Balance	
  &	
  Imbalance	
  	
  
Territorial	
  Development	
  Strategies	
  
	
  of	
  the	
  Basque	
  City-­‐Region	
 ...
OUTLINE	
  
	
  

1.-­‐	
  Mo9va9on:	
  
	
  1.1.-­‐	
  Context	
  
	
  1.2.-­‐	
  Diagnosis	
  
2.-­‐	
  Opportuni9es	
  ...
1.-­‐	
  Mo9va9on	
  
1.1.-­‐	
  Context	
  >	
  
1.  2005-­‐2011:	
  PhD	
  about	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  the	
  City-...
1.-­‐	
  Mo9va9on	
  
1.2.-­‐	
  Diagnosis	
  (Final:	
  Dec	
  2013)	
  >	
  
	
  

1.-­‐	
  The	
  Sustainability	
  Tra...
2.-­‐	
  Opportuni9es	
  
2.1.-­‐	
  Global	
  Convergence:	
  
1.  OECD	
  (2011)	
  
As	
  the	
  OECD	
  (2011:	
  42)	...
2.-­‐	
  Opportuni9es	
  
2.2.-­‐	
  Local	
  Dynamics:	
  
	
  

1.  Lack	
  of	
  a	
  Governance	
  (Innerarity)	
  Mod...
3.-­‐	
  Challenges	
  &	
  Threats	
  
3.1.-­‐	
  Requested	
  Factors	
  	
  
To	
  implement	
  to	
  Territorial	
  De...
4.-­‐	
  Proposal:	
  4.1.>	
  

City-­‐Region	
  	
  
5-­‐System	
  	
  
Framework®	
  
	
  

chart	
  by	
  @icalzada	
 ...
4.-­‐	
  Proposal:	
  4.2.>	
  	
  

#WorkInProgress	
  hDp://www.cityregions.org	
  ®	
  
	
  

map	
  by	
  @icalzada	
 ...
Eskerrik	
  asko	
  
Thank	
  you	
  
	
  

Igor	
  Calzada,	
  Ph.D.	
  
igor.calzada@compas.ox.ac.uk	
  
	
  
hPp://www....
References:	
  

	
  
1.  Calzada,	
  I.	
  (2013),	
  “The	
  Future	
  of	
  City-­‐Regions	
  <>	
  Compara<ve	
  Terri...
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Klimagune2013 bc3 Balance & Imbalance Territorial Development Strategies of the Basque City-Region 19thDec2013 Bilbo

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"As the main final conclusion of the Basque City-Region case-study in the project www.cityregions.org:
This paper seeks to make a pragmatic proposal set against the background of sustainability transitions in the context of climate change, specifically taking into consideration the geography of the Basque Autonomous Community, and highlighting the existence of Challenges and Obstacles between the infrastructure and natural resources in their urban environments.
Likewise, bearing in mind the spatial configuration of the urban environment that is created jointly by the Basque geographies and known as “Basque City” —which has been designed and implemented over the past decade from an institutional framework—, and by a specific spatial strategy (to be precise from the DOT/LAA Spatial Planning Directives) of the Sub-Ministry for Spatial Planning of the Government of the Basque Autonomous Community), the author's main contribution is as follows: Basque City-Region consistent with the conclusions in the Scientific Directive of last year’s Congress “Euskal Hiria 2012 — Ciudad-Región Vasca — Basque City-Region” and bearing in mind the content of this year’s congress, it can be said, when studying the dynamics of the promoters, that:
(a) so far, limited and erroneous use has been made under the terms of the “Euskal Hiria” institutional brand,
(b) DOT/LAA-Spatial Planning Directives, there have been some specific spatial strategies in connection with the City-Region concept, which take growth as the only paradigm into consideration, and which have led to Balances and Imbalances among the stakeholders, and
(c) what is needed is a far-reaching contribution from Social Innovation with a true model of Governance to guide processes for change in Social Capital and Transitions towards Sustainability in the context of Climate Change. There is no doubt that diffuse geographies like the Urban Centre and, specifically, the City-Region, inevitably need spatial strategies that will drive forward dynamics that will continually explore possibilities for transformation.
The immediate role of cities, as social–ecological and technical networks, is to explore their transformability capacities by strengthening their social capital and fostering opportunities in the process of change. Therefore, in a nutshell, what question would the paper be seeking to answer? This one: by analysing the Policies and Strategies in Spatial Planning of the Government of the Basque Autonomous Community in a long period of 10 years: How could we incorporate the lessons of Social Innovation to achieve a model of Governance suited to the Basque City-Region in the Transitions towards Sustainability in the Context of Climate Change? What would these Spatial Strategies shared and agreed upon among all the players be? Therefore, How could we create a fresh, bottom-up-based "Euskal Hiria" brand and a model of participatory Governance based on actions instead of on indispu

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Klimagune2013 bc3 Balance & Imbalance Territorial Development Strategies of the Basque City-Region 19thDec2013 Bilbo

  1. 1. Balance  &  Imbalance     Territorial  Development  Strategies    of  the  Basque  City-­‐Region  /  Euskal  Hiria:   Contribu7on  from  the     Governance  &  Cri9cal  Social  Innova9on  (CSI)  perspec7ve         www.euskalhiria.org  &  www.basquecity.org     >>>  hDp://www.cityregions.org    >>>     Igor  Calzada,  Ph.D.   PostDoctoral  Research  Fellow  at  the    University  of  Oxford  (UK).    Future  of  Ci7es  FoC  Programme,  COMPAS  &  InSIS.   &       Ikerbasque,  Basque  Founda7on  for  Science.   hPp://www.about.me/icalzada   hPp://www.igorcalzada.com       -­‐KLIMAGUNE  Workshop  2013-­‐     Opportuni9es,  Challenges  and  Barriers  for  Transi9ons  Towards  Sustainability  in  the  Context  of  Climate  Change   hPp://www.bc3research.org/klimagune/workshop/2013/download_of_lectures.html     19th  December  2013.  Bilbao  (Basque  Country  –  Spain)  
  2. 2. OUTLINE     1.-­‐  Mo9va9on:    1.1.-­‐  Context    1.2.-­‐  Diagnosis   2.-­‐  Opportuni9es    2.1.-­‐  Global  Convergence    2.2.-­‐  Local  Dynamics   3.-­‐  Challenges  &  Threats    3.1.-­‐  Requested  Factors  to  implement  CSI   4.-­‐  Proposal:    4.1.-­‐  Framework:  City-­‐Region  5-­‐System  Framework    4.2.-­‐  Empirical  evidence-­‐based  case-­‐studies      >  Work-­‐in-­‐progress  >  www.cityregions.org    
  3. 3. 1.-­‐  Mo9va9on   1.1.-­‐  Context  >   1.  2005-­‐2011:  PhD  about  the  concept  of  the  City-­‐Region  comparing  3  Compara7ve   City-­‐Regional  Research  case  studies:   1.  Basque  (Spain  &  France)   2.  Dublin  (Ireland)   3.  Portland  (USA)   2.  2011:  Book  published  by  the  Presidency  of  the  Basque  Government  &  Innobasque.   3.  2012<:  PostDoctoral  Fellow  at  Oxford  FoC  &  Ikerbasque.   1.  Scien7fic  Director  of  the  Euskal  Hiria  –  Basque  City-­‐Region  Congress  2012  organized  in   collabora7on  with  the  Basque  Government’s  Spa7al  Planning  Ministry   2.  While  invi7ng  5  Stakeholders  groups  (Penta  Helix):  1st  7me  in  the  12  years  of  Congress.   3.  Fostering  2.0  Social  Networks  par7cipa7on  via  beta  version  e-­‐Governance:   1.  Internal  (Basque/Spanish)  www.euskalhiria.org  pladorm   2.  External  (English)  www.basquecity.org  pladorm:  *Linked  with  www.cityregions.org   PostDoc  project.   4.  That  aimed  an  Strategic  Territorial  e-­‐Governance  model  based  on  the  Social   Innova9on  approach:  Proposing  a  Euskal  Hiria  Territorial  Strategic  Think  Tank  as  a   complementary  boDom-­‐up  par9cipatory  policy-­‐making  tool.    
  4. 4. 1.-­‐  Mo9va9on   1.2.-­‐  Diagnosis  (Final:  Dec  2013)  >     1.-­‐  The  Sustainability  Transi9ons  in  the  context  of  Climate  Change  require  >       2.-­‐  An  efficient,  visionary  and  poli9c/socially  engaging  Governance  model   breakthrough  than  the  Spa9al  Planning  Euskal  Hiria  debate  has  led  us  so  far.  Due  to:    2.1.-­‐  Erroneous  use  of  Euskal  Hiria  as  an  ins7tu7onal  place  branding  (?)    2.2.-­‐  On  the  one  hand,  about  the  Basque  Government  policy-­‐making  prac7ce:    DOT/LAA  Spa7al  Planning  Direc7ves  >  based  on  “just”  Growth-­‐driven  Territorial    Development  Strategies    2.3.-­‐  On  the  other  hand,  about  Social  Movements  ac7vi7es:  Short-­‐term      tac7cal  pressure     3.-­‐  The  Role  of  the  City-­‐Region:  “As  socio-­‐ecological  and  technical  networks,  is  to   explore  their  transformability  capaci7es  by  strengthening  their  Social  Capital  and   fostering  opportuni<es  in  the  process  of  change.”  (Paskual  &  Olazabal,  2013)   Therefore,  a  contribu7on  from  the:   Social  Innova9on  &  Governance      
  5. 5. 2.-­‐  Opportuni9es   2.1.-­‐  Global  Convergence:   1.  OECD  (2011)   As  the  OECD  (2011:  42)  pointed  out:  the  Basque  Country  can  take  great  pride  in  what  it   has  collec7vely  achieved  over  the  past  30  years,  an  achievement  summarized  as:     “a  regional  transforma<on  success  story”.   2.  EU  Horizon2020  (2013):  On-­‐going  Smart  Ci7es  &  Communi7es   *Ref:  hPps://www.academia.edu/5399924/Cri7cal_Social_Innova7on_in_the_Smart_City_era_for_a_City-­‐Regional_European_Horizon_2020     3.  RIS3  Smart  Specializa7on  (Morgan,  2013)   “More  internally  connected  &  more  externally  engaged”   3.  Two  emerging  challenges:   1.-­‐  Neoclassic  Economic  Orthodoxy  Poli7cal  Economic  Cri7c.   (Harvey  &  Brenner)   2.-­‐  City-­‐Regionalism  &  Socio-­‐poli7cal  devolu7onist  emergent  reali7es.     (Innerarity,  Kea7ng,  Gallagher  &  Moreno)   *Ref:  hPps://webgate.ec.europa.eu/socialinnova7oneurope/node/4402    
  6. 6. 2.-­‐  Opportuni9es   2.2.-­‐  Local  Dynamics:     1.  Lack  of  a  Governance  (Innerarity)  Model:  Penta  Helix.   1.  Public  sector:  Has  kidnapped  by  the  reac7vism  without  ac7va7ng  an  efficient   and  open-­‐minded  boPom-­‐up  (as  a  complement  of  the  exis7ng  top-­‐down   one).  Not  any  Experimental  Governance.  (Mulgan,  2013:  32-­‐38  pp)   2.  Private  sector:  Not  thinking  in  the  Sustainability  Transi7ons  scenario  for  their   ac7vity  >  Green  Economy  Transi7on  vs  #Fagor?  (Calzada,  2012:  228)   3.  Academia:  Not  a  mul7-­‐stakeholder  vision.  Very  par7cular  endogamy.   4.  Civil  Society:  Social  Movements.  Short-­‐term  tac7cs.      DOT  Deshazkundea  >  Transi7on  Network-­‐Movement.  (Hopkins,  2013)   5.  Individuals:  Ac7vists/Entrepreneurs.  Do  I  maPer  to  the  #Transi7on?   2.  Balance  &  Imbalance  Territorial  Development  Strategies.   1.  Reac9ve  paradigm:  From  Spa9al  Planning  >     2.  Proac9ve  paradigm:  To  Transi9ons  Towards  Sustainability  >  Climate  Change  
  7. 7. 3.-­‐  Challenges  &  Threats   3.1.-­‐  Requested  Factors     To  implement  to  Territorial  Development  Strategies   Cri9cal  Social  Innova9on  (Moulaert,  Morgan  &  Mulgan):   1.  Mul9stakeholders  approach:  Penta  Helix   1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  To  integrate  urban  poli7cal  economy  &  business  (Hopkins,  2013)   To  consider  the  complete  dynamic       To  invite  a  full  range  of  diverse  agents   To  integrate  the  social  complexity  &  socio-­‐ecologic  an7cipa7on   To  encourage  finding  poli7cal  contradic7ons  &  solving  them  collec7vely   2.  E-­‐Governance  model:  BoPom-­‐up     1.  2.  3.  4.  5.    To  foster  an  Experimental  Governance   To  open-­‐up  a  permanent  &  endless  cycle  of  informa7ve  loop   To  take  into  account  territorial  scales:  #MacroMesoMicro  (Calzada  et  al,  2013)   To  tackle  the  narrowed  vision  of  the  technology  in  favour  of  the  interac7on   Do  not  ignore  civil  society  (S21)  (Morgan,  2013)  
  8. 8. 4.-­‐  Proposal:  4.1.>   City-­‐Region     5-­‐System     Framework®     chart  by  @icalzada  
  9. 9. 4.-­‐  Proposal:  4.2.>     #WorkInProgress  hDp://www.cityregions.org  ®     map  by  @icalzada  
  10. 10. Eskerrik  asko   Thank  you     Igor  Calzada,  Ph.D.   igor.calzada@compas.ox.ac.uk     hPp://www.cityregions.org   hPp://www.basquecity.org   hPp://www.euskalhiria.org     hPp://www.igorcalzada.com   hPp://about.me/icalzada     @icalzada    
  11. 11. References:     1.  Calzada,  I.  (2013),  “The  Future  of  City-­‐Regions  <>  Compara<ve  Territorial  Benchmarking”  (Working  Paper).  Paper  presented  at  the  RSA   Regional  Studies  Associa7on  Winter  Conference  2013  Mobilising  Regions:  Territorial  Strategies  for  Growth”  and  published  as  a  Summary   Volume.  Available:  hPp://www.regionalstudies.org  (P)   2.  Calzada,  I.  (2013).  “Knowledge  Building  &  Organiza<onal  Behaviour:  Mondragon  Case”  Chapter  in  the  Book  “Moulaert,  F.,  MacCallum,  D.,   Mehmood,  A.  and  Hamdouch,  A.  Interna7onal  Handbook  of  Social  Innova7on.    Social  innova7on:  Collec7ve  ac7on,  Social  learning  and   Transdisciplinary  research.”  Cheltenham:  Edward  Elgar  (UK)  Publishing.  ISBN:  978  1  84980  998  6  (Ch)   hPp://www.igorcalzada.com/mondragon-­‐case-­‐from-­‐the-­‐social-­‐innova7on-­‐chapter-­‐accepted-­‐to-­‐be-­‐part-­‐of-­‐the-­‐interna7onal-­‐handbook-­‐of-­‐ social-­‐innova7on-­‐by-­‐the-­‐edward-­‐elgar-­‐publishing-­‐editors-­‐moulaert-­‐maccallum-­‐mehmood-­‐hamdouch   3.  Calzada,  I.  (2013).  “The  Future  of  the  City-­‐Regions  <>  Basque  &  Oresund  Compara<ve  Territorial  Benchmarking”.  Flexible  City  Interna7onal   Symposium,  24-­‐25th  October  2013,  University  of  Oxford  (UK).   hPp://www.igorcalzada.com/flexiblecity-­‐interna7onal-­‐symposium-­‐by-­‐futureofci7es-­‐programme-­‐at-­‐the-­‐university-­‐of-­‐oxford-­‐uk     4.  Calzada,  I.,  Chautón,  A.  and  Di  Sienna,  D.,  (2013),  “#MacroMesoMicro:  Systemic  Territory  Framework  from  the  perspec<ve  of  Social   Innova<on”  Ebook.  ISBN:    978-­‐84-­‐616-­‐5217-­‐4  (ISBN)  (B)  hPp://www.macromesomicro.com     5.  Calzada,  I.  (2011a),  “Basque,  Dublin  &  Portland:  Compara<ve  Territorial  Benchmarking”.  Zamudio,  Innova7on  Basque  Agency,  Innobasque,   2011.  Depósito  Legal:  BI-­‐3114/2011.  CC  3.0  (B)  and  Calzada,  I.    (2011b),“¿Hacia  una  Ciudad  Vasca?  Aproximación  desde  la  Innovación  Social.”   Vitoria-­‐Gasteiz,  Edit.  Servicio  Central  de  Publicaciones  del  Gobierno  Vasco,  2011.  ISBN:  978-­‐84-­‐457-­‐3180-­‐2.  (B)   6.  Horizon  2020-­‐  Work  Programme  2014-­‐2015:  Europe  in  a  changing  world:  inclusive,  innova7ve  and  reflec7ve  socie7es.   7.  Innerarity,  D.  (2013),  The  Democracy  of  Knowledge,  Bloomsbury,  London.   8.  Olazabal,  M.  and  U.  Pascual  (2013)  Iden<fying  social  determinants  of  urban  low  carbon  transi<ons:  the  case  of  energy  transi<on  in  Bilbao,   Basque  Country.  BC3  Working  Paper  Series  2013-­‐11.  Basque  Centre  for  Climate  Change  (BC3).  Bilbao,  Spain.   9.  Oxford  Mar7n  School  (2013),  Now  for  the  Long  Term,  The  Report  of  the  Oxford  Mar7n  Commission  for  Future  Genera7ons,  University  of   Oxford.   10. OECD  (2011),  OECD  Reviews  of  Regional  Innova<on:  Basque  Country,  Spain  2011.    

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