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91 sanjay 91 sanjay Presentation Transcript

  • A warm welcome to Honorable Panel Members of 4th International conference on Advances in Energy Research Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India 10/12/2013
  • Enhancement of Thermal Storage System Using Phase Change Material By Dr. Sanjay A. Khot Principal, Sharad Institute of Technology, College of Engineering Ichalkaranji. (Maharashtra) India. sakhot.2000@gmail.com Paper no 91
  • Abstract  Need to develop efficient, economical solar thermal energy storage (TES) devices.  Use of savE® HS-58 phase change material (PCM) for the improvement of the thermal storage system for domestic use.    Experimental investigation: laboratory model of 10 liters per day capacity of system with 26% of volume occupied by PCM, improvement in thermal storage capacity is 22% Thermal storage system using PCM can be used with higher size solar collector or amount of storage can be reduced for the same size solar collector. Prospects for the development of better and economical storage system.
  • Solar Energy Option  The Earth receives 1.8 x 1017 W of incoming solar radiation     continuously at top of its atmosphere. India’s solar power reception on its land area is about 5000 trillion kWh per year. India has nearly 250-300 clear sunny days and average daily solar energy incidence varies from 4 to 7 kWh/m2. Thus sun provides unlimited supply of energy. Bridges the gap between the demand and supply of electricity. Reduces the use of conventional energy, which usually results in a decrease in GHG emissions.
  • Thermal Energy Storage  Sensible Heat Storage Liquid media storage such as water, oil based fluids, molten salts etc. and solid media storage like rocks, bricks, and metals etc.  Latent Heat Storage Phase change from solid to liquid or liquid to gas or vice versa. It provides a higher thermal energy storage densities. Able to absorb or release large quantities of energy as latent heat at a constant temperature by undergoing a change of phase.
  • Fig. 1.5 Classification of PCM
  • Table 1.1 Comparison of various heat storage media (Stored energy = 5000 kJ, ∆T = 32.8oC) HEAT STORAGE MATERIAL Property HS-58 PW Water DM TM 66 CI Rock CON 56.9 59.8 * * * * * * 247 190 * * * * * * 2.5 2.15 4.19 2.20 2.10 0.54 0.88 0.88 Density kg/m3 1300 790 1000 867 750 7200 1600 2200 storage mass , kg 14. 87 19.66 39.91 76.01 79.63 309.6 190 189.60 Relative mass ** 1.000 1.320 2.497 4.755 4.981 19.37 11.8 11.860 0.012 0.025 0.040 0.088 0.106 0.04 0.2 0.086 1 2.024 3.246 7.130 8.634 3.49 9.6 7.008 Melting Point oC latent heat of fusion kJ/kg specific heat kJ/kgK Storage volume m3 Relative Volume ** **Relative mass and volume are based on heat storage in HS-58 PW- Paraffin Wax, DM- Dowtherm.A, TM66- Therminal 66, CI- Cast Iron, CON- Concrete
  • Efficiency of FPC and ETC as a function of operating temperature
  • Data of CSWHS and PCMSWHS for economic analysis Sr no. Particular CSWHS PCMSWHS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Thermal storage tank capacity , LPD Surface area of solar collector, m2 Operating temperature, oC Solar collector thermal efficiency, η Energy absorbed in the collector, kJ Number of PCM balls Mass of PCM, kg Quantity of water, ltrs Sensible heat stored by PCM, kJ Latent heat stored by PCM , kJ Sensible heat stored by water, kJ Total heat stored , kJ Initial cost of solar system, Government subsidy @ 33%, Net cost of system less subsidy, Initial down payment, Loan amount , Rate of interest Repayment of loan, no of years Annual expenses for first 5 years pa Annual expenses for after 5 years pa Rate at which maintenance cost increases annually Cost of conventional fuel saving, Rate at which energy cost increases annually Cost of conventional equipment, 100 2 70 50 % 18000 00 00 100 00 00 18000 18000 20000 6600 13400 2680 10720 5% 5 -400 5% 9600 5% 5500 100 2.3 60 56% 23184 239 43.98 47 4617.48 10882.07 8306.16 23785.71 23000 7590 15410 3082 12328 5% 5 900 1300 5% 12684 5% 5500
  • Literature Review- Concluding Remarks • Work undertaken in this project on experimentally investigating – Experimental investigation using multiple capsules filled with HS-58 PCM inside thermal storage system. – Experimental investigation using multiple capsules filled without PCM inside thermal storage system is done.
  • Further scope for improvement in efficiency of solar water heating systems. Designs are of preliminary in nature No standardized commercial design and system is available in international market. Need of an extensive and systematic investigation for use of commercial PCMs available in the market having comparable thermal properties. Labratory model of solar water heating system using commercial PCM HS-58 is proposed. Little work is reported on the use of HS-58 PCM for domestic solar water heating system. Suitable thermophysical properties compared to other PCMs.
  • Experimental Set Up Of Thermal Storage System Using PCM
  • Experimental Set Up Of Thermal Storage System Without PCM
  • Schematic of thermal storage tank and thermocouples positions
  • Photograph of Experimental Setup
  • Performance of Thermal Storage System Using HS-58 PCM • Experimental investigation of thermal storage tank using combination of PCM and water • Experimental investigation of thermal storage tank without PCM • Comparison of average temperature of water with and without PCM • Improvement in performance using PCM
  • Temperature time variation of PCM during controlled energy input A1 A0 80 B0 70 C1 C0 TEMPERATURE , o C 60 D0 B1 50 D1 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 TIME , min 40 50 60
  • Temperature time variation of Water during controlled energy input 100 90 80 TEMPERATURE, oC 70 60 5CT 50 6CL 6CR 40 5CB 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 TIME, min 40 50 60
  • Temperature time variations of PCM during no heat input 90 80 A0 A1 B0 70 B1 TEMPERATURE, oC C0 C1 60 D0 D1 50 40 30 20 50 60 70 80 90 100 TIME, min 110 120 130 140
  • Temperature time variation of water during no heat input 90 5CT 5CB 80 TEMPERATURE ,o C 6CL 70 6CR 60 50 40 30 50 60 70 80 90 100 TIME, min 110 120 130 140
  • Temperature time variation of water at different positions during controlled energy input 100 90 80 70 TEMPERATURE, oC 5CT 60 5CB 50 6CL 40 6CR 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 TIME, min 40 50 60
  • Average temperature time variation of water during controlled energy input 90 80 AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 TIME, min 40 50 60
  • Total heat versus Time with and without PCM
  • Conclusion The use of HS-58 as PCM in HDPE spherical capsule in conventional hot water storage tank represents an approach for simple and inexpensive thermal storage system. Such storage can be reliably used with existing SDHW systems. The suitability of melting temperature of HS-58 enables the storage of excess energy available in daytime hours as latent heat, and maintains the water temperature in an acceptable range of hot water storage tank and supply hot water at almost constant temperature. It is observed that for the 10 liters per day capacity of tank with 26% of volume occupied by PCM stores 1976 kJ against 1621 kJ without PCM i.e. only water. Thus improvement in thermal storage capacity of 22% is observed as compared to energy stored only by water considering heat losses. Finally, the thermal storage system using PCM can be used with higher size solar collector or size of storage system can be reduced for the same size solar collector. It can be used for the design of the storage system.
  • References 1.Manufacturers test certificate and data sheet, Pluss Polymers Pvt. Ltd.Website:www.pluss.co.in 2.Sharma Atul, V.V. Tyagi , C.R. Chen , D. Buddhi , ‘Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol.13, pp. 318–345, 2009. 3.Murat Kenisarin and Khamid Mahkamov, ‘Actual problems in using phase-change Materials to store solar energy’ Paper presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute Summer School on Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption (TESSEC), Çeşme, Izmir, Turkey, June 6-17, 2005. 4.Ogueke N. V. , E. E. Anyanwu, and O. V. Ekechukwu , ‘A review of solar water heating systems’ Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Vol. 1, pp.043106,2009. 5.Sharma S.D. and Kazunobu sagara, ‘Latent heat storage materials and systems: A review’ International Journal of Green Energy, Vol.2, pp.1–56, 2005. 6. Zalba Belen, Jos Ma Marın aLuisa F. Cabeza b, Harald Mehling ‘Review on thermal energy storage with phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications’, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 23 pp.251–283, 2003.
  • References contd… 12.Kurklu A., O' Zmerzi A., and Bilgin S., ‘Thermal performance of a water- phase change material solar collector’, Renewable Energy, Vol.26, pp.391 – 399, 2002. 13.Tayeb A.M., "A simulation model for a phase change energy storage system: experimental and verification", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 34, pp.243-250, 1993. 14.Bansal N.K., and Buddhi D., ‘An analytical study of a latent heat storage system in a cylinder’, Solar Energy, Vol.33 (4), pp. 235-242, 1992. 15.Fouda, A.E., Despault, G.J.G., Taylor, J.B., and Capes, C.E., ‘Solar storage systems using salt hydrate latent heat and direct contact heat exchange-II Characteristics of pilot system operating with sodium sulphate solution’, Solar Energy, Vol.32 (1),pp.57-65,1984. 16.Bedecarrats J.P., J. Castaing-Lasvignottes, F. Strub, J.P. Dumas ‘Study of a phase change energy storage using spherical capsules. Part I: Experimental results’, Energy Conversion and Management Vol.50, pp.2527–2536, 2009. 17.Hussan H,Al-Kaylem and Mohammed H.Alhamdo ‘ Thermal behavior of encapsulated phase change material energy storage’ Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol. 3,2012 18.Saw Chun Lin, Hussain H,Al-Kayiem and Mohd Shiraz Bin Aris ‘Experimental Investigation on the performance Enhancement of Integrated PCM-Flat Plate Solar Collector’, Journal Applied Sciences Vol 12(23) 2390-2396,2012.
  • References contd… 7.Hinti A., Ghandoor A., Maaly, Abu Naqeera Z. Al-Khateeb, O. Al-Sheikh ‘Experimental investigation on the use of water–phase change material storage in conventional solar water heating systems’, Gcreeder 2009, Amman-Jordan, March 31st – April 2nd 2009. 8.Vikram D., Kaushik S., Prashanth V., Nallusamy N. ‘An Improvement in the Solar Water Heating Systems using Phase Change Materials’. Proceedings of the International Conference on Renewable Energy for Developing Countries-2006 9.Wen-Shing Lee,Bo-Ren Chen and Sih-Li Chen, ‘Latent heat Storage in a Two Phase Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater’, American Society of Mechanical Engineers,vol128,pp.69-76, 2006. 10.Canbazoglu, S., Sahinaslan, A., Ekmekyapar, A., Aksoy, Y.G., Akarsu, F. ‘Enhancement of solar thermal energy storage performance using sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate of a conventional solar water-heating system’, Energy and Buildings, Vol.37(3): 235–242, 2005. 11.Nallusamy N, Lakshmi Narayan Rao, Sampath S & Velraj R. ‘Effective utilization of solar energy for water heating applications using combined storage system’. In proceedings of the International Conference on ‘New Millennium-Alternative Energy Solutions for Sustainable Development, Coimbatore, India pp. 103-108, 2003.
  • THANK YOU!!
  • QURRIES?????