Two   Operating Systems
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Two Operating Systems

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Two   Operating Systems Two Operating Systems Presentation Transcript

  • Computers: Tools for an Information Age Chapter 3 Operating Systems: Software in the Background
  • Objectives
    • Describe the functions of an operating system
    • Explain the basics of a personal computer operating system
    • Describe the advantages of a graphical operating system
    • Differentiate among different versions of Microsoft Windows
    • Explain the need for network operating systems
    • Describe the methods of resource allocation on large computers
    • Describe the differences among multiprocessing, multiprogramming, and time-sharing
    • Explain the principles of memory management
    • List several functions that are typically performed by utility programs
  • Operating Systems: Hidden Software
    • Serves as intermediary between hardware and applications software
    • Operating System
    • Systems software
    • Kernel
  • Operating System
    • A set of programs that lies between applications software and the hardware
      • Manages computer’s resources (CPU, peripheral devices)
      • Establishes a user interface
        • Determines how user interacts with operating system
      • Provides and executes services for applications software
  • Systems Software
    • All programs related to coordinating computer operations
    • Examples
      • Operating systems
      • Language translators
        • Convert program code to machine-readable form
      • Utility programs
        • Perform secondary chores
  • Kernel
    • Manages the operating system
      • Loaded from hard drive into memory when computer is booted
        • Booting refers to starting the computer
      • Loads other operating system programs from disk storage as needed
        • Other programs referred to as nonresident
  • Operating Systems for Personal Computers
    • Platform: combination of computer hardware and operating system software
      • Wintel (Microsoft Windows running on an Intel-based PC) is one of the most common
    • Common Platforms
      • MS-DOS
      • Windows
      • MAC OS
      • Unix
      • Linux
    Your Assignment: Comparison Matrix
  • Graphical User Interface
    • User clicks an icon to perform tasks
    • Start Menu in lower left corner launches programs
    • Use menus to activate commands
  • Windows XP
    • Brings consumer and corporate versions of Windows together into a single product
      • Has Home and Professional Editions
  • Windows XP Enhancements
    • Improved user interface
      • Much clearer and uncluttered desktop
      • More icons on redesigned Start Menu
    • Improved multimedia support
    • More personalization
    • Multiple user support
      • User can log off, leaving programs running, and allow another user to log on
      • Set up limited accounts for children to use; i.e., no inappropriate games or no Internet access
    • Internet support and protection
  • Operating Systems for Networks
    • Network operating system (NOS)
      • Handles network functions
        • Sharing resources (hard disks and printers)
        • Data security
        • Troubleshooting
        • Administrative control
      • Make resources appear as though they were running from client computers
  • Operating Systems for Large Computers
    • Resource allocation: assigning computer resources to certain programs and processes for their use
    • Main issues related to resource allocation
      • Sharing the Central Processing Unit
        • Multiprocessing
        • Multiprogramming
        • Time-Sharing
      • Sharing memory
      • Sharing storage resources
      • Sharing printing resources
  • Sharing the CPU
    • Multiprocessing
      • The use of a powerful computer with multiple CPUs
      • Multiple programs run simultaneously (each runs on its own processor)
    • Multiprogramming
      • Two or more programs executed concurrently
        • Programs take turns using the CPU
        • Event-driven
    • Time-Sharing
      • Programs take turns using the CPU
      • Time-driven
      • Typically used in applications with many users
  • Sharing Memory
    • Memory management
    • Divides memory into foreground and background
    • Uses virtual storage (also called virtual memory)
      • Programs currently executed are stored on disk
        • Portions of program brought into memory as needed
        • Minimizes the amount of memory needed
      • Can be implemented by paging
        • Divide memory into small, fixed-size pages
        • Page table keeps track of memory locations
  • Sharing Storage Resources
    • Keeps track of location of files
    • Responds to commands to manipulate files
    • Keeps track of input and output requests for files
      • Processes them in the order received
  • Sharing Printing Resources
    • Spooling: program writes a line to a disk file rather than sending directly to a printer
      • When file is completed, placed in queue
      • File printed when printer becomes available
    • Allows program to complete execution much more quickly
      • Writing to disk much quicker than writing to printer
  • Utility Programs
    • Perform secondary chores – some examples:
      • File manager
        • Stores files in a hierarchical directory structure
        • Windows uses Windows Explorer
      • File compression
        • Reduces amount of space a file requires
          • Makes file take up less space on disk
          • Takes less time to transmit across communication lines
      • Others
        • Backup and Restore
          • Backup: make copies of disks and store in a safe place
          • Restore: restore files from backups
        • Disk defragmenter: reorganizes disk so all files are stored in contiguous locations
        • Device driver: handles commands for devices, such as printers and storage devices
  • Systems Software Questions? Types of System Software? Functions? Utility Programs? Operating Systems?
    • Graphical user interface (GUI)
    • Kernel
    • Memory management
    • Multiprocessing
    • Multiprogramming
    • Operating system
    • Partitions
    • Platform
    Terms to Know: Chapter 3
    • Resource Allocation
    • Response time
    • Spooling
    • Time share
    • Utility programs
    • Virtual Memory/Storage
  • Can You Explain If Asked?
    • Describe the functions of an operating system
    • Explain the basics of a personal computer operating system
    • Describe the advantages of a graphical operating system
    • Differentiate among different versions of Microsoft Windows
    • Explain the need for network operating systems
    • Describe the methods of resource allocation on large computers
    • Describe the differences among multiprocessing, multiprogramming, and time-sharing
    • Explain the principles of memory management
    • List several functions that are typically performed by utility programs
  • Sources
    • Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003
    • Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your Future 2003
    • Microsoft Clipart
    • Webopedia