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Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Animal Husbandry | Colin Burton
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Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Animal Husbandry | Colin Burton

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  • 1. Greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry Colin BURTON ICARB Agricultural Workshop Glasgow Caledonian University 7th June 2011
  • 2. • Impacts from the management of wastes • Treatment options and abatement techniques • Measuring emissions • The way forward : whole farm strategies2 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 3. Livestock production in Europe3 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 4. Potential environmental impact Ozone Global warming depletion pathogens ammonia Acidification nitrous oxide odours methane BOD phosphorus nitrates Nutrient overload Disease Soil contamination4 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 5. The main gases from animal manure • Methane G • Nitrous oxide G O • Carbon dioxide G • Ammonia A G Greenhouse gas (global warming) A Linked to acid rain O Depletion of ozone in stratosphere5 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 6. Nitrogen transformations6 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 7. Livestock agriculture and pollution 82% 29% 7% Ammonia Methane Dust (PM10) 52% 18% Nitrous oxide Water pollution7 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 8. • Treatment options and abatement techniques8 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 9. Sources of emission9 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 10. Spreading strategies Location Weather N P Quantities Timing and season10 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 11. Aerobic treatment of liquid effluent • Removal of up to 100% of the organic matter as BOD5 • (Pig slurry) Removal of up to 40% of organic matter as COD • Removal of offensive odours; stabilisation for 2 to 3 months • Removal of up to 100% of the ammoniacal nitrogen • Temperatures up to 70oC; some removal of pathogens • Improved and quicker settlement of suspended matter Biological process11 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 12. N2O emissions during aerobic treatment 2 jours 20 jours • Residence time : 2 et 20 jours • Dosing cycle : every hour • Systeme : CSTR (continous stirred tank reactor12 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 13. Anaerobic digestion • Removal of up to 100% of the BOD5 organic matter as methane & CO2 • Some reduction in offensive odours; some stabilisation • No change in the level of ammoniacal nitrogen • Some reduction of some pathogens • Up to 80% of the bio-gas produced may be required for slurry heating • Fugitive emissions of methane13 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 14. What can AD achieve? • Biogas production • Lower demand for fossil fuel • Avoid subsequent CH4 production • Odour abatement • Reduction of organic load • Reduction in some disease organisms14 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 15. What AD can’t achieve? • Effect the nitrogen content • Effect the phosphorous content • Sterilisation of the manure • Removal of heavy metals • Effluent safe for release to the river • To pay for itself without external help15 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 16. Treatment of emissions to air Filters Adsorption Cyclones Ozone UV Biofilters Incineration Scrubbing16 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 17. • Measuring emissions17 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 18. Measuring gas emissions18 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 19. 24 hour ammonia emissions19 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 20. Selected emission factors (ammonia) Cattle (blue diamonds) : natural ventilation Pigs (red squares) : mechanical ventilation 80 g/LU/day 60 Mean farm emission 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Tem perature, deg.C20 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 21. • The way forward : whole farm strategies21 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 22. Which technology to cut emissions? NH N2O 3 NH3 NH3 NO3 - Importance of the « whole farm » approach22 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 23. Mass balance concepts Emissions to air CH4, N2O, N2, CO2, H2O, SO2 etc. A B C Wastes and effluents Any manure treatment system from farm Bio-gas for heat or electricity E Accumulation within system D Exported F manure products E1 Composts, dried E2 Land-spreading solids, sludges etc.. Discharge to Crop products surface water23 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011
  • 24. Any questions ? After 4 hours of wandering, some began to wonder if the project leader really did know the way to the restaurant24 ICARB Agricultural Workshop - Glasgow Caledonian University - 7th June 2011