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3D model fabricated by layered manufacturing for visually handicapped persons to trace heart shape
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3D model fabricated by layered manufacturing for visually handicapped persons to trace heart shape

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Tactile Graphics and Models for Blind People and Recognition of Shapes by Touch - Three-dimensional model fabricated by layered manufacturing for visually handicapped persons to trace heart shape - …

Tactile Graphics and Models for Blind People and Recognition of Shapes by Touch - Three-dimensional model fabricated by layered manufacturing for visually handicapped persons to trace heart shape - Teshima, Yoshinori (s)

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  • 1. 13th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs (ICCHP2012) July 11, 2012, University of Linz Three-Dimensional Model Fabricated by Layered Manufacturing for Visually Handicapped Persons to Trace Heart Shape Kenji Yamazawa1, ○Yoshinori Teshima2,Yasunari Watanabe2, Yuji Ikegami1 Mamoru Fujiyoshi3, Susumu Oouchi4, and Takeshi Kaneko4 1 RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Japan 2 Chiba Institute of Technology, Japan 3 National Center for University Entrance Examinations, Japan 4 National Institute of Special Needs Education, Japan 1
  • 2. Our Project “Research onRecognition of 3D Objects by the Visually Impaired and Development of 3D Geometrical Teaching Materials” (April,2006 --- March,2010)The project is supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (18200049) of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Project Members / Research backgroundTESHIMA, Yoshinori / Digital Manufacturing, Discrete Geometry FUJIYOSHI, Mamoru / Educational Technology IKEGAMI, Yuji / Design, ManufacturingKANEKO, Takeshi / Special Education for the Visually ImpairedOOUCHI, Susumu / Special Education for the Visually Impaired WATANABE, Yasunari / Crystallography YAMAZAWA, Kenji / Manufacturing 2
  • 3. In ICCHP2010, we presented five papers and eight posters and exhibitions.Mathematically Defined Curved Surfaces 3
  • 4. Our Exhibitions in ICCHP2010 Polyhedra Crystallographic Teaching Materials 4
  • 5. Our Exhibitions in ICCHP2010Mars Moon Venus Earth Planets Monna Lisa Tactile PaintingRadiolarian Radiolarian Foraminifera Skeleton of Plankton 5
  • 6. Problem of Models on the Market 3B SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTS FAME MASTERTwo problems on outer shape1. Blood Vessels are too crowded together to make a distinction.2. Coronary Artery are unclear for the tactile observation. 6
  • 7. Improvements 1. Make the open space between Blood Vessels 2. Raise the Coronary ArteryOur Key Technologies CAD + Layered Manufacturing 7
  • 8. Principle of Layered manufacturing Stereolithography 3D data Laser beam Solidified layer Liquid Platform Photopolymer ⇒ 1st layer    4th layer       Last layer 3D Printing Roller Inkjet device    Powder Liquid binder 3D modelSlice data (gypsum) Clinging part Thickness of each layer Platform in the models = 0.1 mm. 8
  • 9. Layered manufacturing machine Yamazawa Laboratory, RIKEN, Japan Layered manufacturing machine Wax Infiltration unit Data Control PC Depowder unit Stereolithography                    3D Printing (SOUP250, CMET) (Z402C, Z Corp.) 9
  • 10. Our models Manufacturing Outer dimensions Weight No. Material Method ( W×D×H: mm ) (g)Model-1 Stereolithography 120×87×140 225 Liquid PhotopolymerModel-2 Stereolithography 90×65×105 114 Liquid PhotopolymerModel-3 3D Printing 90×65×105 226 Gypsum Powder Model-1 Model-2 Model-3 (Enlarge Model) (Life-Size Model) (Life-Size Model) 10
  • 11. Our Models (From a different angle) Model-1 Model-2 Model-3 (Enlarge Model) (Life Size Model) (Life Size Model) Stereolithography Stereolithography 3D Printing 11
  • 12. Recognition Test 10 subjects (8 boys and 2 girls): totally blind The duration of the test: 20 min per a subject aorta pulmonary trunk pulmonary vein superior vena cava base of heart inferior vena cava apex of heart coronary artery 12
  • 13. Recognition Test Results (1)Level of understanding of outer shape of heart after touching Use: Model-1 Correct Incorrect1. Apex of heart and base of heart 10 0 2 5 3 6 2. Aorta 10 0 3. Superior vena cava 10 0 1(base) 4. Inferior vena cava 10 0 5. Pulmonary trunk 10 0 6. Pulmonary vein 10 0 4 1(apex) 7. Coronary artery 10 0 7 (Number of subjects) 13
  • 14. Recognition Test Results (2) Level of tactually feeling of material Model-2 > Model-3 > Model-2 = Use: Model-2 and Model-3 Model-3 Model-2 Model-3 Level of tactually feeling 4 5 1 (Number of subjects) Model-2 Model-3 (Photopolymer) (Gypsum Powder) Same size but different materials 14
  • 15. Recognition Test Results (3) Level of understanding by touching according to size of model Model-1 > Model-2 > Model-1 = Use: Model-1 and Model-2 Model-2 Model-1 Model-2 Level of understanding 8 1 1 (Number of subjects) Model-1 Model-2 (Enlarge Model) (Life-Size Model) Same material(photopolymer) but different size 15
  • 16. Conclusion •To understand the blood vessels of heart, enlarged model (Model-1) is suitable •To understand the whole shape of the heart, life-size model (Model-2 and Model-3) is suitable. •Our heart shape models are useful for teaching anatomy to the blind people. 16
  • 17. Thank youAcknowledgements:This work was partially supported byGrant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (18200049)of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).Kind cooperation to our recognition test:Special Needs Education Schoolfor the Visually Impaired, University of Tsukuba 17
  • 18. Introduction• Layered manufacturing techniques have been used for modelling complex shapes from three-dimensional data acquired using a computer.• In this study, we generated three-dimensional models of the human heart by layered manufacturing; using these models, visually handicapped persons could trace the shape of a heart by touching.• We assessed the level of understanding of the visually handicapped persons about the external structure of the heart and the position of blood vessels.
  • 19. Outer shape of Model Model-3    10 mm Model-2 ICCHP 2012
  • 20. Problems 1. 冠状動脈がわかりづらい 2. 心底の血管が密集していて区別しづらい 3. 型による製品なので、 ユーザーの希望に沿った形状変更が出来ない 哺乳類の心臓を 実際に解剖するのは良いが 柔らかくて形が定まらないものは 立体形状の認識が困難3B SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTS FAME MASTER 材質  PVC =ポリ塩化ビニル  PS =ポリスチレン  ABS = いずれも柔らかいプラスティック、熱可塑性 (thermo plastic) 光造形のエポキシ樹脂は熱硬化性