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Two   Operating Systems
 

Two Operating Systems

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    Two   Operating Systems Two Operating Systems Presentation Transcript

    • Computers: Tools for an Information Age Chapter 3 Operating Systems: Software in the Background
    • Objectives
      • Describe the functions of an operating system
      • Explain the basics of a personal computer operating system
      • Describe the advantages of a graphical operating system
      • Differentiate among different versions of Microsoft Windows
      • Explain the need for network operating systems
      • Describe the methods of resource allocation on large computers
      • Describe the differences among multiprocessing, multiprogramming, and time-sharing
      • Explain the principles of memory management
      • List several functions that are typically performed by utility programs
    • Operating Systems: Hidden Software
      • Serves as intermediary between hardware and applications software
      • Operating System
      • Systems software
      • Kernel
    • Operating System
      • A set of programs that lies between applications software and the hardware
        • Manages computer’s resources (CPU, peripheral devices)
        • Establishes a user interface
          • Determines how user interacts with operating system
        • Provides and executes services for applications software
    • Systems Software
      • All programs related to coordinating computer operations
      • Examples
        • Operating systems
        • Language translators
          • Convert program code to machine-readable form
        • Utility programs
          • Perform secondary chores
    • Kernel
      • Manages the operating system
        • Loaded from hard drive into memory when computer is booted
          • Booting refers to starting the computer
        • Loads other operating system programs from disk storage as needed
          • Other programs referred to as nonresident
    • Operating Systems for Personal Computers
      • Platform: combination of computer hardware and operating system software
        • Wintel (Microsoft Windows running on an Intel-based PC) is one of the most common
      • Common Platforms
        • MS-DOS
        • Windows
        • MAC OS
        • Unix
        • Linux
      Your Assignment: Comparison Matrix
    • Graphical User Interface
      • User clicks an icon to perform tasks
      • Start Menu in lower left corner launches programs
      • Use menus to activate commands
    • Windows XP
      • Brings consumer and corporate versions of Windows together into a single product
        • Has Home and Professional Editions
    • Windows XP Enhancements
      • Improved user interface
        • Much clearer and uncluttered desktop
        • More icons on redesigned Start Menu
      • Improved multimedia support
      • More personalization
      • Multiple user support
        • User can log off, leaving programs running, and allow another user to log on
        • Set up limited accounts for children to use; i.e., no inappropriate games or no Internet access
      • Internet support and protection
    • Operating Systems for Networks
      • Network operating system (NOS)
        • Handles network functions
          • Sharing resources (hard disks and printers)
          • Data security
          • Troubleshooting
          • Administrative control
        • Make resources appear as though they were running from client computers
    • Operating Systems for Large Computers
      • Resource allocation: assigning computer resources to certain programs and processes for their use
      • Main issues related to resource allocation
        • Sharing the Central Processing Unit
          • Multiprocessing
          • Multiprogramming
          • Time-Sharing
        • Sharing memory
        • Sharing storage resources
        • Sharing printing resources
    • Sharing the CPU
      • Multiprocessing
        • The use of a powerful computer with multiple CPUs
        • Multiple programs run simultaneously (each runs on its own processor)
      • Multiprogramming
        • Two or more programs executed concurrently
          • Programs take turns using the CPU
          • Event-driven
      • Time-Sharing
        • Programs take turns using the CPU
        • Time-driven
        • Typically used in applications with many users
    • Sharing Memory
      • Memory management
      • Divides memory into foreground and background
      • Uses virtual storage (also called virtual memory)
        • Programs currently executed are stored on disk
          • Portions of program brought into memory as needed
          • Minimizes the amount of memory needed
        • Can be implemented by paging
          • Divide memory into small, fixed-size pages
          • Page table keeps track of memory locations
    • Sharing Storage Resources
      • Keeps track of location of files
      • Responds to commands to manipulate files
      • Keeps track of input and output requests for files
        • Processes them in the order received
    • Sharing Printing Resources
      • Spooling: program writes a line to a disk file rather than sending directly to a printer
        • When file is completed, placed in queue
        • File printed when printer becomes available
      • Allows program to complete execution much more quickly
        • Writing to disk much quicker than writing to printer
    • Utility Programs
      • Perform secondary chores – some examples:
        • File manager
          • Stores files in a hierarchical directory structure
          • Windows uses Windows Explorer
        • File compression
          • Reduces amount of space a file requires
            • Makes file take up less space on disk
            • Takes less time to transmit across communication lines
        • Others
          • Backup and Restore
            • Backup: make copies of disks and store in a safe place
            • Restore: restore files from backups
          • Disk defragmenter: reorganizes disk so all files are stored in contiguous locations
          • Device driver: handles commands for devices, such as printers and storage devices
    • Systems Software Questions? Types of System Software? Functions? Utility Programs? Operating Systems?
      • Graphical user interface (GUI)
      • Kernel
      • Memory management
      • Multiprocessing
      • Multiprogramming
      • Operating system
      • Partitions
      • Platform
      Terms to Know: Chapter 3
      • Resource Allocation
      • Response time
      • Spooling
      • Time share
      • Utility programs
      • Virtual Memory/Storage
    • Can You Explain If Asked?
      • Describe the functions of an operating system
      • Explain the basics of a personal computer operating system
      • Describe the advantages of a graphical operating system
      • Differentiate among different versions of Microsoft Windows
      • Explain the need for network operating systems
      • Describe the methods of resource allocation on large computers
      • Describe the differences among multiprocessing, multiprogramming, and time-sharing
      • Explain the principles of memory management
      • List several functions that are typically performed by utility programs
    • Sources
      • Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003
      • Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your Future 2003
      • Microsoft Clipart
      • Webopedia