Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Scotland's Autarkic Vision
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Scotland's Autarkic Vision

283

Published on

Published in: Environment, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
283
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Autarkic – localised energy systems Definitions: “We define a region to be energy autarkic when it relies on its own energy resources for generating the useful energy required to sustain the society within that region” Muller et al., Energy Policy 39 (2011) 5800-5810 “… a situation in which a region does not import substantial amounts of energy resources” Schmidt et al., Energy Policy 47 (2012) 211-221 “… a framework for local action towards the development of a region’s viability, based on the transformation of the energy subsystem” Muller et al., Energy Policy 39 (2011) 5800-5810
  • 2. Autarkic – localised energy systems Definitions: “We define a region to be energy autarkic when it relies on its own energy resources for generating the useful energy required to sustain the society within that region” Muller et al., Energy Policy 39 (2011) 5800-5810 “… a situation in which a region does not import substantial amounts of energy resources” Schmidt et al., Energy Policy 47 (2012) 211-221 “… a framework for local action towards the development of a region’s viability, based on the transformation of the energy subsystem” Muller et al., Energy Policy 39 (2011) 5800-5810
  • 3. Motivations • Loss of faith in conventional approaches to dealing with geo- political shocks • Desire for more local/regional solutions • Creation of entrants into the energy space (local utility companies formed, Consumer Co-ops, HA’s, LA’s) • The main dynamism therefore is cultural • Centralised approach is a function of its age (1950-80) • Efficiency gains at large scale are exhausted • Developments in generation and communications technology creating economic opportunities at a different scale Lovins A, Rocky Mountain institute, 2007; Awerbuch S., Tyndall Centre, 2004, Verbong & Geels, Tech Fore & Soc Chng, 77 (2010) 1214-1221
  • 4. Transition vs. Behaviour Technology optimism has to be fused with social factors Current social policy champions individualism It suggests that societal factors are associated with personal attitudes, behaviours and choices (Shove, Environment and Planning, 2010, 42, 1273-1285) Treating change as a series of purchasing and consumption behaviours over simplifies the scale of the challenge Transition is required and move towards Autarkic entities provides that stimulus to change
  • 5. energy subsystem economic subsystem social subsystem ecological subsystem region energy subsystem economic subsystem social subsystem ecological subsystem region Flow of information Flow of material/goods Flow of energy Flow of people Region or entity as open systems
  • 6. 2014 fuel to load map electricityfossil fuel resources Fuel electricity Heat regional resources
  • 7. 2030 fuel to load map electricityfossil fuel resources Fuel electricity Heat regional resources Regional production of goods and services Bartering with other regions & entities Inward investment Appeal of region Sustainable economic model Job security Local Benefits
  • 8. Change ?? Societal change: Transition rather than behaviour Values: Philosophical approaches that provide space for sufficiency, conservation and localism become more relevant New electricity model: Demand response, active distribution networks, dynamic tariffs Different economic model: Community participation, revolving funds, localism, new market entrants, consumer co-ops Enabling technologies: CHP, ASHP, Wind, District heating schemes, Biomass, EV’s and other local storage solutions Energy permaculture e.g. Waste/Forestry Residue  Biogas  Electricity
  • 9. Issues & Challenges • What are the boundaries – e.g. is embodied energy to be measured • Will costs rise as a consequence of reduced trade • Local winners and losers may create local disruption • Security of energy supply (resilience) • Universality of application – some regions or entities well suited, others less so • Access to capital/investment – how does the ball start rolling everywhere
  • 10. Case Study: Güssing, Austria 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Energy efficiency drive – reduce building energy demand by 50% Wood burning plant Space heating for 27 homes Opening of the European Centre for Renewable Energy Heat plant expanded to whole town Local electricity generation plant installed Biomass gasification plant installed 50 companies 1000 jobs 22MWh Power pa CO2 emissions reduced by 93% Population of 4000 €4.5M revenue €0.5M profit for a revolving fund
  • 11. Case Study: Güssing, Austria “The fundamental business model of Güssing Renewable Energy is the provision of communities with energy, thereby aiming at the creation of energy self-sufficiency and safety as well of jobs through new business establishments.”
  • 12. Case Studies – Findhorn, Scotland Findhorn Community PV electricity 25kW District heating 250kW Wind park 750kW Heat pumps 25kW Solar hot water 100m2 Biomass boilers 350kW Current energy use 39kWh/m2 pa 33 companies largest employer in the area Own and maintain local distribution network circa70% of energy demand met by RE Involved in the ORIGIN demand response project Starting to deploy electric vehicle fleet
  • 13. Case Studies – Jühnde, Germany Jühnde Houses 145 Biogas CHP 700kWe; 750kWth Biogas from liquid manure and silage Electricity sold directly to the grid Wood chip boiler 550kW Co-operative ownership; 70% of inhabitants Active community participation and a well functioning social network required Support of the mayor important
  • 14. Each region in Scotland will practice energy autarky with goal for a minimum (say) 70% self- sufficiency by 2030 Dealing with heating and electricity vectors – to include electrical transport Autarkic – localised energy systems Stated 2030 Vision

×