D1-Job-sharing Where two people share the responsibilities of a job that would normally be done by one person. Each person is employed on a part-time basis but together they cove a full time post. Some Advantages and Disadbantages of Job Sharing That Some Individual Employees Have Identified Advantages More time for family More time for other interests Higher level of job satisfaction Makes subsequent transition to full-time easier Less stress and burn-out Provides a &quot;mental break&quot; from the children More flexibility for arranging days off More time for continuing education Provides part-time work for those seeking it Shifts and pay are more regular than other types of part-time work Opportunity for a more balanced life-style Disadvantages Limited opportunity for career advancement if there is a continued desire to work in job share arrangement Less identification with workplace and employees Less opportunity for in-service training Work time can extend into time off Harder to change jobs Possible conflicts between job share partners Impacts future pension benefits
D2-Part-time working This is when people only work a limited number of hours. The advent of on-line services has meant that fewer jobs are available but workers can now work fewer hours. Advantage s: Flexibility in work hours; trained-employee retention; improved recruitment. Disadvantages : Increased benefit costs; less chance for advancement.
D3-Flexible working hours Combines &quot;core time&quot; when all are expected to be at work and &quot;flexible time&quot; when employees may or may not be present. Employees are usually expected to work 40 hours/week. Variations include length of day, and starting and quitting times. Example * IBM : Most of IBM's domestic employees are eligible for flexitime. Includes variable, customized and staggered work schedules. Auckland, New Zealand City Council Offices : Have a long core time, with fewer flexible hours. Effects Advantages: Improves employee morale; accomodates the needs of employees with children and other outside demands. Disadvantage : Lack of supervision during some work hours.
D4-Working from home With the advent of on-line working many jobs can now be undertaken from home. Benefits for employers – Cost savings The main savings are in premises costs, office overheads and labour. Companies adopting telework methods achieve significant reductions in total office occupancy. Work can be carried out wherever the appropriate skills are available at the optimum mix of costs and other factors. In some circumstances recruitment costs can also be reduced, as can the costs associated with high staff turnover (attrition) rates. If a company adopts a total &quot;flexible working&quot; strategy, all costs associated with relocation of staff can be eliminated. Increased productivity Productivity increases of 40% have been reported, though a range of 10%-40% is probably more typical across a large-scale programme. Teleworkers avoid travel time and the interruptions of a office environment. Both teleworkers and their managers consistently report significant productivity gains. Improved motivation In successful programmes, employees respond well to the signal of trust and confidence indicated by the employer's adoption of more independent work styles encouraged by teleworking. Skills retention Employees who might otherwise leave can remain in their jobs, for example when the family moves because of a job change by another family member who works in a non-telework company. Employees who take a career break can continue working part time and remain up to date with the business and its methods. Employees who take maternity leave can continue to undertake some tasks and require less retraining when they return to work full time. Organisation flexibility In the event of restructuring and reorganisation people can continue to work without disruption to their personal lives. People work in dispersed teams that can be assembled and reassembled as the needs of the enterprise change. Teams representing the best skills and experience for a particular project can be created, regardless of geography and time zones and with a minimal need for extra travel. Flexible staffing In activities that generate peaks and troughs of workload, telework can enable staff to work limited hours to match peak workload, without the staff concerned having to travel. In limited hours working the travel element can otherwise become as long as the work time. In some cases staff can be on &quot;standby time&quot; at home at retainer rates and then paid at higher rates when needed for active work. Resilience Organisations with effective teleworking programmes are more resilient in the face of external disruption - for example transport strikes, severe weather, natural disasters or terrorist action. Enhanced customer service Customer services can be extended beyond the working day or the working week without the costs of overtime payments or the need for staff to work (and travel) at unsocial hours.
Benefits for individuals – Reduced travel time and costs This is the most obvious benefit and, for many teleworkers, a primary motivation. In our surveys, most teleworkers have used at least part of this time to get more work done, in contrast to the &quot;relaxed lifestyle&quot; image painted by the media. Improved work opportunities Work opportunities are not confined to jobs within reasonable commuting distance. Less disruption to family life An effective telework and flexible working programme reduces the need for relocation to take up &quot;career moves&quot; and other job changes. Better balance of work and family life Even though the teleworker may put in more hours of effective work, he or she can still expect to see more of the family and can more easily participate in home responsibilities such as ferrying children, shopping etc. Participation in the local community An important benefit for many rurally based teleworkers is being &quot;on the spot&quot; to participate in community activities - for example as a school governor or in local clubs and societies, at a time when commuters are still en route . Flexible hours A flexible approach to working hours often accompanies the successful teleworking programme. Each individual has a personal daily &quot;rythm&quot; - some are at their most lively and creative in the early morning, some late at night. Typical commuting patterns and office hours condemn everyone to work roughly the same timetable, while a flexible telework approach can mean individual freedom to stop and start according to what works best. (Note however that there are cases where the task requires the teleworker to be available at specific hours, for example in customer service activities.)
Social and economic benefits – Reduced traffic congestion In the most intensive commuter areas its quite noticeable how much more easily the traffic flows when even ten percent of commuters are away on holiday. Our study of transport-telecommunications substitution for the UK Department of Transport confirmed that even on days when teleworkers commute, they tend to choose off peak times. Reduced total travel and consequent pollution The same transport-telecommunications substitution study also confirmed that teleworkers do generate a worthwhile net reduction in total car travel. In California and some other states, there are legal or fiscal programmes aimed at encouraging telework as part of a battery of anti-pollution measures. Wider employment/work opportunities Potentially, telework can enable people in an area of high unemployment to have access to work opportunities that arise anywhere world wide. To take advantage of this, either the individual must have skills that are in high demand and plus well developed personal skills in electronic networking that will bring their competence to the attention of appropriate employers, or the local community must take steps to establish itself with a high profile on the networks so that &quot;distance working&quot; opportunities are generated for local people. Access to work for people with specific difficulties Telework can also enable access to work, training and social interaction for people who have specific problems - for example those with disabilities that make it difficult to travel to work or to do a normal nine-to-five working day; single parents who need to be at home for the children; carers with responsibility for an elderly or sick relative. Again, special measures may be needed to make such access realisable. MTA supports the AccessNet Campaign, which seeks to ensure equality of access (or better!) to the networked economy for people with disabilities. Economic regeneration Telework and teletrade are central to future opportunities for trade and work and should now be an important element of any economic regeneration programme. This is addressed by MTA's published report Telework and Teletrade: The Local and Regional Response,. Drawbacks – home based telework is inappropriate for some people many homes are not well equipped for some kinds of telework some companies have management systems and cultures that are not (yet) well adapted to the flexibility that telework can entail not all tasks are best performed in a distributed self managing environment. In some customer service or sales activities there’s an advantage to the kind of team spirit and internal motivation that can best be generated by leaders and managers sitting in with the teams and “leading from the front”.
D5-Compressed hours Compressed hours working involves employees working the same number of hours but over a shorter number of days. It usually involves working four or four and a half days in a week, or nine days out of ten in a fortnight. Describe compressed hours. D6-Ability to move from branch to branch With many companies having centralized computer systems, it is not as important which office workers operate from. They will still be able access their work.
3d - The Effects Of The Use Of On Line Services On Working Patterns
The effects of the use of on-line services on working patterns Mr. Powell
Job-sharing Opportunity for a more balanced life-style Shifts and pay are more regular than other types of part-time work Provides part-time work for those seeking it More time for continuing education Impacts future pension benefits More flexibility for arranging days off Possible conflicts between job share partners Provides a "mental break" from the children Harder to change jobs Less stress and burn-out Work time can extend into time off Makes subsequent transition to full-time easier Less opportunity for in-service training Higher level of job satisfaction Less identification with workplace and employees More time for other interests Limited opportunity for career advancement if there is a continued desire to work in job share arrangement More time for family Disadvantages Advantages
Part Time Work improved recruitment less chance for advancement trained-employee retention Increased benefit costs Flexibility in work hours DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES
Flexible working hours <ul><li>Combination of “core time” and “flexi time” </li></ul><ul><li>Variables include which days, length of days and start/finish times </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves employee moral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodates employee’s outside demands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of supervision during some work hours </li></ul></ul>
W f H - Benefits for employers <ul><li>Cost savings </li></ul><ul><li>Increased productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Improved motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Skills retention </li></ul><ul><li>Organization flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced customer service </li></ul>
W f H - Benefits for individuals <ul><li>Reduced travel time and costs </li></ul><ul><li>Improved work opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Less disruption to family life </li></ul><ul><li>Better balance of work and family life </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in the local community </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible hours </li></ul>
W f H – Social & economic benefits <ul><li>Flexible hours </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced traffic congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced total travel and consequent pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Wider employment/work opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Access to work for people with specific difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Economic regeneration </li></ul>
Others Working influences <ul><li>Compressed Hours </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to move from branch to branch </li></ul>