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  • 1. Storage, Multimedia and File Organization CIS 105
  • 2.
      • List the benefits of secondary storage
      • Identify and describe storage media that are available for personal computers
      • Differentiate among the principal types of secondary storage
      • Describe how data is stored on a disk
      • Discuss the benefits of multimedia
      • Explain how data is organized, accessed, and processed
    Storage and Multimedia: The Facts and More
  • 3. Secondary Storage
    • Separate from the computer itself
    • Software and data stored on a semipermanent basis (Unlike memory, not lost when power is lost)
    • Benefits
      • Space
      • Reliability
      • Convenience
      • Economy
  • 4. Memory vs. Storage (Volatile) (Non-volatile)
      • Temporarily holds instructions to be completed and data to be used with those instructions
      • Holds data, instructions, and information for future use.
    Access time = nanoseconds (billionths of a second) Access time = milliseconds (thousandths of a second)
  • 5. Cost and Speed
  • 6. Formatting Formatting is the process of preparing a disk, hard disk, or CD for reading or writing. Formatting organizes the disk into storage locations called tracks ( a band that forms a circle on the disk). Formatting breaks the tracks into sectors which are small pie-shaped areas. Data stored in sectors must be retrieved for use and placed in memory. The time required to access and retrieve data is called access time . Tracks Sectors (Cluster: 2-8 sectors)
  • 7. Care of Floppy Disks
  • 8. Hard Disk Characteristics
    • Platter
    • Low (vendor) and High Level (operating system defines), Format
    • Partitions
    • Removable available
    • IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)
    • SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) – daisy chaining
    • RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) – level 1 (mirroring) and Striping
  • 9. RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Can be Combined (RAID LEVEL 0)
  • 10. Compact Disks
    • CD-ROM - drive can only read data from CDs
      • CD-ROM stores up to 700 MB per disk
      • Primary medium for software distribution
    • CD-R - drive can write to disk once
      • Disk can be read by CD-ROM or CD-R drive
    • CD-RW - drive can erase and record over data multiple times
      • Some compatibility problems trying to read CD-RW disks on CD-ROM drives
  • 11. Digital Versatile Disk (DVD)
    • Short wavelength laser can read densely packed spots
      • DVD drive can read CD-ROMs
      • Capacity up to 17GB
      • Allows for full-length movies
      • Sound is better than on audio CDs
    • Several versions of writable and rewritable DVDs exist
  • 12. CDs and DVDs
    • CD-ROM (compact disk)
      • 700 MB
      • Single track
    • DVD-ROM (digital video disk)
      • 4.7-17 GB
      • Denser; 2 layers
  • 13. Disk Terms Superdisk, Zip, USB Flash High Capacity Portable Disks/Drives Small opening in floppy disk with tab to slide to cover/expose notch; indicates whether info can be written to disk Write protect notch Table of info used to locate files on a disk FAT (File Allocation Table) # sides (2) x tracks (80) x sectors/track (18) x 512 (bytes/sector) = 1.44MB Density 2-8 sectors; smallest unit of space to store data Cluster Pie-shaped arcs making up track. 512 bytes; Sector Narrow recording band; forms circle on disk surface Track Process of preparing disk by organizing into locations (tracks/sectors) Formatting Portable, inexpensive, 3.5” Floppy disk/diskette
  • 14. Storage Strategies
    • Enterprise Storage Systems (ESS)
      • Focuses on availability, protection, organization, and back up of storage in a company.
    • Goal:
      • Consolidate storage so that operations run as efficiently as possible.
    • Examples:
      • RAID, tape libraries, Storage Area Networks (SAN)
    • Data Warehouses
      • Centralizes the computing environment, in which large megaservers store data, information, and programs, and less powerful client devices connect to the megaservers to access these items
  • 15. Trivia Storage vs Memory? 3 Types of RAID? Storage Strategies? Temporary vs future; Speed Enterprise Storage Systems Data Warehouse Mirrored Striped Combination
  • 16. Multimedia
    • Presents information with text, illustrations, photos, narration, music, animation, and film clips
    • Not practical until the advent of the optical disk
  • 17. Organizing and Accessing Data
    • Database
    • File
    • Record
    • Field
    • Character
    • Key Field
  • 18. File Organization
    • Three major methods of organizing data files in secondary storage
      • Sequential
      • Direct
      • Indexed
  • 19. Sequential File Organization
    • Records are stored in order according to a key field
      • If a particular record is desired, all prior records must be read first
      • To update a record, a new sequential file must be created, with changed and unchanged records
    • Tape storage uses sequential organization
  • 20. Direct File Organization
    • Also called random access
    • Go directly to desired record by using a key
      • Computer does not have to read all prior records
    • Requires disk storage
  • 21. Indexed File Organization
    • Combines elements of sequential and direct methods
      • Records stored sequentially, but file also contains an index
      • Index stored sequentially, contains record key
      • Data accessed by record key
  • 22.
      • the benefits of secondary storage
      • The types of storage media that are available for personal computers
      • the principal types of secondary storage
      • how data is stored on a disk
      • the benefits of multimedia
      • how data is organized, accessed, and processed
    If asked, can you explain…
  • 23. Questions? ? ? ? ? ?
  • 24. Terms to Know: Storage, Multimedia & File Management
    • Access time
    • Backup
    • Bad sectors
    • Character
    • Cluster
    • CD-ROM
    • Database
    • Digital Versatile disk (DVD)
    • FAT (File Allocation Table)
    • Field
    • Formatting
    • Fragmented
    • Key field
    • Preformatted
    • RAID
    • Record
    • Secondary Storage
    • Sectors
    • Server
    • Striping
    • Tracks
    • USB Flash Drive
    • Zip drive
  • 25. Sources
    • Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003
    • Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your Future 2003
    • Microsoft Clipart