organization. Details were from annul reports, Company profile, Articles and reference books of NMPT and also from website of NMPT. INSTRUMENT: Questionnaire method was used to collect the data from the respondents. DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS: SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 58
  59. 59. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT The information collected from the respondents through above mentioned method has been processed using relevant tools as mentioned bellow: EditingEditing is done in two ways. Field editing is done to check the correction of entries. This is done on the spot each day after the interview schedule, which are field to check the correction of entries. Central editing is done for discarding any complete schedule or clarifying ambiguities in entries if the respondents are able to be locating before moving off. Coding: The collected data through interview schedule has been arranged in the processing system in the numerical from. The numerical symbols have been assigned to the variable which courses the proper evaluation. This method in analysis by reducing the quantity of the data. Tabulation: Arrangement of data into concise and logical order is the next step. Percentage are worked out after grouping the data into seta and categories, charts and diagram will be prepared where ever necessary. Limitations of the study: Every study has its own limitation due to unavailable circumstance.  The duration of the study is not sufficient for an in depth study.  The study is limited only to the employees of NMPT, Mangalore.  Collected the data within the work schedule.  All departments have not covered on the base of time and limitation and work procedure.  Study conducted only for academic purpose and self interest.  Within the time limitation the study has been conducted. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 59
  60. 60. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER - 4  ANALYSIS  AND INTERPRETATION SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 60
  61. 61. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Analysis and interpretation are central steps in the research process involves breaking down existing complex factor into simple parts and putting the part together in new arrangement for the purpose interpretation. Thus the goal of analysis is to summaries the date in such a way that they provide answer to the questions that the research interprets. Interpretation is the research for brooder means of research findings through interpretation the meaning and implementation becomes clear. Analysis it’s not complete method interpretation and interpretation cannot proceed without analysis systematically so as to arrive and findings through interpretation these are two methods to analyze collected data one method through graphical figure representation and the other through table. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 61
  62. 62. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Sl. Sex of the No Respondents 01 Male No of Respondents 30 Per cent 60.00 02 Female 20 40.00 Total 50 100.00 Table No. 1 Sex of the Respondents. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 62
  63. 63. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT From the above Table out of total 50 respondents more than half 30 respondents (60.00 per cent) are male and remaining less than quarter 20 respondents (40.00 per cent) are female. It is inferred from the above interpretation that majority 60 per cent respondents are male. Table No. 02 Age of the Respondents. Sl. Age of the Respondents No 01 Below 20 years No of the Respondents 00 Per cent 00.00 02 21-25 years 00 00.00 03 26-30 years 04 08.00 04 31-40 years 13 26.00 05 Above 40years 33 66.00 50 100.00 Total SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 63
  64. 64. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT From the above Table out of total 50 respondents, less than quarter 33 respondents (66.00 per cent) are belonging to the age group of above 40 years, 13 respondents (26.00 per cent) of them are between the age group of 31-40years, 04 respondents (08.00 per cent) of them are between 26-30 years It is inferred from the above interpretation that Majority of the respondents are belonging to the age group of 40 years and above. Table No. 03 Marital status of the Respondents. Sl. Marital status No 01 Yes Total Per cent 42.00 29 02 No No of the Respondents 21 58.00 50 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 64
  65. 65. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT From the above table show that among 50 respondents, more than half i.e. 29 respondents (58.00 per cent) are Unmarried, and remaining 21 respondents (42.00 per cent) are married. It clearly indicates from the above interpretation that, Majority of the employees are Unmarried. Table No. 04 Educational Qualification. Sl. No 01 Educational Qualification Undergraduate No of the Respondents 26 Per cent 52.00 02 Graduate 23 46.00 03 Master degree 01 02.00 04 ITI/Diploma 00 00.00 Total 50 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 65
  66. 66. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Above table shows that out of 50 respondents, just above the quarter i.e. 26(52.00 per cent) of the respondents are Undergraduate are Graduate Holders, less than half i.e. 23(46.00 per cent) of them are Master degree Holders, and remaining 1(2.00 per cent) respondents are master degree holders. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 26(52.00 per cent) of the respondents are Undergraduates. Table No. 05 Work experience Sl. No 01 02 03 04 05 Work experience Below 1 years 1-5years 6-10 years 11-15 years 16-20 years Total No of the Respondents 01 00 01 13 35 50 Per cent 02.00 00.00 02.00 26.00 70.00 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 66
  67. 67. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT From above table out of total 50 respondents just more than half 35 respondents (70.00 per cent) have work experience of above 16-20 years, just above the quarter 13 (26.00 per cent) respondents possess work experience of 11-15 years, 1 (2.00 per cent) 0f them possess 6-10 years of work experience, and remaining 1 (2.00 per cent) of the respondents have the work experience of 1 years. It is inferred the above analysis that majority 35 (70.00 per cent) have the work experience of above 16-20 years. Table No. 06 Training programmes are conducted. Sl. Response of the No Respondents 01 Monthly No of the Respondents 07 Per cent 14.00 02 Quarterly 09 18.00 03 Annually 34 68.00 Total 50 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 67
  68. 68. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT From the above table out of 50 respondents, more than half i.e. 34 respondents (68.00 per cent) of the respondents are trained annually, 09 (18.00per cent) of them are trained quarterly, and remaining 07 (14.00 per cent) of the respondents are trained monthly. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 34 respondents (68.00 per cent) often trained annually. Table No. 07 Necessary for the Training Programme. Sl. Response of Respondents No 01 Fully necessary 02 Necessary to some extent No of the Respondents 16 23 Per cent 32.00 46.00 03 Not necessary 09 18.00 04 Not at all 02 04.00 50 100.00 Total SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 68
  69. 69. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT From the above table out of total 50 respondents, just below half 23 (46.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that training programme is necessary to some extent, 16 (32.00 per cent) respondents need training programmes, 09 (18.00 per cent) respondents feel training programmes are not necessary and remaining 02 (04.00 per cent) respondents feel training programme are not at all necessary. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 23 (46.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that training programme is necessary to some extent. Table.No.08 Opinion regarding duration of Training programme. Sl. Response of No Respondents 01 Adequate 02 Inadequate 03 Can be improved Total No of the Respondents 09 13 28 50 Per cent 18.00 26.00 56.00 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 69
  70. 70. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT From the above table we can see that 28 (56.00 per cent) of the respondents say that duration of training programme can be improved, where 13 (26.00 per cent) of the respondents feel that training duration is inadequate and the rest of the respondents 09 (18.00 per cent) reported that duration of the programme is adequate. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 28 (56.00 per cent) respondents say that duration of training programme can be improved. Table No. 09 Opinion to get trained in the areas of their preference. Sl. Response of No Respondents 01 Yes Total Per cent 74.00 13 02 No No of the Respondents 37 26.00 50 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 70
  71. 71. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT From above table out of 50 respondents, more than half 37 (74.00 per cent) of the respondents opinioned that they are trained in their preference areas and remaining 13 (26.00 per cent) of the respondents do not agree to the above mentioned statement. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 37 (74.00 per cent) of the respondents opinioned that they are trained in their preference areas. Table No.10 Kind of Training getting from the organization. Sl. Response of No Respondents 01 Technical No of the Respondents 06 Per cent 12.00 02 Manual 03 Official 04 34 08.00 68.00 04 Safety 06 12.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 71
  72. 72. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 05 Any other Total 00 50 00.00 100.00 From above table out of 50 respondents 34 (68.00 per cent) respondents are getting official training, 6 (12.00 per cent) respondents are getting technical training, 6(12.00 per cent) respondents are getting safety training and the remaining 4(8.00 per cent) respondents are getting manual training. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 34(68.00 per cent) respondents are getting official training. Table No.11 Adequate importance is given for the training. Sl. Response of No Respondents 01 Not at all true No of the Respondents 10 Per cent 20.00 02 To some extent 25 50.00 03 Very true 15 30.00 50 100.00 Total SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 72
  73. 73. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT From above table out of 50 respondents 25 (50.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that adequate importance is given for training to some extent, 15 (30.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that ‘Training is given adequate importance’ and the remaining 10(20.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that training is not at all given adequate importance. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 25 (50.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that adequate importance is given for training to some extent. Table No.12 Senior line managers are eager in helping juniors to develop them through training. Sl. Response of No Respondents 01 Disagree No of the Respondents 13 Per cent 26.00 02 Agree to some extent 26 52.00 03 Agree 11 22.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 73
  74. 74. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Total 50 100.00 From above table out of 50 respondents 26 (52.00 per cent) respondents agree to some extent that senior line managers are eager to help juniors in developing them through training, 13(26.00 per cent) respondents disagree that ‘Senior line managers are eager to help juniors to develop them through training’ and the remaining 11(22.00 per cent) respondents agree to the above statement. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 26 (52.00per cent) respondents agree to some extent that senior line managers are eager to help juniors in developing them through training. Table No.13 Adequate free time is given to the employees to reflect and plan for improvement after the training. Sl. Response of No Respondents 01 Not Agree No of the Respondents 11 Per cent 22.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 74
  75. 75. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 02 Agree to some extent 03 Agree 28 11 22.00 50 Total 56.00 100.00 From above table out of 50 respondents 28 (56.00 per cent) respondents Agree to some extent that adequate free time is given to the employees to reflect and plan for improvement after the training.11(22.00 per cent) respondents agree and disagree that adequate free time is given to the employees to reflect and plan for improvement after the training’ respectively. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 28 (56.00per cent) respondents Agree to some extent that adequate free time is given to the employees to reflect and plan for improvement after the training. Table No.14 Training programmes are organized well. Sl. No 01 02 03 Response of respondents Very well Well Average No of the Respondents 06 15 23 Per cent 12.00 30.00 46.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 75
  76. 76. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 04 Not well 05 Very poor 06 00 12.00 00.00 Total 50 100.00 From the above table out of 50 respondents, more than half i.e. 23 respondents (46.00 per cent) of the respondents opinioned that training programmes are organized to an average extent, 15 (30.00 per cent) say that training programmes are well organized and remaining 06 (12.00 per cent)respondents opinioned that training programmed is organized very well and poor respectively It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 23 respondents (46.00 per cent) of the respondents opinioned that training programmes are organized to an average extent Table No.15 Evident change in the performance after getting training. Sl. Response of the No respondents 01 Yes No of the Respondents 39 Per cent 78.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 76
  77. 77. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 02 No 11 50 Total 22.00 100.00 From above table out of 50 respondents, more than half 39 (78.00 per cent) of the respondents say that there is an Evident change in their performance after getting training, and remaining 11(22.00 per cent) of the respondents say no to it. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 39 respondents (78.00 per cent) say that there is an Evident change in their performance after getting training Table No. 16 Training programmes will provide an opportunity to bring out the hidden skills. Sl. No Response of the Respondents No of the Respondents Per cent SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 77
  78. 78. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 01 Yes 40 80.00 02 No 10 20.00 50 100.00 Total From above table out of 50 respondents, more than half 40 (80.00 per cent) of the respondents say that Training programmes will provide an opportunity to bring out the hidden skills, and remaining 10 (20.00 per cent) of the respondents say no to it. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 39 respondents (78.00 per cent) Training programmes will provide an opportunity to bring out the hidden skills. Table No. 17 Aware of the selection procedure for training. Sl. No Response of the respondents No of the Respondents Per cent SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 78
  79. 79. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 01 02 03 04 05 06 Random Need based Seniority Appraisal Departments Any other Total 02 15 11 08 12 02 50 04.00 30.00 22.00 16.00 24.00 04.00 100.00 From above table out of 50 respondents 15 (30.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that selection procedure for training is need based, 12 (24.00 per cent) are of the opinioned that it is based on Departments, 11(22.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that is based on seniority, 08 (16.00 per cent) respondents say it is on the appraisal and remaining 02 (04.00 per cent) respondents opined selection procedure for training is based on random and any other criteria respectively. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 15 (30.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that selection procedure for training is need based. Table No.18 Development of the personality after attending the training. Sl. No 01 02 Response of the respondents Yes No Total No of the Respondents 43 07 50 Per cent 86.00 14.00 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 79
  80. 80. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT From above table out of 50 respondents, more than half 43 (86.00 per cent) of the respondents say that their personality developed after attending the training and remaining 07 (14.00 per cent) of the respondents opinioned negative to it. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 39 respondents (78.00 per cent) say that their personality developed after attending the training. Table no. 19 Procedure of training need to be changed. Sl. No 01 Response of the respondents Yes No of the Respondents 31 Per cent 62.00 02 No 19 38.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 80
  81. 81. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Total 50 100.00 From above table out of 50 respondents, more than half 31 (62.00 per cent) of the respondents say that Procedure of training need to be changed, and remaining 19 (38.00 per cent) of the respondents opinioned that procedure of training need not be changed. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 31 respondents (62.00 per cent) say that Procedure of training need to be changed. Table.No.20 Interest that will be considered while setting the objectives of the training programme. Sl. Response of the No respondents 01 Employees No of the Respondents 15 Per cent 30.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 81
  82. 82. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 02 Employer 03 Both Total 11 24 50 22.00 48.00 100.00 From above table out of 50 respondents 24 (48.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that both employees and employers Interest will be considered while setting the objectives of the training programme, 15(30.00 per cent) are of the opinioned that employees ‘Interest will be considered while setting the objectives of the training programme’, and the remaining 11(22.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that it is employers, interest will be considered while setting the objectives of the training programme . It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 24 (48.00per cent) respondents opinioned that both employees and employers Interest will be considered while setting the objectives of the training programme. Table.No.21 Training will improve confidence in work. Sl. Response of the No respondents 01 Yes No of the Respondents 44 Per cent 88.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 82
  83. 83. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 02 No 06 50 Total 12.00 100.00 From the above table shows out of 50 respondents more than half 44 (88.00 per cent) opinioned that their confidence level in work increased and remaining 06 (12.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that their confidence level did not increased the confidence level of work. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 44 (88.00per cent) respondents opinioned that their confidence level in work increased. Table No. 22 Trained on safety measures. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 83
  84. 84. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Sl. Response of the No respondents 01 Yes No of the Respondents 14 Per cent 28.00 36 72.00 50 100.00 0s2 No Total From the above table shows out of 50 respondents more than half 36 (72.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that they are not trained on safety measures, and remaining 14 (28.00 per cent) respondents are trained in the safety measures. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 36 (72.00per cent) respondents opinioned that they are not trained on safety measures. Table No. 23 Developments after getting the training. Sl. No Response of the respondents No of the Respondents SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Per cent Page 84
  85. 85. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 01 02 03 04 Skills development Aptitude development Updating the existing knowledge Acquiring new knowledge Total 10 04 08 28 50 20 08 16 56 100 From the above table out of total 50 respondents, just below half 28 (56.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that new knowledge is acquired after getting the training, 10 (20.00 per cent) respondents it is skills development, 08 (16.00 per cent) respondents say it is updating the existing knowledge, and remaining 04 (08.00 per cent) respondents feel their aptitude develops after getting the training. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 28 (56.00 per cent) respondents opinioned that new knowledge is acquired after getting the training. Table No. 24 Training centre is well equipped to organize the training programmes. Sl. No Response of the respondents No of the Respondents Per cent SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 85
  86. 86. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 01 Yes 42 84.00 02 No 08 50 16.00 100.00 Total From the above table shows out of 50 respondents more than half 42 (84.00 per cent) answered that training centre is well equipped for organizing the training programme and remaining 08 (16.00 per cent) of the respondents opinioned negatively to the above. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 42 (84.00per cent) respondents are of the opinion that training centre is well equipped for organizing the training programme. Table No. 25 Resource person of the training progrmme are efficient. Sl. No Response of the respondents No of the Respondents Per cent SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 86
  87. 87. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 01 Yes 31 62.00 02 No 19 38.00 50 100.00 Total From above table out of 50 respondents, more than half 31 (62.00 per cent) of the respondents say that ‘Resource person of the training progrmme are efficient’ and remaining 19 (38.00 per cent) of the respondents opinioned that resource person for the training programme is not efficient. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 31(62.00 per cent) respondents say that ‘Resource person of the training progrmme are efficient. Table. No. 26 The organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 87
  88. 88. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Sl. No 01 02 03 04 Response of the respondents Strongly agree Agree Somewhat agree Disagree Total No of the Respondents 14 22 06 08 50 Per cent 28.00 44.00 12.00 16.00 100.00 From the above table out of 50 respondents more than half 22 (44.00 per cent) of the respondents agreed that the organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy, 14 (28.00 per cent) respondents strongly agree that the organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy 08 (16.00 per cent) of the respondents disagree for the same and remaining 06 (12.00 per cent) of the respondents somewhat agree for the above mentioned view. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 22(44.00per cent) respondents agreed that the organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy. Table.No.27 Number of training programmes attended in a year. Sl. No Response of the respondents No of the Respondents Per cent SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 88

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