Computers: Tools for an Information Age (An Overview)
Objectives <ul><li>Describe the fundamental characteristics of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the benefits of comput...
What Is Computer Literacy? <ul><li>Awareness : of the importance, versatility, and pervasiveness of computers in our socie...
The Need for Computer Fluency <ul><li>What is computer fluency? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge possessed by people who ar...
Benefits of Computers <ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better ...
Why is a Computer Powerful? <ul><li>Speed of light... </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low failure rate...
Data or Information? <ul><li>Data : </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of unorganized facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words </li><...
Computer System Includes <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment associated with the system </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Definition of a computer <ul><li>A machine that accepts  data  (input) and processes it into useful  information  (output)...
Personal Computer System Peripheral Devices
Computer   Components
The Processor <ul><li>Center of activity in the computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of electronic circuits  </li></ul>...
Memory <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) is a temporary storage area for data to be processed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stor...
Primary Storage <ul><li>Used to temporarily hold data (volatile) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After it is retrieved from input de...
Software <ul><li>System Software </li></ul><ul><li>User Interface  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-a graphical user interface (GUI)...
Storage Devices <ul><li>Also known as auxiliary or secondary storage.  </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy disks hold 1.44 MB data </...
Networks <ul><li>A network is a collection of computers and devices connected through communications media and devices suc...
Types of Networks <ul><li>Local Area Networks (LAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Connects computers in a limited geographic area. </l...
The Internet <ul><li>The largest and most far-reaching network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects users worldwide </li></ul></...
The World Wide Web <ul><li>A subset of the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actually, a standard for displaying and transmit...
Accessing the World Wide Web Step 1: Use your computer and modem to make a local telephone call to an ISP (Internet Servic...
Getting Connected <ul><li>To access the Internet, connect to a  server  computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server receives, pr...
Internet Service Providers <ul><li>The owner of a server computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charges a fee for access to the In...
<ul><li>Web page  is a document that contains text, graphics, sound, and/or video, and has built-in connections or  hyperl...
Electronic Mail E-mail <ul><li>Transmission of messages via a computer network. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic mail software...
If Asked, Can You… <ul><li>Describe the fundamental characteristics of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the benefits o...
Questions? ? ? ? ? ?
<ul><li>Browser </li></ul><ul><li>Central Processing Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Data Vs. I...
Sources <ul><li>Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th  Ed. 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Pfaffenberger; Computers...
If Asked, Can You… <ul><li>Describe the fundamental characteristics of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the benefits &...
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One Computers Overview

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One Computers Overview

  1. 1. Computers: Tools for an Information Age (An Overview)
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the fundamental characteristics of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the benefits of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish data from information </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the basic components of a computer system: input, processing, output, and storage </li></ul><ul><li>List some common input, output, and storage media </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the significance of networking </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the significance of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the various classifications of computers </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Computer Literacy? <ul><li>Awareness : of the importance, versatility, and pervasiveness of computers in our society </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge : Learning what computers are and how they work – learning the jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction : Learning how to use computers </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Need for Computer Fluency <ul><li>What is computer fluency? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge possessed by people who are able to navigate the digital world successfully; includes computer literacy, plus knowledge of underlying concepts & principles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Points to Ponder… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can you become computer fluent? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are computer-fluent people better at gauging the true level of risk of a virus? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Benefits of Computers <ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and logistical factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost Reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Why is a Computer Powerful? <ul><li>Speed of light... </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low failure rate = consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIGO (garbage in = garbage out) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quick, efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communications – Sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>input, process, output, and storage </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Data or Information? <ul><li>Data : </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of unorganized facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information: </li></ul><ul><li>Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsletters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receipt or Invoice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Computer System Includes <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment associated with the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions that tell the hardware what to do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer programmer: writes software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User: purchases and uses software </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Definition of a computer <ul><li>A machine that accepts data (input) and processes it into useful information (output). A computer system requires four main aspects of data handling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Personal Computer System Peripheral Devices
  11. 11. Computer Components
  12. 12. The Processor <ul><li>Center of activity in the computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of electronic circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets and executes program instructions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates with input, output, and storage devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Actually transforms data into information </li></ul>
  13. 13. Memory <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) is a temporary storage area for data to be processed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage measurement basics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KB = 1,000 memory locations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MB = One million memory locations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GB = One billion memory locations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory locations usually store one character or byte per location. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>64 MB RAM holds 64 million bytes (characters ) before it becomes full. </li></ul></ul>512 64 256 128
  14. 14. Primary Storage <ul><li>Used to temporarily hold data (volatile) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After it is retrieved from input device and before it is processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After it is processed and before it is released to output device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data in memory lost if power is lost or program closed </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Software <ul><li>System Software </li></ul><ul><li>User Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-a graphical user interface (GUI). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses pictures/icons to give commands. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operating System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the operations of the computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translates hardware and software. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utility Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application Software </li></ul><ul><li>Packaged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets needs of many users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Custom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shareware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed free for a trial period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freeware/Public Domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freeware is copywrited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Domain has no copywrite restrictions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems Analysts </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Storage Devices <ul><li>Also known as auxiliary or secondary storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy disks hold 1.44 MB data </li></ul><ul><li>Zip disks = approximately 70 floppy disks </li></ul><ul><li>Hard disks hold 4 GB to 75 GB </li></ul><ul><li>Compact discs hold 650 MB CD-R (compact disc-recordable) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital video disc-ROM hold 4.7 to 17 GB </li></ul><ul><li>USB Flash Drives 16 MG – 2 GB </li></ul>What size hard drive does your computer have?
  17. 17. Networks <ul><li>A network is a collection of computers and devices connected through communications media and devices such as cables, telephone lines, modems, or other means. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Networks <ul><li>Local Area Networks (LAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Connects computers in a limited geographic area. </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be small or extensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Networks (WAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Covers a large geographical area such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>District offices of a national corporation. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Internet <ul><li>The largest and most far-reaching network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects users worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not actually a network, but a collection of thousands of networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Began as a means for Department of Defense and its research institutions to share information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information was text-only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commands to navigate were obscure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now, much more visually based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use browser to explore the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Wide Web </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The World Wide Web <ul><li>A subset of the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actually, a standard for displaying and transmitting information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web site: a location on the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home page: the main page of a Web site </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Accessing the World Wide Web Step 1: Use your computer and modem to make a local telephone call to an ISP (Internet Service Provider). Step 2: With your browser on the screen, enter the address or URL of the Web site you want. Step 3: The Web browser locates the Web site for the entered address and displays a Web Page on your screen.
  22. 22. Getting Connected <ul><li>To access the Internet, connect to a server computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server receives, processes, and transmits information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers use a standard (aka protocol) to communicate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) used on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows different types of computers to share data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Internet Service Providers <ul><li>The owner of a server computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charges a fee for access to the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on usage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides the user a means to connect to the server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once connected, you can connect to the Internet and all other server computers </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Web page is a document that contains text, graphics, sound, and/or video, and has built-in connections or hyperlinks to other web documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Web site is a related collection of Web pages stored on computers throughout the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Web browser is the software program that allows for accessing and viewing Web pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is the unique address for a Web page consisting of a protocol and domain name. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// stands for hypertext transfer protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www stands for World Wide Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain name identifies the web site on a Web server. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web server is a computer that processes and delivers the requested web pages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> protocol domain name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.prodigy.com </li></ul></ul>Web Terms
  25. 25. Electronic Mail E-mail <ul><li>Transmission of messages via a computer network. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic mail software enables you to create, send, receive, forward, etc. email message. For example: Outlook </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail address is a combination of a username and domain name. For example: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>For free email accounts try www.hotmail.com </li></ul><ul><li>For more information on the Web and email, go to www.learnthenet.com </li></ul>
  26. 26. If Asked, Can You… <ul><li>Describe the fundamental characteristics of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the benefits of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish data from information </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the basic components of a computer system: input, processing, output, and storage </li></ul><ul><li>List some common input, output, and storage media </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the significance of networking </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the significance of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the various classifications of computers </li></ul>
  27. 27. Questions? ? ? ? ? ?
  28. 28. <ul><li>Browser </li></ul><ul><li>Central Processing Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Data Vs. Information </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Home Page </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>ISP </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Modem </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Primary And Secondary Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>Web Site </li></ul><ul><li>WWW </li></ul>Terms to Know: Computer Overview
  29. 29. Sources <ul><li>Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your Future 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Clipart </li></ul><ul><li>Webopedia </li></ul>
  30. 30. If Asked, Can You… <ul><li>Describe the fundamental characteristics of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the benefits & challenges of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the basic components of a computer system: input, processing, output, and storage List some common input, output, and storage media </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the significance of networking </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the significance of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the various classifications of computers </li></ul>

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