1. ICARB Energy WorkshopCarbon Accounting in the Power SectorChaired by:Camilla Thomson, University of EdinburghSamuel Chapman, Heriot-Watt University
2. Who is the audience of ICARB?ICARB will be used by anyone with involvement in carbon accounting including:• Policy makers• Academics• Environmental managers• Environmental consultants• Community groups• Others?
3. What resources are available?• PowerPoint Presentations from conferences• The ICARB blog• Tools• News• The Fundamentals
4. ICARB: The Initiative for Carbon Accounting That said, now we need toworking to create a set be able to do this for each of: sectortransparent, consistent and accurate rules for carbon This work has been carried accounting. out to an extent, can we tie it together?
5. Current Guidelines and Practices ICARB Energy Workshop
9. System Boundary• Cradle-to-grave • CapEm and OpEm – All LCAs include materials• Physical boundary and transport – The inclusion of emissions• Boundary with nature associated with capital – Change of land use? goods is optional – implications for electricityImage taken from Life cycle assessment of offshore and onshore sited wind power plants based on Vestas V90-3.0MW turbines, 2005 (Vestas Wind SystemsA/S, Randers, Denmark).
10. Output Unit Micro-wind Turbine: Sensitivity to Location kg CO2-e/kWh 1000 900• Normalisation Intensity (g CO2/kWh) 800 700 600• What is a Person 500 400 Equivalent (EDIP)? 300 200• How do we calculate 100 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 lifetime power output? Annual Production (kWh/year) Manchester (South West Edge) Portsmouth (North East Edge)• All greenhouse gases or Portsmouth (City Centre) Wick (South East Edge) Wick (City Centre) Coal Oil Natural Gas Nuclear Hydro just CO2? Solar PV
11. Discussion• ISO 14040/44 • System boundary• GHG Protocol • Cradle-to-grave• Defra Guidelines • CapEm and OpEm• Carbon Trust Standard • Unit – kg CO2-e/kWh• Input-Output Analysis• Fuel Mix Disclosure• PAS 2050• Etc….
12. LCA Software, Data Sets and Uncertainty ICARB Energy Workshop
13. Software • Does software affect results? • Does software choice affect assumptions? • Software includes: – GaBi – SimaPro – MS Excel – CCalc – Etc…Chart taken from LCA Practitioners Survey 2011, Bluehorse Associates, 2011
14. Data Sources and Inventories• User selection of data has significant impact on results• Data quality requirements – Age of data – Geography – Technology assessed – Allocation method – System boundaries OTHER LCA• Validation? STUDIES
15. Uncertainty • Scenario uncertainty • Parameter uncertainty • Model uncertainty • Statistical uncertainty? • Inputs, processing and outputsFigure taken from Sovacool, B., 2008. Valuing the greenhouse gas emissionsfrom nuclear power: A critical survey. Energy Policy, 36(8), pp.2950-2963.
16. Discussion• Software• Data quality and validation – Data from other studies
17. Developing a Standard Framework and ProvidingAccreditation ICARB Energy Workshop
18. Standard Framework?“Does an ISO-standard settle the uncertainty problem for a decision- maker, but not the scientist?”Heijungs, R. & Huijbregts, M.A.J., 2004. A Review of Approaches to Treat Uncertainty in LCA Table taken from Sovacool, B., 2008. Valuing the greenhouse gas emissions from nuclear power: A critical survey. Energy Policy, 36(8), pp.2950-2963.