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Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
Systems Analysis And Design 2
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Systems Analysis And Design 2

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  • 1. Systems Analysis and Design: The Big Picture Computers:Tools for an Information Age
  • 2. Objectives
    • Define the terms “system,” “analysis,” and “design”
    • Describe the principal functions of the systems analyst
    • List and describe the phases of the systems development life cycle
    • Describe the various data-gathering and analysis tools
    • Describe a selection of systems design tools
    • Explain the concept of prototyping
    • Explain the role of the maintenance task in the systems development life cycle
  • 3. Systems Analysis Design
    • System – an organized set of related components established to accomplish a certain task
      • Computer system – a system that has a computer as one of its components
    • Analysis - Studying an existing system to determine how it works and how it meets users’ needs
      • Typically happens as a result of some impetus for change, combined with the authority to make the change
    • Design - The process of developing a plan for an improved system, based on the result of the systems analysis
  • 4. Who Participates? Project Team
  • 5. Key Individuals Involved in Systems Analysis
    • Systems analyst – performs analysis and design
      • May perform some programming as well
    • Client – the person or organization contracting to have the work done
    • User – the people who will have contact with the system
  • 6. Systems Analyst: A Change Agent
    • The catalyst or persuader who overcomes the reluctance to change within an organization
    • Systems analyst can function as change agent, but it works best if it is someone inside the organization
    • What it takes:
      • Coordination of many people, tasks, and schedules
      • Communication skills, both oral and written
      • Planning and design (an analytical mind)
        • Self-discipline and self-direction
        • Good organizational skills
        • Creativity
        • The ability to work without tangible results
  • 7. System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
    • Organized set of activities that guides those involved through the development of an information system.
    • Phases
      • Preliminary Investigation
      • Analysis
      • Design
      • Development
      • (Documentation)
      • Implementation
    • Ongoing activities
      • Project management
      • Overall Documentation
      • Information gathering
  • 8. Systems Development Life Cycle
    • Documentation
    • Preliminary Investigation
    • Or feasability study
    • Problem Definition
    • Development and testing.
    • Scheduling
    • Programming
    • Implementation
    • Training
    • Conversion
    • Evaluation
    • Maintenance
    • Analysis
    • Gather data
    • Analyze data
    • Develop requirements
    • Design
    • Preliminary design
    • Detail design
    • Ongoing Activities
    • Project Management
    • Documentation
    • Information Gathering.
  • 9. System Development Guidelines Use a structured approach Involve the Users Develop Standards
  • 10. Ongoing Activity: Project Management
    • The process of planning, scheduling, and controlling activities during the SDLC
    • Scope (goal, objectives, expectations)
    • Activities and Deliverables to be completed
    • Time estimates
    • Cost estimates
    • Order activities occur
    • Activities performed concurrently
    Gantt Chart Project Plan
  • 11. Ongoing Activity: Feasibility Assessment
    • Measure of how suitable the development of a system will be in the organization. (Initially occurs in the Preliminary Investigation phase but needs to be continuously reevaluated)
      • Operational feasibility
      • Schedule feasibility
      • Technical feasibility
      • Economic or cost/benefit feasibility
  • 12. Ongoing Activity: Documentation
    • Compilation and summarization of data and information
      • Reports
        • Diagrams
        • Programs
        • Other deliverables generated during SDLC
      • Project Notebook
      • Project Dictionary/Repository
  • 13. Ongoing Activity: Data & Info Gathering
    • Review current system documentation
    • Observe
    • Send Questionnaires
    • Interview
      • Structured/Unstructured
    • Conduct JAD (joint application design) sessions
    • Research
    Begins in Analysis Phase, but is continually updated
  • 14. Phase 1: Preliminary Investigation
    • A brief study of the problem to determine whether the project should be pursued
      • Also called the feasibility study or system survey
      • Involves working with the users
      • Organization chart – a hierarchical drawing showing the organization’s management
  • 15. Feasibility Study
    • Technical feasibility
    • Economic feasibility
    • Operational feasibility
      • are the current work practices and procedures adequate to support the new system?
      • Legal feasibility
    • Schedule feasibility
      • how long will the system take to develop, or can it be done in a desired time-frame?
  • 16. Defining the Problem
    • Two points that must be agreed upon
      • The nature of the problem
      • The scope (boundaries) of the problem
    • Agreeing on the problem helps define the objectives of the system
  • 17. Project Request
  • 18. Feasibility Assessment
  • 19. Feasibility Assessment (continued)
  • 20. Phase 2: Analysis
    • Understand the existing system
    • Two tasks are involved
      • Data gathering
      • Data analysis
  • 21. Data Gathering
    • A number of techniques can be used
      • Interviews with users and managers
        • Structured interview – includes only questions that have been written out in advance
        • Unstructured interview – interviewer has a general goal but few, if any questions prepared
      • Examining current business and systems documents and output
        • may include current order documents, computer systems procedures and reports used by operations and senior management
      • Sending out questionnaires
      • Observation of current procedures
        • by spending time in various departments; a time and motion study can show where procedures could be more efficient, or to detect bottlenecks
  • 22. Data Analysis
    • Typical tools for data analysis
      • Entity Relationship diagram
      • Data flow diagram
      • Decision table/Decision Tree
      • Written report
    • Report to management/ customer/ client
  • 23. Entity-Relationship Diagrams (ERD)
    • Tool to graphically represent the associations between entities in the project
    Noun Verb
  • 24. Data Flow Diagrams (DFD)
    • Tool to graphically represent the
    • flow of data in a system
    Process Source Data Flow Data Store
  • 25. Decision Table Decision Tree
  • 26. System Requirements & recommendations
    • A detailed list of things the system must be able to do
      • Highlight problems with current system
      • The design of the new system will be based on these requirements
      • Analyst and management must come to a clear agreement on requirements
      • List of possible solutions
      • Hardware/software recommendations
  • 27. Report to Management
    • Summarizes the problems found in the current system
    • Describes the requirements for the new system, including a cost analysis
    • Makes a recommendation on what course to take next
  • 28. Pre-Design considerations
    • The hardware platform
      • which type of computer, network capabilities, input, storage and output devices
    • The software
      • programming language, package or database
    • The outputs
      • report layouts and screen designs
    • The inputs
      • documents, screen layouts, validation procedures
    • The user interface
      • how users will interact with the computer system
    • The modular design
      • of each program in the application
    • The test plan and test data
    • Conversion plan
      • how the new system is to be implemented
    • Documentation
      • User
      • Technical
  • 29. Phase 3: Design
    • The new system is actually planned
    • Divided into two subphases
      • Preliminary design
        • Several key decisions must be made
      • Detail design specifications
        • Output requirements
        • Input requirements
        • Files and databases
        • System processing
        • System controls and backups
  • 30. Build or Buy?
    • Custom Software
      • Developed by user
      • Developed at user request by outside vendor
    • Packaged Software
      • Horizontal
        • Many org types
      • Vertical
        • Industry specific
    Preliminary
  • 31. Acquire Hardware/Software
    • Technical specifications
    • Solicit vendor proposals
    • Test & evaluate
      • Benchmark Test
    • Make a decision
    Detail
  • 32. Input Output
    • Things to consider
      • The medium (paper, screen, etc.) of the output
      • The types of reports needed and what data is needed for the reports
    • Things to consider
      • The input medium (captured at the source, keyed from source document)
      • The fields needed, how they are laid out on the input screen, etc.
      • Input validation may be necessary
    Detail Requirements
  • 33. Input/Output Design Mockup (User) Layout Chart (Programmer)
  • 34. Files and Databases
    • Things to consider
      • How files are organized
        • Sequentially, directly, or by another method
      • The format of the records making up the data files
    Detail
  • 35. Database Design
    • Table structure definitions & relationships
    • Security
    Detail
  • 36. Program Design Data Entry Program File Hard copy Comment Flow Chart System Processing Detail
  • 37. Phase 4: Development
    • Schedule and monitor the two principal activities
      • Programming
      • Testing
    • There are several project scheduling tools available
  • 38. Programming
    • Prepare program design specifications
    • Use logic flowcharts and pseudocode to facilitate code development
  • 39. Testing
    • Unit testing – verifies that individual program units work
      • Perform testing with test data
    • System testing – determines whether all program units work together as planned
    • Volume testing – uses real data in large amounts
      • Determines whether the system can handle a large volume of data
  • 40. Phase 5: Implementation
    • Steps involved in starting the new system
      • Training
      • Equipment conversion
      • File conversion
      • System conversion
      • Auditing
      • Evaluation
      • Maintenance
  • 41. Training
    • Teach users how to use the system
      • The system will do no better than the people using it
      • Develop user’s manual to aid users who are not familiar with the system
      • Hands-on training is best
  • 42. Equipment Conversion
    • Items to consider
      • Delivery schedules must be coordinated
      • Terminals or personal computers must be networked
      • Devices on the system must be compatible
  • 43. File Conversion
    • If existing files are manual, they must be keyed in or scanned into the system
      • Manual files must be kept current while data is being input into the new system
    • If existing files are computer-based, programs must be written to convert the files into the format needed for the new system
  • 44. System Conversion
    • Four approaches
      • Direct conversion – the user simply stops using the old system and starts using the new one
      • Phased conversion – the system is implemented one part at a time
      • Pilot conversion – the entire system is used by a designated set of users
      • Parallel conversion – the old and new systems are both used until users are satisfied the new system works
  • 45. Conversion Options
  • 46. Auditing
    • Systems to trace data in the system back to a source document
      • Very helpful in tracing security violations
  • 47. Evaluation
    • Determines how well the system is meeting the original requirements, benefits, and budgets
      • Evaluation can be performed by the analyst and someone from the organization
      • Evaluation can also be performed by an independent third party
  • 48. Maintenance
    • An ongoing activity that lasts the lifetime of the system
    • Several types of maintenance activities
      • Enhancements to the system
      • Fix bugs in the system as they are identified
  • 49. Terms to Know: Chapter 14
    • Analysis
    • Benchmark test
    • Build-or-buy decision
    • CASE
    • Cost/benefit analysis
    • Data dictionary
    • Data flow diagram
    • Decision tree/Decision table
    • Deliverable
    • Design
    • Development
    • Direct conversion
    • Documentation
    • Entity-relationship diagram (ERD)
    • Feasibility Assessment/Study
    • Gantt chart
    • Joint application development (JAD)
    • Layout chart
    • Mockup
    • Outsourcing
    • Parallel conversion
    • Phased conversion
    • Pilot conversion
    • Post-implementation system review
    • Preliminary investigation
    • Project dictionary
    • Project plan
    • Prototype
    • RFP, RFQ, RFI
    • Scope
    • System
    • System design
    • System development life cycle-SDLC
    • System testing
    • Systems analyst
    • Unit testing
    • Volume testing
  • 50. If asked, can you…
    • Define the terms “system,” “analysis,” and “design”
    • Describe the principal functions of the systems analyst
    • List and describe the phases of the systems development life cycle
    • Describe the various data-gathering and analysis tools
    • Describe a selection of systems design tools
    • Explain the concept of prototyping
    • Explain the role of the maintenance task in the systems development life cycle
  • 51. Sources
    • Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003
    • Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your Future 2003
    • Microsoft Clipart

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