What can higher education contribute to developing skills for the knowledge economy?Strategies for higher education in a more open andonline world: the role of open and distance learning OECD IMHE General Conference 17 -19 September, 2012 Gard Titlestad Secretary General ICDE
Outline• Introduction• Demands and system failures• ODL Growth and disruptive initiatives• Technology facilitates• Impact through the knowledge triangle• To be addressed to…..• Conclusion
What is ICDE?• the leading global membership organization for open and distance education• an NGO official partner of UNESCO, and shares that agency’s key aim – the attainment of quality education for all• member focused – ICDE is an organization which will involve members in decision making, in cooperative action and in cooperative problem solving.• transparent – Members will be able to follow the activities and decisions of ICDE.• ICDE believes that in pursuing education as a universal right, the needs of the learner must be central.• senior management in member institutions is actively involved in ICDE
Global need for barrier-free access to higher education• Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO “Higher education: In less than 40 years, enrolments have increased fivefold. Globally it is estimated that demand will expand from less than 100 million students in 2000 to over 250 million students in 2025.”
Students demandsStudents andlearners are gainingmore influence andincreasinglydemanding qualityonline, resourcebased and flexiblelearning.
Mobilising the workforce: Mobication• Tomorrow’s employment policies must create conditions to facilitate labour mobility through Education the lifelong learning of the individual.• Coordination between the labour market and Welfare Work education policy is crucial for business competitiveness and future welfare.
School failure – system failure• Reducing school failure pays off for both society and individuals. More education attainment provides better labour market prospects and contributes to economic growth and social progress. The highest performing education systems across OECD countries are those that combine high quality and equity. Overcoming School Failure: Policies that Work February 2012
University drop-outs (or push outs?) cost 660 million Euros per year in Spain aloneNorway – 2005 - 2010Total drop out/push out:12% (Health educations)- 37 % (Management and Economy)Only health educations have lower drop out rate than 20%
Dr Qian Tang, Assistant Director-General for Education, UNESCO, Flexible learning for inclusive education• Yet all people, regardless of their sex, race, religion, disability or national, ethnic and social origin, are entitled to a quality education. Denying them such an opportunity is not only an infringement of their fundamental human rights; it is also a serious waste of society’s human resources. Indeed, education that is restricted to certain social groups deprives a country of significant assets and skills that could be tapped to build prosperous communities. Furthermore, it limits the impact of national efforts to create peaceful, just, fair and cohesive societies.• Inclusive education is therefore non-negotiable.
ODL in rapid growth• The world’s 18 largest mega-universities are open universities serving more than 14.3 million students. Most of these universities were founded after the 1970s.• China: 1 of every 10 registered students in higher education is a student at The Open University of China.• Africa: African Virtual University has signed up with 21 countries and 28 Universities to provide Open and Distance eLearning, based on OER and the Internet.
"Going the Distance:Online Education in the United States, 2011"• Almost one-third of enrolments in HE in the autumn of 2010 in the USA were online enrolments, with more than 30% of the students taking at least one course online. Allen, E. I., Seaman, J. - Sloan Consortium, 2011
India25% of Indian students are nowcovered by distance education Lakh = 100.000
The Future - USA• College presidents predict substantial growth in online learning: 15% say most of their current undergraduate students have taken a class online, and 50% predict that 10 years from now most of their students will take classes online.• Nearly two-thirds of college presidents (62%) anticipate that 10 years from now, more than half of the textbooks used by their undergraduate students will be entirely digital.• The Digital Revolution and Higher Education. 2011. By Kim Parker, Amanda Lenhart and Kathleen Moore
Disruptive innovation Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaDisruptive innovation does not make a good product or servicebetter, but makes it more affordable and accessible, so more peoplecan purchase or use it.
Technology as facilitatorThe rapid development ofinformation andcommunication technology(ICT) offers tremendouseducational opportunities toprovide new innovative,accessible and more affordableways of learning. Mansoor Al Awar, Chairman, Middle East e-Learning
Mobile: Sceptisism towards mobile tec.Rapid mobile delvelopment In education (UNESCO)• There are 1.2 billion mobile • Mobile technologies not yet internet users worldwide massive impact on• There are 5.9 billion mobile education subscribers (87 percent of • Carries a stigma (distracting to the world population). young people, access to inappropriate• Over 300,000 mobile apps content, destructive behaviour – have been developed in bullying) three years. • Confuse access with• Huge potential for learning education and learning • Education policies rarely speak about the promise of mobile learning
Open Educational Resources - OER• Any educational resources) • Hugh potential for lowering that are openly available for barriers to HE, dramatic use by educators and lowering costs, support students, without an resource based teaching, accompanying need to pay stimulate innovation in royalties or licence fees. education. • Impact on global economic growth? • Rapid growth, slow uptake • UNESCO declaration, EU consultation, OECD activity. • Top down – bottom up
Universities: ODL and OER can fuelthe Knowledge TriangleHigh quality education Open AccessResearch based education Research based OERResource based education Research based teaching OER and ODL Innovation in education Innovate the learning system and institutions Knowledge supply for innovation
To harvest the benefits from ODL To be adressed:Governments: Universities:• Optimal regulatory and • Strategies and leadership policy framework for ODL, • Build competencies incentives for OER • Faculty training, student• Sector overarching policies training for ODL for mobilising the workforce • Flip the classroom for• Initiatives for new student-oriented and knowledge on effect and personalised learning impact of ODL on delivering high quality ODL HEI, private and public sector: Build partnerships and agreements for knowledge supply, mobilising the workforce
Conclusions A strong need for:• A professional, policy-oriented debate throughout the world, on the opportunities and challenges coming from a more open and online world.• Innovative examples to be fed into the debate, fed into the development of the learning system.• Research on distance, online, eLearning, in particular to have an oversight of where are we, what do we know, and what are the great challenges which need to be explored and researched.• Need to be met by a “Partnership for inclusive, high quality open and online higher education”