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Aerodynamic Load Characteristics Evaluation and Tri-Axial Performance Testing on Fiber Reinforced Polymer Connections and ...
Outline<br />Background <br />Structural Timber Roof-to-Wall Connection Deficiency<br />Current Connection and Testing Met...
Background<br />HURRICANE<br />HURRICANE DYNAMICS<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERIN...
Background <br />Comparison of Hurricane Losses (Dantin, 2006)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENT...
Background<br /><ul><li>Damages in Residential Buildings</li></ul>Reflect the obsolete and poor construction practices in ...
Background<br />Wind Dynamics Around A Building<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ...
Background<br />Toe-Nailed Connection<br />Hurricane Clip<br />Past and Current  Roof-to-Wall Connection Systems<br />FLOR...
Background<br />Miami Dade County Notice of Approval (NOA)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL E...
Background<br />Up-Lift  Tests<br />Up-Lift  Tests Close-Up<br />Current Roof-to-Wall Connection Component Testing Methods...
Background<br />Parallel to the Wall (Top-Plate) L1<br />Current Roof-to-Wall Connection Component Testing Methods (Simpso...
Background<br />Perpendicular to the Wall (Top-Plate) L2<br />Unidirectional Component Tests<br />Up-lift<br />Lateral to ...
Background<br />NIST Full Scale Up-Lift & Lateral Tests<br />Current Roof-to-Wall Connection Full-Scale Testing Methods (N...
Background<br />NAHB Lateral Tests<br />NAHB Lateral Tests<br />Current Roof-to-Wall Connection Full-Scale Testing Methods...
Previous Development of FRP Connection<br />Up-Lift Component Test Set-Up<br />Sample Component Specimen<br />FRP Roof-to-...
Previous Development of FRP Connection<br />Carbon FRP (CFRP)<br />Glass FRP (GFRP)<br />FRP Test Specimens used in the Ro...
Previous Development of FRP Connection<br />Full-Scale Specimen<br />Fink Trusses<br />GFRP Tie Connection Full-Scale Upli...
Previous Development of FRP Connection<br />FRP Results (Canbek, 2009)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENV...
Previous Development of FRP Connection<br />Results of FRP Tie Connection Development (Canbek, 2009) <br />FLORIDA INTERNA...
Previous Development of FRP Connection<br />Cost Analysis for Configuration A with GFRP and CFRP (Canbek, 2009) <br />NOTE...
Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW and Test Specimen, Ready for Testing at 90 Degrees<br />FLORIDA INTERNATION...
Floor Membrane<br />Wall with Door & Window<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW Test Specimen Construction...
Bottom Structure Assembly<br />Bottom Structure Inside Wall Assembly<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW T...
Roof Trusses    <br /> Assembly of Roof Trusses    <br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW Test Specimen Cons...
Mitered Top-Plate & GFRP Connection<br />Typical 2 x 1.5 inch GFRP<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW Tes...
Bottom Structure and Truss Roof Assembly<br />Test Specimen Assembly<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW T...
Eave Flashing<br />Roof Flashing<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW Test Specimen Construction<br />FLORI...
Soffit Connection Notched<br />Soffit<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW Test Specimen Construction<br />...
Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />The test specimen was instrumented with the following sensors:<br />6 Load Ce...
Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />WoW Test Specimen Instrumentation and Connection Numbers<br />FLORIDA INTERNA...
Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />Typical Connection Instruments<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL ...
Resurfaced Aluminum Plates<br />Resurfaced Aluminum Plates ±0.01”<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />WoW Te...
Load Cells Alignment<br />Mounted Load Cells & Aluminum Plates<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />WoW Test ...
Load Cells & Aluminum Plates<br />Mounted Load Cells & Aluminum Plates<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />W...
Typical Connection Instrumentation<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />String Pots & Stain Gauge<br />WoW Te...
Pressure Transducers Between the Trusses<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />Pressure Transducer on the Cent...
Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />Pressure Transducers #4 Between  Middle & Rear Trusses<br />Pressure Transduc...
Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />Compact Rios (Data Acquisition)<br />WoW Test Specimen Instrumentation<br />F...
Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />30 tests were performed<br />5 angles of attack (AOA) <br />Enclosed and partially-e...
0º AOA, Enclosed<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />0º AOA, Enclosed &<br />With Wind Driven Rain<br />FLORIDA INT...
90º AOA, Partially Enclosed,<br />One Window Removed<br />45º AOA, Partially Enclosed, Two Windows Removed<br />Wall of Wi...
WoW Phase I Test Protocol<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br /><ul><li> 0 degree AOA with the gable ends being perpe...
Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />WoW Phase II Test Protocol<br /><ul><li> 90 degree AOA with the gable ends being par...
Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />WoW Phase III Test Protocol<br /><ul><li> 45 degree AOA with the gable ends being pa...
Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />WoW Phase IV Test Protocol<br /><ul><li> 30 degree AOA with the gable ends being par...
Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />WoW Phase V Test Protocol<br /><ul><li> 60 degree AOA with the gable ends being para...
Wall of Wind -- Testing AOA 0º, 4000 RPM, Enclosed & With Water<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMEN...
Wall of Wind -- Testing AOA 45º, Quasi-Periodic RPM, Enclosed & With Water<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL &...
Full-Scale Aerodynamic Load Characteristics for Connections<br />WoW Test Results for GFRP Roof-to-Wall Connections <br />...
Full-Scale Aerodynamic Load Characteristics for Connections<br />WoW Test Results for GFRP Roof-to-Wall Connections <br />...
Full-Scale Aerodynamic Load Characteristics for Connections<br />WoW Test Results for GFRP Roof-to-Wall Connections<br />T...
WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #1 -- AOA 0º<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRO...
WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #1<br /> 0º<br />30º<br />30º<br />90º<br />60º<br /> 45º<br />
WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #2<br />0º<br />30º<br />90º<br />60º<br /> 45º<br />
WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #3<br /> 0º<br />30º<br /> 90º<br />60º<br /> 45º<br />
WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #4<br /> 0º<br />30º<br /> 90º<br /> 45º<br />60º<br />
WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #5<br /> 0º<br />30º<br /> 90º<br />45º<br />60º<br />
WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #6<br /> 0º<br />30º<br /> 90º<br />60º<br />45º<br />
WoW Full-Scale Test Results <br />LC  #1 -- Bar Graph of Mean Fx at 4400 RPM <br />for all Conditions & AOAs<br />
BAR GRAPHS ALL CONDITIONS & AOAs: Mean FX (4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />LC 3<br />LC 6<br />
BAR GRAPHS ALL CONDITIONS & AOAs: Mean Fy (4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />LC 3<br />LC 6<br />
BAR GRAPHS ALL CONDITIONS & AOAs: Mean Fz (4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />LC 3<br />LC 6<br />
WoW Full-Scale Test Results <br />LC  #5 – Scatter Plot of Mean Fx, Fy & Fz  <br />at 4000 RPM (Enclosed and all AOAs)<br />
Scatter Plots of Mean Forces Fx, Fy & Fz(Enclosed, 4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />LC 3<br />LC...
Scatter Plots of Mean Forces Fx, Fy & Fz(Enclosed, with Water, 4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />...
Scatter Plots of Mean Forces Fx, Fy & Fz(Partially Enclosed, 4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />LC...
Scatter Plots of Mean Forces Fx, Fy & Fz(Partially Enclosed’, 4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />L...
WoW Full-Scale Test Results <br />LC  #5 - Time Histories of Strain -- AOA 60º,<br /> All Conditions <br />FLORIDA INTERNA...
WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Strain at All AOAs -- LC #5<br />0º<br /> 30º<br />90º<br /> 60º<br /> 45º<b...
WoW Full-Scale Test Results <br />LC  #5 - Time Histories of Displacements Parallel to Side Walls (LVDT  measurements) – A...
WoW Full-Scale Test Results  Time Histories of Displacements Parallel to Side Walls (LVDT  measurements) -- LC #5<br />0º<...
WoW Full-Scale Test Results <br />LC  #1 - Time Histories of Displacements Perpendicular to Side Walls (String Pots  measu...
WoW Full-Scale Test Results  Time Histories of Displacements Perpendicular to Side Walls (String Pots  measurements) -- LC...
WoW Full-Scale Test Results <br />LC  #1 - Time History of Vertical Displacements (String Pots measurements) – AOA 0º, All...
WoW Full-Scale Test Results  Time History of Vertical Displacements (String Pots measurements) -- LC #1<br />0º<br /> 30º<...
Full-Scale Aerodynamic Load Characteristics for Connections<br />Effect of Internal Pressure due to Breach of Envelope <br...
WoW Full-Scale Test Results LC #5 – Load Difference Between an Enclosed and Partially-Enclosed Conditions – AOA 0º<br />Co...
WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories and Mean Internal Pressure (Transducers #3, 4 & 5) -- Near Connection 5<br />Tr...
Discussion on Aerodynamic Characteristics <br />Effect of Internal Pressure Increase on Uplift Loading<br />Connection #5,...
Discussion on Aerodynamic Characteristics <br />Effect of Turbulence (Low Frequency Vs High Frequency)<br />The proportion...
Discussion on Aerodynamic Characteristics <br />Effect of Wind Driven Rain<br />Hurricane winds are accompanied by wind-dr...
Discussion on Aerodynamic Characteristics <br />Database for Tri-Axial Loading on Connections<br />Load cells measured upl...
Titan Structures and Construction Laboratory Tri-Axial Testing<br /><ul><li>Rationale for Tri-Axial Testing of Connections
Under real storms a fastener will experience simultaneous uplift, in-plane, and out-of-plane loading which will have speci...
The common practice of Uni-Axial testing can lead to incorrect specifications of the allowable capacity of a mechanical fa...
To circumvent the above limitations the new testing approach is based on simultaneous aerodynamic tri-axes loads with prop...
Titan Structures and Construction Laboratory Tri-Axial Testing<br /><ul><li>New Tri-Axial Testing Protocol and Test Setup
New tri-axial test protocol was established and connections tested to failure at the SCL using ratios of uplift to in-plan...
Each test in SCL represented a particular tri-axial aerodynamic loading obtained at the WoW for specific parameters: conne...
Series of resultant mean forces were used to test the GFRP component connections in the SCL up to failure -- 23 of the 36 ...
Hurricane clips were tested to provide a comparison of performance between GFRP and metal connections subjected to simulta...
Titan Structures and Construction Laboratory Tri-Axial Testing<br /><ul><li>New Tri-Axial Testing Protocol and Test Setup<...
Tri-Axial Component Testing --Test Set-Up<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
Tri-Axial Component Testing --Test Set-Up Locations<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEER...
Tri-Axial Component Testing --Results AOA 0º<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
Tri-Axial Component Testing –Results AOA 30º <br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <b...
Tri-Axial Component Testing --Results AOA 45º<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <b...
Tri-Axial Component Testing --Results AOA 60º<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <b...
Tri-Axial Component Testing --Results AOA 90º<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <b...
Tri-Axial Component Testing – GFRP Tests<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
Tri-Axial Component Testing – Clip Tests<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
Tri-Axial Component SpecimensFailure Modes Case 2<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERIN...
Tri-Axial Component Specimens FailureModes Case 6<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERIN...
Tri-Axial Component Specimens Failure Modes Case 11<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEER...
Tri-Axial Component Specimens Failure Modes Case 15<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEER...
Tri-Axial Component Specimens Failure Modes Case 23<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEER...
Conclusions<br />Feasibility of GFRP Connections as Substitute to Metal Connections<br />The failure load capacity of the ...
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Canino defense nov 13 (f)

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Aerodynamic Load Characteristics Evaluation and Multi-Axial Performance Testing on Fiber Reinforced Polymer Connections and Metal Fasteners to Promote Hurricane Damage Mitigation.

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  • Building structure integrity is compromised when the inter-component connections, such as roof-to-wall connections, wall-to-wall connections, wall-to-floor connections, or anchorage-to-foundations fail. Continuous load path and structural integrity are crucial for windstorm resiliency of residential buildings. Tropical cyclone damage has shown that wood structures tend to suffer little damage when the roof system remains intact under extreme wind loading, while major damage occurs when the roof system is partially or completely damaged (Reed et al. 1997). Post tropical cyclone inspections have noted the entire roofs detaching from buildings in some cases (Figure 2.5). This indicates a serious deficiency in the roof-to-wall connection systems, most notable in older construction. Thus the roof-to-wall connections play an important role to prevent roof failures and lessen the damages during high winds.
  • As wind impacts a building, it creates vortices that can overwhelm the structure on different locations (see Figure 2.1). As wind travels around sharp edges, such as wall corners, roof overhangs and roof ridgelines, a separation bubble is formed. The wind separation bubble is bounded by a free shear layer region of high velocity gradients and high turbulence (Holmes 2001). Conical vortices are formed (see Figure 2.2); as these are shed down wind, high negative pressure peaks are produced which generate suction or uplift loads on roofs up-lift loads on a roof are transferred through the roof elements (e.g., tiles, shingles) to the plywood sheathing to the roof trusses; which could lead to roof detachment if the inter-component connections are improperly designed or installed. Figure 2.3 illustrates the distribution of forces along a timber building during a high wind event. In a properly designed building the roof loads are transferred through a continuous vertical load path to the foundation.
  • The Florida Building Code (FBC, 2007) has special provisions for buildings in the High Velocity Hurricane Zone (HVHZ) which consists of Miami-Dade and Broward counties in the state of Florida. Due to the strict design and construction practices used in the HVHZ, all metal connectors must be approved and rated by the code compliance authorities for use in buildings. The Notice of Approval (NOA) lets structural designers know the capacity of a specific product to be used in their design (Figure 2.6). FBC-07: 2321.7.2 requires all wood to wood straps to resist a minimum uplift force of 700 pounds with 4-16d nails in each member (FBC, 2007). The nails used may change if the NOA allows it.
  • Compared to other configurations, Configuration A yielded more favorable results. The failure loads obtained with CFRP were 20% higher (Canbek, 2009). Nevertheless, the price of a CFRP tie connection is approximately 5 times higher than that of a GFRP tie connection. Therefore, Configuration A with GFRP was selected as the best alternative for further development (Canbek, 2009
  • 23 GFRP and 23 metal connector specimens were testedEach specimen was built using SPF No. 2 – 2 x 6 inch lumber with two separate connection systems, GFRP or metal connectors The test system was composed of a double acting 10,000 lbs hydraulic jack that could pull on the component specimen using a cable and pulley A load cell between the specimen and pulley recorded the ultimate failure load, via a DAQ computer Each specimen was bolted to an I-beam that in turn was attached to two channels bolted to the SCL tie-downs By moving the specimen North-South and East-West the resultant loading could be simulated
  • Transcript of "Canino defense nov 13 (f)"

    1. 1. Aerodynamic Load Characteristics Evaluation and Tri-Axial Performance Testing on Fiber Reinforced Polymer Connections and Metal Fasteners to Promote Hurricane Damage Mitigation <br />Doctoral Dissertation Defense<br />By<br />Iván R. Canino<br />Major Advisor: Dr. Arindam Gan Chowdhury<br />November 13, 2009<br />Civil & Environmental Engineering<br />Florida International University <br />Miami, Florida<br />
    2. 2. Outline<br />Background <br />Structural Timber Roof-to-Wall Connection Deficiency<br />Current Connection and Testing Methods<br />Previous Development of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Connection<br />Development of FRP Connection using Component and Full-Scale Specimens<br />Wall of Wind Testing <br />Test Specimen<br />Instrumentation <br />Test Protocol<br />Full-Scale Aerodynamic Load Characteristics for Roof-to-Wall Connections<br />Full-Scale Test Results<br />Discussion on Aerodynamic Characteristics <br />Titan Structures and Construction Laboratory tri-Axial Testing <br />New Tri-Axial Test Protocol<br />Test Setup <br />Results<br />Conclusions<br />Future Work & Recommendations<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    3. 3. Background<br />HURRICANE<br />HURRICANE DYNAMICS<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    4. 4. Background <br />Comparison of Hurricane Losses (Dantin, 2006)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    5. 5. Background<br /><ul><li>Damages in Residential Buildings</li></ul>Reflect the obsolete and poor construction practices in tropical cyclone active areas.<br />Wood-frame buildings account for approximately 90% of all residential buildings.<br />Approximately 50% of the United States population now lives within 100 miles of a tropical cyclone-prone coastline.<br />Building damage underscore the need for improving their structural performance; such as the weak-link at the roof-to-wall connection<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    6. 6. Background<br />Wind Dynamics Around A Building<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    7. 7. Background<br />Toe-Nailed Connection<br />Hurricane Clip<br />Past and Current Roof-to-Wall Connection Systems<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    8. 8. Background<br />Miami Dade County Notice of Approval (NOA)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    9. 9. Background<br />Up-Lift Tests<br />Up-Lift Tests Close-Up<br />Current Roof-to-Wall Connection Component Testing Methods (Simpson)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    10. 10. Background<br />Parallel to the Wall (Top-Plate) L1<br />Current Roof-to-Wall Connection Component Testing Methods (Simpson)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    11. 11. Background<br />Perpendicular to the Wall (Top-Plate) L2<br />Unidirectional Component Tests<br />Up-lift<br />Lateral to wall L1<br />Perpendicular to wall<br />Note: Current testing methods do not take into consideration the effects of simultaneous loading.<br />Current Roof-to-Wall Connection Component Testing Methods (Simpson)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    12. 12. Background<br />NIST Full Scale Up-Lift & Lateral Tests<br />Current Roof-to-Wall Connection Full-Scale Testing Methods (NIST)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    13. 13. Background<br />NAHB Lateral Tests<br />NAHB Lateral Tests<br />Current Roof-to-Wall Connection Full-Scale Testing Methods (NHAB)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    14. 14. Previous Development of FRP Connection<br />Up-Lift Component Test Set-Up<br />Sample Component Specimen<br />FRP Roof-to-wall Connection Development (Canbek, 2009)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    15. 15. Previous Development of FRP Connection<br />Carbon FRP (CFRP)<br />Glass FRP (GFRP)<br />FRP Test Specimens used in the Roof-to-wall Connection Development (Canbek, 2009)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    16. 16. Previous Development of FRP Connection<br />Full-Scale Specimen<br />Fink Trusses<br />GFRP Tie Connection Full-Scale Uplift Specimen (Canbek, 2009)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    17. 17. Previous Development of FRP Connection<br />FRP Results (Canbek, 2009)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    18. 18. Previous Development of FRP Connection<br />Results of FRP Tie Connection Development (Canbek, 2009) <br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    19. 19. Previous Development of FRP Connection<br />Cost Analysis for Configuration A with GFRP and CFRP (Canbek, 2009) <br />NOTE: THE COST OF A CFRP TIE CONNECTION IS APPROXIMATELY 5<br /> TIMES HIGHER THAN THAT OF A GFRP TIE CONNECTION, SO <br />GFRP WAS SELECTED FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT (CANBEK, 2009).<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    20. 20. Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW and Test Specimen, Ready for Testing at 90 Degrees<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    21. 21. Floor Membrane<br />Wall with Door & Window<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW Test Specimen Construction<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    22. 22. Bottom Structure Assembly<br />Bottom Structure Inside Wall Assembly<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW Test Specimen Construction<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    23. 23. Roof Trusses <br /> Assembly of Roof Trusses <br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW Test Specimen Construction<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    24. 24. Mitered Top-Plate & GFRP Connection<br />Typical 2 x 1.5 inch GFRP<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW Test Specimen Construction<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    25. 25. Bottom Structure and Truss Roof Assembly<br />Test Specimen Assembly<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW Test Specimen Construction<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    26. 26. Eave Flashing<br />Roof Flashing<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW Test Specimen Construction<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    27. 27. Soffit Connection Notched<br />Soffit<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Test Specimen<br />WoW Test Specimen Construction<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    28. 28. Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />The test specimen was instrumented with the following sensors:<br />6 Load Cellsunder the trusses; sandwiched between double top plate of walls and single top plate of roof . The recorded forces are FX, FY, and FZ corresponding to the in-plane shear (parallel to the side walls), out-of-plane shear (perpendicular to the side walls), and uplift, respectively. <br />6 Linear Voltage Differential Transformers (LVDT)to measure horizontal displacements of GFRP truss connection (parallel to the side walls); placed on roof single top-plate.<br />12 String Potentiometers (String Pots) to measure vertical deflection and horizontal deflection (perpendicular to the side walls) of the connections; placed on roof single top-plate.<br />8 Strain Gaugesto measure strain in the vertical portion of each GFRP connection.<br />2 Compact-Rios were used for all data acquisition, installed on the inside of the walls of the test specimen and controlled using a common laptop through an Ethernet connection.<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    29. 29. Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />WoW Test Specimen Instrumentation and Connection Numbers<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    30. 30. Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />Typical Connection Instruments<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    31. 31. Resurfaced Aluminum Plates<br />Resurfaced Aluminum Plates ±0.01”<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />WoW Test Specimen Instrumentation<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    32. 32. Load Cells Alignment<br />Mounted Load Cells & Aluminum Plates<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />WoW Test Specimen Instrumentation<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    33. 33. Load Cells & Aluminum Plates<br />Mounted Load Cells & Aluminum Plates<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />WoW Test Specimen Instrumentation<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    34. 34. Typical Connection Instrumentation<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />String Pots & Stain Gauge<br />WoW Test Specimen Instrumentation<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    35. 35. Pressure Transducers Between the Trusses<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />Pressure Transducer on the Center of Test Specimen<br />WoW Test Specimen Instrumentation<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    36. 36. Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />Pressure Transducers #4 Between Middle & Rear Trusses<br />Pressure Transducer Manifold<br />WoW Test Specimen Instrumentation<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    37. 37. Wall of Wind Testing -- Instrumentation<br />Compact Rios (Data Acquisition)<br />WoW Test Specimen Instrumentation<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    38. 38. Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />30 tests were performed<br />5 angles of attack (AOA) <br />Enclosed and partially-enclosed building conditions<br />Wind without rain condition, and wind-driven rain (WDR) condition<br />Each test was performed using a <br />1 minute flat waveform (at maximum rpm of the WoW engines and generating high frequency turbulence only) <br />3 minutes quasi-periodic waveform (generating low frequency turbulence in addition to high frequency turbulence).<br />WoW Testing Protocol for GFRP Roof-to-Wall Connections<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    39. 39. 0º AOA, Enclosed<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />0º AOA, Enclosed &<br />With Wind Driven Rain<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    40. 40. 90º AOA, Partially Enclosed,<br />One Window Removed<br />45º AOA, Partially Enclosed, Two Windows Removed<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    41. 41. WoW Phase I Test Protocol<br />Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br /><ul><li> 0 degree AOA with the gable ends being perpendicular to wind flow . A total of six tests were conducted.</li></ul> Enclosed building for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Enclosed building for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform. <br /> Enclosed building with WDR for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Enclosed building with WDR for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (1 window and the door removed) for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm. <br /> Partially-enclosed building (1 window and the door removed) for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    42. 42. Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />WoW Phase II Test Protocol<br /><ul><li> 90 degree AOA with the gable ends being parallel to wind flow . A total of six tests were conducted.</li></ul> Enclosed building for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Enclosed building for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br /> Enclosed building with WDR for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Enclosed building with WDR for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (1 window removed) for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (1 window removed) for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    43. 43. Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />WoW Phase III Test Protocol<br /><ul><li> 45 degree AOA with the gable ends being parallel to wind flow . A total of eight tests were conducted.</li></ul> Enclosed building for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Enclosed building for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br /> Enclosed building with WDR for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Enclosed building with WDR for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (2 windows removed) for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (2 windows removed) for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (2 windows and the door removed) for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (2 windows and the door removed) for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    44. 44. Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />WoW Phase IV Test Protocol<br /><ul><li> 30 degree AOA with the gable ends being parallel to wind flow . A total of four tests were conducted.</li></ul> Enclosed building for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Enclosed building for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (2 window removed) for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (2 window removed) for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    45. 45. Wall of Wind Testing -- Protocol<br />WoW Phase V Test Protocol<br /><ul><li> 60 degree AOA with the gable ends being parallel to wind flow . A total of six tests were conducted.</li></ul> Enclosed building for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Enclosed building for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (2 windows removed) for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (2 windows removed) for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (2 windows and the door removed) for 1 minute, at 4000 rpm.<br /> Partially-enclosed building (2 windows and the door removed) for 3 minutes, using a Quasi-Periodic waveform.<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    46. 46. Wall of Wind -- Testing AOA 0º, 4000 RPM, Enclosed & With Water<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    47. 47. Wall of Wind -- Testing AOA 45º, Quasi-Periodic RPM, Enclosed & With Water<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    48. 48. Full-Scale Aerodynamic Load Characteristics for Connections<br />WoW Test Results for GFRP Roof-to-Wall Connections <br />WoW test results are represented as:<br />Graphs of the 3-second time averaged histories of individual load cells<br />Bar graphs with mean results of all the conditions per load cell <br />Scatter plots with mean force results of individual load cells <br />Graphs of the 3-second time averaged histories of strain in connections <br />Graphs of the 3-second time averaged histories for LVDTs (Displacements parallel to side walls in connections) <br />Graphs of the 3-second time averaged histories for String Pots (Displacements perpendicular to side walls in connections) <br />Graphs of the 3-second time averaged histories for String Pots (Vertical displacements in connections) <br />Graphs of the 3-second time averaged histories of Internal Pressures<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    49. 49. Full-Scale Aerodynamic Load Characteristics for Connections<br />WoW Test Results for GFRP Roof-to-Wall Connections <br />The nomenclature used to determine the type of test runs in the graphs is as follows:<br />E_FT: enclosed condition and wind speeds at full-throttle <br />E(W)_FT: enclosed condition with wind driven rain and at full-throttle <br />PE_FT: partially enclosed condition where 1 (for AOA 90º test) or 2 (for AOA 45º test) windows have been removed and 1 window and the door (for AOA 0º test) and at full-throttle <br />PE’_FT: partially enclosed condition, where the windows and the test specimen door have been removed at full-throttle (for AOA 45º & 60º tests)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    50. 50. Full-Scale Aerodynamic Load Characteristics for Connections<br />WoW Test Results for GFRP Roof-to-Wall Connections<br />The nomenclature used to determine the type of test runs in the graphs is as follows:<br />E_QP : enclosed condition and a quasi-periodic ramp function<br />E (W)_QP : enclosed condition with wind driven rain and quasi-periodic ramp function<br />PE_QP: corresponds to a partially enclosed condition where 1 (for AOA 0º & 90º tests) or 2 (for AOA 45º test) windows have been removed and a quasi-periodic ramp function<br />PE’_QP: corresponds to a partially enclosed condition where 2 (for AOA 45º & 60º tests) windows and the test specimen door have been removed and a quasi-periodic ramp function<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    51. 51. WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #1 -- AOA 0º<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    52. 52. WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #1<br /> 0º<br />30º<br />30º<br />90º<br />60º<br /> 45º<br />
    53. 53. WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #2<br />0º<br />30º<br />90º<br />60º<br /> 45º<br />
    54. 54. WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #3<br /> 0º<br />30º<br /> 90º<br />60º<br /> 45º<br />
    55. 55. WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #4<br /> 0º<br />30º<br /> 90º<br /> 45º<br />60º<br />
    56. 56. WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #5<br /> 0º<br />30º<br /> 90º<br />45º<br />60º<br />
    57. 57. WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Fz -- LC #6<br /> 0º<br />30º<br /> 90º<br />60º<br />45º<br />
    58. 58. WoW Full-Scale Test Results <br />LC #1 -- Bar Graph of Mean Fx at 4400 RPM <br />for all Conditions & AOAs<br />
    59. 59. BAR GRAPHS ALL CONDITIONS & AOAs: Mean FX (4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />LC 3<br />LC 6<br />
    60. 60. BAR GRAPHS ALL CONDITIONS & AOAs: Mean Fy (4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />LC 3<br />LC 6<br />
    61. 61. BAR GRAPHS ALL CONDITIONS & AOAs: Mean Fz (4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />LC 3<br />LC 6<br />
    62. 62. WoW Full-Scale Test Results <br />LC #5 – Scatter Plot of Mean Fx, Fy & Fz <br />at 4000 RPM (Enclosed and all AOAs)<br />
    63. 63. Scatter Plots of Mean Forces Fx, Fy & Fz(Enclosed, 4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />LC 3<br />LC 6<br />
    64. 64. Scatter Plots of Mean Forces Fx, Fy & Fz(Enclosed, with Water, 4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />LC 3<br />LC 6<br />
    65. 65. Scatter Plots of Mean Forces Fx, Fy & Fz(Partially Enclosed, 4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />LC 3<br />LC 6<br />
    66. 66. Scatter Plots of Mean Forces Fx, Fy & Fz(Partially Enclosed’, 4000 RPM)<br /> LC 1<br />LC 4 <br /> LC 2<br /> LC 5<br />LC 3<br />LC 6<br />
    67. 67. WoW Full-Scale Test Results <br />LC #5 - Time Histories of Strain -- AOA 60º,<br /> All Conditions <br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    68. 68. WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Strain at All AOAs -- LC #5<br />0º<br /> 30º<br />90º<br /> 60º<br /> 45º<br />
    69. 69. WoW Full-Scale Test Results <br />LC #5 - Time Histories of Displacements Parallel to Side Walls (LVDT measurements) – AOA 0º, All Conditions <br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    70. 70. WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Displacements Parallel to Side Walls (LVDT measurements) -- LC #5<br />0º<br /> 30º<br />90º<br /> 45º<br /> 60º<br />
    71. 71. WoW Full-Scale Test Results <br />LC #1 - Time Histories of Displacements Perpendicular to Side Walls (String Pots measurements) – AOA 0º, All Conditions <br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    72. 72. WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories of Displacements Perpendicular to Side Walls (String Pots measurements) -- LC #1<br />0º<br /> 30º<br />90º<br />60º<br /> 45º<br />
    73. 73. WoW Full-Scale Test Results <br />LC #1 - Time History of Vertical Displacements (String Pots measurements) – AOA 0º, All Conditions <br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    74. 74. WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time History of Vertical Displacements (String Pots measurements) -- LC #1<br />0º<br /> 30º<br />90º<br /> 60º<br /> 45º<br />
    75. 75. Full-Scale Aerodynamic Load Characteristics for Connections<br />Effect of Internal Pressure due to Breach of Envelope <br />Time History of Highest Recorded Loads in Connection #5; Partially Enclosed, 0º AOA<br />Partially Enclosed, 0º AOA<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    76. 76. WoW Full-Scale Test Results LC #5 – Load Difference Between an Enclosed and Partially-Enclosed Conditions – AOA 0º<br />Connection #5 Up-Lift Time Histories for Enclosed & Partially Enclosed Conditions<br />Connection #5 Mean Up-Lift Forces for Enclosed & Partially Enclosed Conditions<br />The maximum difference, related to the uplift loading between <br />enclosed and partially-enclosed conditions was recorded to be 528 lbs<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    77. 77. WoW Full-Scale Test Results Time Histories and Mean Internal Pressure (Transducers #3, 4 & 5) -- Near Connection 5<br />Transducer#3<br /> Transducers# 3, 4 & 5 (E & PE at FT)<br />Transducer#4<br />Mean Internal Pressures: Transducers #3, 4, & 5 (E&PE@FT)<br />Transducer#5<br />
    78. 78. Discussion on Aerodynamic Characteristics <br />Effect of Internal Pressure Increase on Uplift Loading<br />Connection #5, 117 lbs and 645 lbs for E and PE conditions, respectively -- the difference being 528 lbs<br />Mean internal pressures difference was 0.08 psi<br />The tributary area 35 sq. ft. - load of about 400 lbs <br />The measured uplift increment on the connection is higher than the estimated value (both showed significant increase)<br />The difference could be due to approximation of tributary area and spatial correlation of internal pressure<br />The experiments indicate how severe can be the effects of breach of building envelope (5.5 times of uplift load increase)<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    79. 79. Discussion on Aerodynamic Characteristics <br />Effect of Turbulence (Low Frequency Vs High Frequency)<br />The proportionalities between the mean uplift, in-plane, and out-of-plane forces are very similar for flat and quasi-periodic waveforms<br />Higher turbulence (TI 24% vs 5%) generated by the low frequency fluctuations of the wind does not affect the proportionalities between the mean uplift and lateral forces induced on the connections<br />Thus rigorous generation of turbulence intensity and integral length scale (as always attempted in wind tunnels) may not be necessary for tri-axial loading evaluation for roof-to-wall connections<br />For further testing of the GFRP connections to failure under tri-axial loading in SCL, only the data obtained for the flat waveform tests are used <br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    80. 80. Discussion on Aerodynamic Characteristics <br />Effect of Wind Driven Rain<br />Hurricane winds are accompanied by wind-driven rain<br />Generally wind tunnels cannot be used for comprehensive research into this phenomenon<br />WoW was used to determine if there is any significant difference between aerodynamic and aero-hydrodynamic loading induced on the GFRP connections<br />No significant increase in load was observed during the wind-driven rain tests as compared to wind with no rain<br />The data used for failure testing in SCL were obtained from the wind tests <br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    81. 81. Discussion on Aerodynamic Characteristics <br />Database for Tri-Axial Loading on Connections<br />Load cells measured uplift, in-plane (parallel to the side walls), and out-of-plane (perpendicular to the side walls) loads experienced by each GFRP connection<br />The results were used for tri-axial loading of the GFRP connection in SCL till failure at the component level<br />For each test the three force components were converted to a resultant mean load in order to test the GFRP connections more realistically using aerodynamic loading obtained from WoW tests<br />A total of 36 resultant forces were obtained from the loads recorded at the WoW and were used to test the newly developed GFRP connections and metal hurricane clips <br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    82. 82. Titan Structures and Construction Laboratory Tri-Axial Testing<br /><ul><li>Rationale for Tri-Axial Testing of Connections
    83. 83. Under real storms a fastener will experience simultaneous uplift, in-plane, and out-of-plane loading which will have specific ratios based on several factors (e.g., location of the connection, type of the roof, etc)
    84. 84. The common practice of Uni-Axial testing can lead to incorrect specifications of the allowable capacity of a mechanical fastener
    85. 85. To circumvent the above limitations the new testing approach is based on simultaneous aerodynamic tri-axes loads with proportionalities obtained from realistic full-scale WoW testing</li></ul>FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    86. 86. Titan Structures and Construction Laboratory Tri-Axial Testing<br /><ul><li>New Tri-Axial Testing Protocol and Test Setup
    87. 87. New tri-axial test protocol was established and connections tested to failure at the SCL using ratios of uplift to in-plane lateral and out-of-plane lateral loads
    88. 88. Each test in SCL represented a particular tri-axial aerodynamic loading obtained at the WoW for specific parameters: connection location, angle of attack, and internal pressure condition (enclosed or partially enclosed condition) -- results were compared with those from testing using individual loading
    89. 89. Series of resultant mean forces were used to test the GFRP component connections in the SCL up to failure -- 23 of the 36 resultant forces were used due to limitations in the SCL system
    90. 90. Hurricane clips were tested to provide a comparison of performance between GFRP and metal connections subjected to simultaneous tri-axial loading </li></ul>FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    91. 91. Titan Structures and Construction Laboratory Tri-Axial Testing<br /><ul><li>New Tri-Axial Testing Protocol and Test Setup</li></ul>The locations were determined using ratios of the two lateral forces divided by the up-lift force (i.e. FX/FZ and FY/FZ)<br />The vertical component of the 3-D coordinate system was constant <br />Moving the I-beam further away from the jack and pulley simulated the FY -component<br />Moving the specimens on the I-beam from East to West simulated the FX – component <br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    92. 92. Tri-Axial Component Testing --Test Set-Up<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    93. 93. Tri-Axial Component Testing --Test Set-Up Locations<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    94. 94. Tri-Axial Component Testing --Results AOA 0º<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    95. 95. Tri-Axial Component Testing –Results AOA 30º <br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    96. 96. Tri-Axial Component Testing --Results AOA 45º<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    97. 97. Tri-Axial Component Testing --Results AOA 60º<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    98. 98. Tri-Axial Component Testing --Results AOA 90º<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    99. 99. Tri-Axial Component Testing – GFRP Tests<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    100. 100. Tri-Axial Component Testing – Clip Tests<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    101. 101. Tri-Axial Component SpecimensFailure Modes Case 2<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    102. 102. Tri-Axial Component Specimens FailureModes Case 6<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    103. 103. Tri-Axial Component Specimens Failure Modes Case 11<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    104. 104. Tri-Axial Component Specimens Failure Modes Case 15<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    105. 105. Tri-Axial Component Specimens Failure Modes Case 23<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    106. 106. Conclusions<br />Feasibility of GFRP Connections as Substitute to Metal Connections<br />The failure load capacity of the GFRP connection performed similar to and in most cases better than the metal fasteners test results (under tri-directional simultaneous loads obtained from aerodynamic tests at the WoW)<br />In some cases the ultimate failure resultant load for the GFRP connection was observed to be double of that for the metal fastener<br />The GFRP connection test results seem to demonstrate that it can be applicable to new construction as well as retrofitting of old residential buildings that require strengthening against extreme wind loads with minimally intrusive techniques.<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    107. 107. Conclusions<br />Failure Modes of GFRP Connections Vs Metal Connections<br />The results show that the failure modes of connection joints are highly dependent on the type of the connection (GFRP versus metal)<br />It was noted that as GFRP is non-intrusive it doesn’t weaken the wood members and crushing of wood is avoided (Ahmed et al., 2009). The failure mode observed was mostly detachment of GFRP from the wood surface and wood surface peeling<br />In the case of the hurricane clip the failure mode was observed as both nail withdraw or pull-out, clip rupture<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    108. 108. Conclusions<br />Differences in Test Results -- Uni-Axial Vs Tri-Axial Testing<br />The failure loads for both connectors (GFRP and metal) decreased during the tri-axial test <br />When the coefficients FX/FZ and FY/FZ for the tri-axial testing were low the uplift capacity matched the uni-axial testing uplift capacity closely<br />However when the coefficients were high, reduced uplift capacity was observed compared to the uni-axial testing uplift capacity<br />This indicated that the lateral load components, if applied simultaneously with the uplift load component as experienced during real storms, the uplift load capacity of the connection is reduced – so that the uni-axial uplift test results are overestimated<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    109. 109. Conclusions<br />In one of the most extreme the uplift failure recorded loads were 295 (884/3FS) pounds and 250 (750/3FS) pounds as compared to the 720 pounds and 437 pounds , obtained from uni-axial testing, for the GFRP and metal clip, respectively<br />The lateral (parallel to the walls) failure loads were 102 (307/3FS) pounds and 87 (260/3FS) pounds as compared to the 552 pounds and 165 pounds obtained from uni-axial testing for the GFRP and metal clip, respectively <br />Results indicate the inappropriateness of the existing uni-axial testing protocol used to test connectors<br />Design based on these erroneous allowable load capacities can cause inter-component connection failures during high wind events<br />Improving upon current practice by taking into account the results (WoW database) reported herein and the suggested tri-axial testing will improve the performance of timber construction in high winds<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    110. 110. Conclusions Project Contributions<br />Based on WoW testing a database (may be used by other researchers and industry professionals) has been developed on aerodynamic and aero-hydrodynamic loading on roof-to-wall connections tested under several parameters: angles of attack, wind-turbulence content, enclosed and partially-enclosed building conditions, with and without effects of rain<br /> The research’s findings demonstrated that a GFRP connection system is a viable option for use in a timber roof-to-wall connection system<br />A component level testing protocol and setup have been developed in SCL to test connections to failure under the influence of simultaneous tri-axial loading; such protocol eliminates the erroneous load capacity predictions from existing uni-axial test protocols<br />A database has been developed on the uni-axial and tri-axial load capacity of the GFRP connections and of a particular type of metal fastener; simultaneous application of tri-axial loading to roof-to-wall connections in SCL is one of the first attempts to mimic realistic aerodynamic loads obtained from full-scale wind testing<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    111. 111. Future Work Recommendations<br />The GFRP connection has yet to be tested aerodynamically under Category 4 and 5 hurricane conditions; this can be simulated in the 12-fan WoW system which is presently under development<br />A series of timber structures, within tropical cyclone prone coastal areas, could be retrofitted with the new GFRP roof-to-wall connections. Building performance under possible future storms can then provide validation of the connections -- there is no better test method than subjecting the connections to actual tropical cyclone conditions<br />Such retrofitting can also be used to study the long term weather effects of moisture, heat and rain on the GFRP connections, which are not yet completely understood<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    112. 112. Future Work Recommendations<br />Studies on creep and fatigue are warranted for the GFRP connections<br />The tri-axial testing method and system used in this research could be improved to test all 36 resultant aerodynamic forces obtained from the WoW tests; this could be done by enhancing the current testing system by enlarging the size of the system and implementing a pulley swivel system that can allow more lateral locations to be tested<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />
    113. 113. END OF PRESENTATIONTHANK YOU FOR YOUR TIMEANY QUESTIONS?<br />FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY - CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING <br />

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