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Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
Two   Operating Systems
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Two Operating Systems

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  • 1. Computers: Tools for an Information Age Chapter 3 Operating Systems: Software in the Background
  • 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the functions of an operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the basics of a personal computer operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the advantages of a graphical operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate among different versions of Microsoft Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the need for network operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the methods of resource allocation on large computers </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the differences among multiprocessing, multiprogramming, and time-sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the principles of memory management </li></ul><ul><li>List several functions that are typically performed by utility programs </li></ul>
  • 3. Operating Systems: Hidden Software <ul><li>Serves as intermediary between hardware and applications software </li></ul><ul><li>Operating System </li></ul><ul><li>Systems software </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel </li></ul>
  • 4. Operating System <ul><li>A set of programs that lies between applications software and the hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages computer’s resources (CPU, peripheral devices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes a user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines how user interacts with operating system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides and executes services for applications software </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Systems Software <ul><li>All programs related to coordinating computer operations </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language translators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convert program code to machine-readable form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perform secondary chores </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. Kernel <ul><li>Manages the operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loaded from hard drive into memory when computer is booted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Booting refers to starting the computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loads other operating system programs from disk storage as needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other programs referred to as nonresident </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. Operating Systems for Personal Computers <ul><li>Platform: combination of computer hardware and operating system software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wintel (Microsoft Windows running on an Intel-based PC) is one of the most common </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS-DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAC OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul></ul>Your Assignment: Comparison Matrix
  • 8. Graphical User Interface <ul><li>User clicks an icon to perform tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Start Menu in lower left corner launches programs </li></ul><ul><li>Use menus to activate commands </li></ul>
  • 9. Windows XP <ul><li>Brings consumer and corporate versions of Windows together into a single product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has Home and Professional Editions </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Windows XP Enhancements <ul><li>Improved user interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much clearer and uncluttered desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More icons on redesigned Start Menu </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved multimedia support </li></ul><ul><li>More personalization </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple user support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User can log off, leaving programs running, and allow another user to log on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up limited accounts for children to use; i.e., no inappropriate games or no Internet access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet support and protection </li></ul>
  • 11. Operating Systems for Networks <ul><li>Network operating system (NOS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles network functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing resources (hard disks and printers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make resources appear as though they were running from client computers </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Operating Systems for Large Computers <ul><li>Resource allocation: assigning computer resources to certain programs and processes for their use </li></ul><ul><li>Main issues related to resource allocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing the Central Processing Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiprocessing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiprogramming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time-Sharing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing storage resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing printing resources </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Sharing the CPU <ul><li>Multiprocessing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of a powerful computer with multiple CPUs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple programs run simultaneously (each runs on its own processor) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiprogramming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more programs executed concurrently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programs take turns using the CPU </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Event-driven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Time-Sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs take turns using the CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically used in applications with many users </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Sharing Memory <ul><li>Memory management </li></ul><ul><li>Divides memory into foreground and background </li></ul><ul><li>Uses virtual storage (also called virtual memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs currently executed are stored on disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portions of program brought into memory as needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes the amount of memory needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be implemented by paging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divide memory into small, fixed-size pages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Page table keeps track of memory locations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 15. Sharing Storage Resources <ul><li>Keeps track of location of files </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to commands to manipulate files </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps track of input and output requests for files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes them in the order received </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Sharing Printing Resources <ul><li>Spooling: program writes a line to a disk file rather than sending directly to a printer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When file is completed, placed in queue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File printed when printer becomes available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows program to complete execution much more quickly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing to disk much quicker than writing to printer </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Utility Programs <ul><li>Perform secondary chores – some examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores files in a hierarchical directory structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows uses Windows Explorer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File compression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces amount of space a file requires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes file take up less space on disk </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes less time to transmit across communication lines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backup and Restore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backup: make copies of disks and store in a safe place </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restore: restore files from backups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disk defragmenter: reorganizes disk so all files are stored in contiguous locations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Device driver: handles commands for devices, such as printers and storage devices </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 18. Systems Software Questions? Types of System Software? Functions? Utility Programs? Operating Systems?
  • 19. <ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel </li></ul><ul><li>Memory management </li></ul><ul><li>Multiprocessing </li></ul><ul><li>Multiprogramming </li></ul><ul><li>Operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Platform </li></ul>Terms to Know: Chapter 3 <ul><li>Resource Allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Response time </li></ul><ul><li>Spooling </li></ul><ul><li>Time share </li></ul><ul><li>Utility programs </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Memory/Storage </li></ul>
  • 20. Can You Explain If Asked? <ul><li>Describe the functions of an operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the basics of a personal computer operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the advantages of a graphical operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate among different versions of Microsoft Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the need for network operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the methods of resource allocation on large computers </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the differences among multiprocessing, multiprogramming, and time-sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the principles of memory management </li></ul><ul><li>List several functions that are typically performed by utility programs </li></ul>
  • 21. Sources <ul><li>Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your Future 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Clipart </li></ul><ul><li>Webopedia </li></ul>

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