Waste | Jim Baird
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Waste | Jim Baird Waste | Jim Baird Presentation Transcript

  • Carbon Accounting in the Waste Sector
    Prof Jim Baird
    Caledonian Environment Centre
    Glasgow Caledonian University
    1
  • Scotland’s Waste
    • Households
    • 3.2 Million Tonnes
    • Offices/Schools/Shops/Industry
    • 8.4 Million Tonnes
    • Construction and Demolition
    • 10.4 Million Tonnes
    2
  • Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC)
    Tightened up standards for operation
    Required pre-treatment of waste prior to landfill
    And Perhaps most significantly:
    Set targets for the diversion of Biodegradable Municipal Waste
    Municipal Waste
    Biodegradable
    3
  • Definitions
    Municipal Waste
    EU - waste from households, as well as other waste, which, because of its nature or composition, is similar to waste from household
    UK – Waste Collected by or on behalf of the Local Authority
    Biodegradable
    Any waste that is capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition, such as; food and garden waste; and paper and cardboard
    Leads to Biodegradable Municipal Waste (BMW)
    4
  • Effect of Recycling on Biodegradable tonnage
    3.2Mt/yr
    2.5Mt/yr
    1.2
    Landfill Directive Targets
    1.0
    2.0
    1.5
    1.32
    0.88
    0.6
    2020
    2013
    2010
    2002/3
    2005/6
    5
  • Implications
    • By 2010 – need 300kt/yr treatment capacity
    • 5 of these
    6
  • Implications
    • Or
    • 4 of these
    7
  • Implications
    • Or a lot more of this:
    8
  • Or Even better -
    9
  • Evolving Drivers – Recycling Targets
    • Scotland currently recycles/composts around 30% of MSW
    • New recycling/composting targets:
    • 40% by 2010
    • 50% by 2013
    • 60% by 2020
    • 70% by 2025
    • New National Waste Plan with single outcome agreements for each local authorities
    • Max. 25% mixed waste treated using efficient energy technologies (e.g. EfW)
    10
  • First Wave:
    Recycling and Composting
    11
  • CO2 E
    CO2 E
    Resources
    Resources
    CO2 E
    Landfill
    Householders (Councils)
    Waste
    Sector
    Energy Sector
    Manufacturing Sector
    Business Consumers
    Reprocessor
    Materials
    EfW
    12
  • Current Situation -41%Recycling
    An Example Council
    Population: 60,000 households
    13
  • Increased Recycling – 52% Recycling
    14
    An Example Council
    Population: 60,000 households
  • Carbon Impacts – 4 Components
    Collection – vehicles locally collecting waste
    Local Reprocessing – includes transport to markets
    Displacing Virgin Material
    Landfilling residual
    15
  • Displacement of Virgin Materials
    16
  • Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes
    17
  • Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes
    18
  • Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes
    19
  • Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes
    20
  • Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes
    21
  • Scotland’s Emissions Mt CO2E
    22
  • Scotland’s Carbon Emissions (CO2E)
    Scotland
    Scotland’s Waste Sector
    2.36Mt (4%)
    59Mt
    • Fugitive landfill Emissions
    • Gas Recovery
    • Energy Sector
    • Industrial Processes
    • Agriculture
    • Land Use/Forestry
    • Waste
    • Collection
    • Reprocessing
    • Recycled materials
    23
  • Impact of Scotland’s Municipal Waste
    3.2Mt/yr to manage – two scenarios
    Scenario 1 No recycling – all waste to landfill
    Scenario 2 52% recycling – remainder to landfill
    Expanding of kerbside collection services
    Recycling Centres
    Focus of organic materials being recovered
    24
  • Impact of Scotland’s Municipal Waste
    25
  • CO2 E
    CO2 E
    Resources
    Resources
    CO2 E
    Landfill
    Householders (Councils)
    Waste
    Sector
    Energy Sector
    Manufacturing Sector
    Business Consumers
    Reprocessor
    Materials
    EfW
    26
  • Waste Management Contributing to Scotland’s Carbon Reduction Programme
    Landfill Diversion – helping to reduce the 2.36Mt/yr
    BMW reductions help – Landfill gas as energy recovery remains critical
    Doesn’t address commercial organic wastes though
    Recycling – helping to reduce the 59Mt/yr
    Small contribution to emissions from collection
    Through raw material substitution – major contribution
    Yet what fiscal carbon mechanism works to support the waste sector?
    none
    27
  • But what about Waste Prevention
    Avoiding the production of waste is best
    Taking a basket of materials (Paper/card/plastic/textiles/glass/metals)
    Avoided CO2 per tonne of material (USEPA data)
    Apply 10% reduction of these materials across MSW and C&I waste streams in Scotland
    Predicts 1Mt/yr in CO2TE emissions reduction!
    28
  • Waste Supporting Carbon Reduction
    Well targeted waste policies have a compounding effect and could contribute 6% towards Scotland’s 80% reduction targets
    29
  • To Conclude:
    Waste Management can play an important role in reducing Scotland’s GHG Emissions
    The IPCC Reporting Mechanisms limit the extent to which the waste sector is credited for its contribution.
    30