Computers: Tools for an Information Age Chapter 3 Operating Systems: Software in the Background
Objectives <ul><li>Describe the functions of an operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the basics of a personal comput...
Operating Systems: Hidden Software <ul><li>Serves as intermediary between hardware and applications software </li></ul><ul...
Operating System <ul><li>A set of programs that lies between applications software and the hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Systems Software <ul><li>All programs related to coordinating computer operations </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul...
Kernel <ul><li>Manages the operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loaded from hard drive into memory when computer is boot...
Operating Systems for Personal Computers <ul><li>Platform: combination of computer hardware and operating system software ...
Graphical User Interface <ul><li>User clicks an icon to perform tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Start Menu in lower left corner la...
Windows XP <ul><li>Brings consumer and corporate versions of Windows together into a single product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Windows XP Enhancements <ul><li>Improved user interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much clearer and uncluttered desktop </li></...
Operating Systems for Networks <ul><li>Network operating system (NOS)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles network functions </l...
Operating Systems for Large Computers <ul><li>Resource allocation: assigning computer resources to certain programs and pr...
Sharing the CPU <ul><li>Multiprocessing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of a powerful computer with multiple CPUs </li></ul>...
Sharing Memory <ul><li>Memory management </li></ul><ul><li>Divides memory into foreground and background </li></ul><ul><li...
Sharing Storage Resources <ul><li>Keeps track of location of files </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to commands to manipulate fi...
Sharing Printing Resources <ul><li>Spooling: program writes a line to a disk file rather than sending directly to a printe...
Utility Programs <ul><li>Perform secondary chores – some examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File manager </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Systems Software Questions? Types of System Software? Functions? Utility Programs? Operating Systems?
<ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel </li></ul><ul><li>Memory management </li></ul><ul><li>Mult...
Can You Explain If Asked? <ul><li>Describe the functions of an operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the basics of a ...
Sources <ul><li>Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th  Ed. 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Pfaffenberger; Computers...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Two Operating Systems

2,038 views
1,931 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
1 Comment
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,038
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
67
Comments
1
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Two Operating Systems

  1. 1. Computers: Tools for an Information Age Chapter 3 Operating Systems: Software in the Background
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the functions of an operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the basics of a personal computer operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the advantages of a graphical operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate among different versions of Microsoft Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the need for network operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the methods of resource allocation on large computers </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the differences among multiprocessing, multiprogramming, and time-sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the principles of memory management </li></ul><ul><li>List several functions that are typically performed by utility programs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Operating Systems: Hidden Software <ul><li>Serves as intermediary between hardware and applications software </li></ul><ul><li>Operating System </li></ul><ul><li>Systems software </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel </li></ul>
  4. 4. Operating System <ul><li>A set of programs that lies between applications software and the hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages computer’s resources (CPU, peripheral devices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes a user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines how user interacts with operating system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides and executes services for applications software </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Systems Software <ul><li>All programs related to coordinating computer operations </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language translators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convert program code to machine-readable form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perform secondary chores </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Kernel <ul><li>Manages the operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loaded from hard drive into memory when computer is booted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Booting refers to starting the computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loads other operating system programs from disk storage as needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other programs referred to as nonresident </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Operating Systems for Personal Computers <ul><li>Platform: combination of computer hardware and operating system software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wintel (Microsoft Windows running on an Intel-based PC) is one of the most common </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS-DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAC OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul></ul>Your Assignment: Comparison Matrix
  8. 8. Graphical User Interface <ul><li>User clicks an icon to perform tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Start Menu in lower left corner launches programs </li></ul><ul><li>Use menus to activate commands </li></ul>
  9. 9. Windows XP <ul><li>Brings consumer and corporate versions of Windows together into a single product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has Home and Professional Editions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Windows XP Enhancements <ul><li>Improved user interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much clearer and uncluttered desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More icons on redesigned Start Menu </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved multimedia support </li></ul><ul><li>More personalization </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple user support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User can log off, leaving programs running, and allow another user to log on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up limited accounts for children to use; i.e., no inappropriate games or no Internet access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet support and protection </li></ul>
  11. 11. Operating Systems for Networks <ul><li>Network operating system (NOS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles network functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing resources (hard disks and printers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make resources appear as though they were running from client computers </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Operating Systems for Large Computers <ul><li>Resource allocation: assigning computer resources to certain programs and processes for their use </li></ul><ul><li>Main issues related to resource allocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing the Central Processing Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiprocessing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiprogramming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time-Sharing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing storage resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing printing resources </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Sharing the CPU <ul><li>Multiprocessing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of a powerful computer with multiple CPUs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple programs run simultaneously (each runs on its own processor) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiprogramming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more programs executed concurrently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programs take turns using the CPU </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Event-driven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Time-Sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs take turns using the CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically used in applications with many users </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Sharing Memory <ul><li>Memory management </li></ul><ul><li>Divides memory into foreground and background </li></ul><ul><li>Uses virtual storage (also called virtual memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs currently executed are stored on disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portions of program brought into memory as needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes the amount of memory needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be implemented by paging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divide memory into small, fixed-size pages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Page table keeps track of memory locations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Sharing Storage Resources <ul><li>Keeps track of location of files </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to commands to manipulate files </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps track of input and output requests for files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes them in the order received </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sharing Printing Resources <ul><li>Spooling: program writes a line to a disk file rather than sending directly to a printer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When file is completed, placed in queue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File printed when printer becomes available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows program to complete execution much more quickly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing to disk much quicker than writing to printer </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Utility Programs <ul><li>Perform secondary chores – some examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores files in a hierarchical directory structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows uses Windows Explorer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File compression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces amount of space a file requires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes file take up less space on disk </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes less time to transmit across communication lines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backup and Restore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backup: make copies of disks and store in a safe place </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restore: restore files from backups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disk defragmenter: reorganizes disk so all files are stored in contiguous locations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Device driver: handles commands for devices, such as printers and storage devices </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Systems Software Questions? Types of System Software? Functions? Utility Programs? Operating Systems?
  19. 19. <ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel </li></ul><ul><li>Memory management </li></ul><ul><li>Multiprocessing </li></ul><ul><li>Multiprogramming </li></ul><ul><li>Operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Platform </li></ul>Terms to Know: Chapter 3 <ul><li>Resource Allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Response time </li></ul><ul><li>Spooling </li></ul><ul><li>Time share </li></ul><ul><li>Utility programs </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Memory/Storage </li></ul>
  20. 20. Can You Explain If Asked? <ul><li>Describe the functions of an operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the basics of a personal computer operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the advantages of a graphical operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate among different versions of Microsoft Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the need for network operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the methods of resource allocation on large computers </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the differences among multiprocessing, multiprogramming, and time-sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the principles of memory management </li></ul><ul><li>List several functions that are typically performed by utility programs </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sources <ul><li>Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your Future 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Clipart </li></ul><ul><li>Webopedia </li></ul>

×