One   Computers Overview
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One Computers Overview

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    One   Computers Overview One Computers Overview Presentation Transcript

    • Computers: Tools for an Information Age (An Overview)
    • Objectives
      • Describe the fundamental characteristics of computers
      • Describe the benefits of computers
      • Distinguish data from information
      • Identify the basic components of a computer system: input, processing, output, and storage
      • List some common input, output, and storage media
      • Describe the significance of networking
      • Explain the significance of the Internet
      • Explain the various classifications of computers
    • What Is Computer Literacy?
      • Awareness : of the importance, versatility, and pervasiveness of computers in our society
      • Knowledge : Learning what computers are and how they work – learning the jargon
      • Interaction : Learning how to use computers
    • The Need for Computer Fluency
      • What is computer fluency?
        • Knowledge possessed by people who are able to navigate the digital world successfully; includes computer literacy, plus knowledge of underlying concepts & principles
      • Points to Ponder…
        • How can you become computer fluent?
        • Why are computer-fluent people better at gauging the true level of risk of a virus?
    • Benefits of Computers
      • Productivity
        • Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
        • Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by computers
      • Decision Making
        • Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and logistical factors
      • Cost Reduction
        • Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork
    • Why is a Computer Powerful?
      • Speed of light...
      • Reliability
        • low failure rate = consistency
      • Accuracy
        • GIGO (garbage in = garbage out)
      • Storage
        • quick, efficient
      • Communications – Sharing
        • input, process, output, and storage
    • Data or Information?
      • Data :
      • A collection of unorganized facts
        • Words
        • Numbers
        • Images
        • Sounds
      • Information:
      • Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful
        • Reports
        • Newsletters
        • Receipt or Invoice
        • Picture
        • Check
    • Computer System Includes
      • Hardware
        • Equipment associated with the system
      • Software
        • Instructions that tell the hardware what to do
      • People
        • Computer programmer: writes software
        • User: purchases and uses software
    • Definition of a computer
      • A machine that accepts data (input) and processes it into useful information (output). A computer system requires four main aspects of data handling:
        • Input
        • Processing
        • Output
        • Storage
    • Personal Computer System Peripheral Devices
    • Computer Components
    • The Processor
      • Center of activity in the computer
        • Consists of electronic circuits
          • Interprets and executes program instructions
          • Communicates with input, output, and storage devices
      • Actually transforms data into information
    • Memory
      • Random access memory (RAM) is a temporary storage area for data to be processed.
        • Storage measurement basics:
          • KB = 1,000 memory locations
          • MB = One million memory locations
          • GB = One billion memory locations
        • Memory locations usually store one character or byte per location.
        • Example:
        • 64 MB RAM holds 64 million bytes (characters ) before it becomes full.
      512 64 256 128
    • Primary Storage
      • Used to temporarily hold data (volatile)
        • After it is retrieved from input device and before it is processed
        • After it is processed and before it is released to output device
        • Data in memory lost if power is lost or program closed
    • Software
      • System Software
      • User Interface
        • -a graphical user interface (GUI).
        • Uses pictures/icons to give commands.
      • Operating System
        • Controls the operations of the computer.
        • Translates hardware and software.
      • Utility Programs
        • Specific tasks
      • Application Software
      • Packaged
        • Meets needs of many users
      • Custom
        • Unique requirements
      • Shareware
        • Distributed free for a trial period
      • Freeware/Public Domain
        • No cost
        • Freeware is copywrited
        • Public Domain has no copywrite restrictions.
      • Software Development
        • Programmers
        • Systems Analysts
    • Storage Devices
      • Also known as auxiliary or secondary storage.
      • Floppy disks hold 1.44 MB data
      • Zip disks = approximately 70 floppy disks
      • Hard disks hold 4 GB to 75 GB
      • Compact discs hold 650 MB CD-R (compact disc-recordable)
        • CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable)
      • Digital video disc-ROM hold 4.7 to 17 GB
      • USB Flash Drives 16 MG – 2 GB
      What size hard drive does your computer have?
    • Networks
      • A network is a collection of computers and devices connected through communications media and devices such as cables, telephone lines, modems, or other means.
    • Types of Networks
      • Local Area Networks (LAN)
      • Connects computers in a limited geographic area.
      • Commonly used in:
        • Schools
        • Office
        • Groups of buildings
      • Can be small or extensive.
      • Wide Area Networks (WAN)
      • Covers a large geographical area such as:
        • District offices of a national corporation.
    • The Internet
      • The largest and most far-reaching network
        • Connects users worldwide
        • Not actually a network, but a collection of thousands of networks
      • Began as a means for Department of Defense and its research institutions to share information
        • Information was text-only
        • Commands to navigate were obscure
      • Now, much more visually based
        • Use browser to explore the Internet
        • World Wide Web
    • The World Wide Web
      • A subset of the Internet
        • Actually, a standard for displaying and transmitting information
      • Web site: a location on the Web
        • Home page: the main page of a Web site
    • Accessing the World Wide Web Step 1: Use your computer and modem to make a local telephone call to an ISP (Internet Service Provider). Step 2: With your browser on the screen, enter the address or URL of the Web site you want. Step 3: The Web browser locates the Web site for the entered address and displays a Web Page on your screen.
    • Getting Connected
      • To access the Internet, connect to a server computer
        • Server receives, processes, and transmits information
      • Computers use a standard (aka protocol) to communicate
        • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) used on the Internet
        • Allows different types of computers to share data
      • Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)
    • Internet Service Providers
      • The owner of a server computer
        • Charges a fee for access to the Internet
          • Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on usage
      • Provides the user a means to connect to the server
        • Once connected, you can connect to the Internet and all other server computers
      • Web page is a document that contains text, graphics, sound, and/or video, and has built-in connections or hyperlinks to other web documents.
      • Web site is a related collection of Web pages stored on computers throughout the world.
      • Web browser is the software program that allows for accessing and viewing Web pages.
      • Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is the unique address for a Web page consisting of a protocol and domain name.
        • http:// stands for hypertext transfer protocol
        • www stands for World Wide Web
        • Domain name identifies the web site on a Web server.
        • Web server is a computer that processes and delivers the requested web pages.
        • protocol domain name
        • http://www.prodigy.com
      Web Terms
    • Electronic Mail E-mail
      • Transmission of messages via a computer network.
      • Electronic mail software enables you to create, send, receive, forward, etc. email message. For example: Outlook
      • E-mail address is a combination of a username and domain name. For example: [email_address]
      • For free email accounts try www.hotmail.com
      • For more information on the Web and email, go to www.learnthenet.com
    • If Asked, Can You…
      • Describe the fundamental characteristics of computers
      • Describe the benefits of computers
      • Distinguish data from information
      • Identify the basic components of a computer system: input, processing, output, and storage
      • List some common input, output, and storage media
      • Describe the significance of networking
      • Explain the significance of the Internet
      • Explain the various classifications of computers
    • Questions? ? ? ? ? ?
      • Browser
      • Central Processing Unit
      • Computer Literacy
      • Data Vs. Information
      • Hardware
      • Home Page
      • Input
      • Internet
      • ISP
      • Memory
      • Modem
      • Output
      • Peripheral Equipment
      • Primary And Secondary Storage
      • Software
      • TCP/IP
      • Web Site
      • WWW
      Terms to Know: Computer Overview
    • Sources
      • Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003
      • Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your Future 2003
      • Microsoft Clipart
      • Webopedia
    • If Asked, Can You…
      • Describe the fundamental characteristics of computers
      • Describe the benefits & challenges of computers
      • Identify the basic components of a computer system: input, processing, output, and storage List some common input, output, and storage media
      • Describe the significance of networking
      • Explain the significance of the Internet
      • Explain the various classifications of computers