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Waste | Jim Baird
 

Waste | Jim Baird

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    Waste | Jim Baird Waste | Jim Baird Presentation Transcript

    • Carbon Accounting in the Waste Sector
      Prof Jim Baird
      Caledonian Environment Centre
      Glasgow Caledonian University
      1
    • Scotland’s Waste
      • Households
      • 3.2 Million Tonnes
      • Offices/Schools/Shops/Industry
      • 8.4 Million Tonnes
      • Construction and Demolition
      • 10.4 Million Tonnes
      2
    • Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC)
      Tightened up standards for operation
      Required pre-treatment of waste prior to landfill
      And Perhaps most significantly:
      Set targets for the diversion of Biodegradable Municipal Waste
      Municipal Waste
      Biodegradable
      3
    • Definitions
      Municipal Waste
      EU - waste from households, as well as other waste, which, because of its nature or composition, is similar to waste from household
      UK – Waste Collected by or on behalf of the Local Authority
      Biodegradable
      Any waste that is capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition, such as; food and garden waste; and paper and cardboard
      Leads to Biodegradable Municipal Waste (BMW)
      4
    • Effect of Recycling on Biodegradable tonnage
      3.2Mt/yr
      2.5Mt/yr
      1.2
      Landfill Directive Targets
      1.0
      2.0
      1.5
      1.32
      0.88
      0.6
      2020
      2013
      2010
      2002/3
      2005/6
      5
    • Implications
      • By 2010 – need 300kt/yr treatment capacity
      • 5 of these
      6
    • Implications
      • Or
      • 4 of these
      7
    • Implications
      • Or a lot more of this:
      8
    • Or Even better -
      9
    • Evolving Drivers – Recycling Targets
      • Scotland currently recycles/composts around 30% of MSW
      • New recycling/composting targets:
      • 40% by 2010
      • 50% by 2013
      • 60% by 2020
      • 70% by 2025
      • New National Waste Plan with single outcome agreements for each local authorities
      • Max. 25% mixed waste treated using efficient energy technologies (e.g. EfW)
      10
    • First Wave:
      Recycling and Composting
      11
    • CO2 E
      CO2 E
      Resources
      Resources
      CO2 E
      Landfill
      Householders (Councils)
      Waste
      Sector
      Energy Sector
      Manufacturing Sector
      Business Consumers
      Reprocessor
      Materials
      EfW
      12
    • Current Situation -41%Recycling
      An Example Council
      Population: 60,000 households
      13
    • Increased Recycling – 52% Recycling
      14
      An Example Council
      Population: 60,000 households
    • Carbon Impacts – 4 Components
      Collection – vehicles locally collecting waste
      Local Reprocessing – includes transport to markets
      Displacing Virgin Material
      Landfilling residual
      15
    • Displacement of Virgin Materials
      16
    • Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes
      17
    • Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes
      18
    • Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes
      19
    • Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes
      20
    • Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes
      21
    • Scotland’s Emissions Mt CO2E
      22
    • Scotland’s Carbon Emissions (CO2E)
      Scotland
      Scotland’s Waste Sector
      2.36Mt (4%)
      59Mt
      • Fugitive landfill Emissions
      • Gas Recovery
      • Energy Sector
      • Industrial Processes
      • Agriculture
      • Land Use/Forestry
      • Waste
      • Collection
      • Reprocessing
      • Recycled materials
      23
    • Impact of Scotland’s Municipal Waste
      3.2Mt/yr to manage – two scenarios
      Scenario 1 No recycling – all waste to landfill
      Scenario 2 52% recycling – remainder to landfill
      Expanding of kerbside collection services
      Recycling Centres
      Focus of organic materials being recovered
      24
    • Impact of Scotland’s Municipal Waste
      25
    • CO2 E
      CO2 E
      Resources
      Resources
      CO2 E
      Landfill
      Householders (Councils)
      Waste
      Sector
      Energy Sector
      Manufacturing Sector
      Business Consumers
      Reprocessor
      Materials
      EfW
      26
    • Waste Management Contributing to Scotland’s Carbon Reduction Programme
      Landfill Diversion – helping to reduce the 2.36Mt/yr
      BMW reductions help – Landfill gas as energy recovery remains critical
      Doesn’t address commercial organic wastes though
      Recycling – helping to reduce the 59Mt/yr
      Small contribution to emissions from collection
      Through raw material substitution – major contribution
      Yet what fiscal carbon mechanism works to support the waste sector?
      none
      27
    • But what about Waste Prevention
      Avoiding the production of waste is best
      Taking a basket of materials (Paper/card/plastic/textiles/glass/metals)
      Avoided CO2 per tonne of material (USEPA data)
      Apply 10% reduction of these materials across MSW and C&I waste streams in Scotland
      Predicts 1Mt/yr in CO2TE emissions reduction!
      28
    • Waste Supporting Carbon Reduction
      Well targeted waste policies have a compounding effect and could contribute 6% towards Scotland’s 80% reduction targets
      29
    • To Conclude:
      Waste Management can play an important role in reducing Scotland’s GHG Emissions
      The IPCC Reporting Mechanisms limit the extent to which the waste sector is credited for its contribution.
      30