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  1. CONCENTRATING SOLAR PHOTO-VOLTAIC BITS Pilani Pilani|Dubai|Goa|Hyderabad M. Padmini Dr. Manoj S. Soni (Assistant Professor) Department of Mechanical Engineering BITS – Pilani, Rajasthan IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research 10-12 December, 2013, IIT Bombay.
  2. Solar Photo-voltaic • Photo-voltaic uses solar cells made up of semiconductors to generate dc current from sunlight. • Currently, polycrystalline and mono crystalline solar panels generally available have efficiencies range from 12% to 18%. • As solar panels are costly, such small efficiencies limit its use to only specific applications. • So to make this technique economical, there is a need to increase the efficiency and to bring down the cost. • One technique is to use concentrating photo-voltaic to increase the intensity of light falling on solar cell 2 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  3. Concentrating photovoltaic • Research into CPV started in the 1970s • A large area of sunlight is focused onto the solar cell using optical devices. • Requires less photovoltaic material. • As photovoltaic cell area required is less, high-efficient but expensive multi-junction cells can be used economically. • Optics is less expensive than cells IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  4. CPV Techniques • Parabolic Concentrator • Hyperboloid Concentrator • Fresnel Lens Concentrator • Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) • Dielectric Totally Internally Reflecting Concentrator (DTIRC) • Quantum Dot Concentrator (QDC) IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  5. Parabolic concentrator 5 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  6. Parabolic Concentrator • Transforms an incoming plane wave traveling along the axis into a spherical wave converging toward the focus. • All incoming parallel light is reflected by the collector through a focal point onto a second mirror. • This second mirror is also a parabolic mirror with the same focal point. • It reflects the light beams to the middle of the first parabolic mirror where it hits the solar cell. • The advantage of this configuration is that it does not require any optical lenses. • But losses will occur in both mirrors. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  7. Hyperboloid concentrator IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research 7 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  8. Hyperboloid concentrator • Consists of two hyperbolic sections, AB and A’B’. • The diameters of the entrance and exit aperture are labeled as d1 and d2 respectively. • If the inside wall of the hyperbolic profile is considered as a mirror, the sun rays entering the concentrator from AA’ will be reflected and focused to the exit aperture BB’. • The advantage of this concentrator is that it is very compact, since only truncated version of the concentrator needs to be used. 8 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  9. Fresnel Lens 9 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  10. Fresnel Lens • Comprises several sections with different angles, thus reducing weight and thickness in comparison to a standard lens. • Mostly made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) • Possible to achieve short focal length and large aperture while keeping the lens light. • They can be constructed – In a shape of a circle to provide a point focus with concentration ratios of around 500 – In cylindrical shape to provide line focus with lower concentration ratios. 10 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  11. Compound Parabolic Concentrator 11 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  12. Compound Parabolic Concentrator • When the rim of a parabola is tilted toward the sun, the rays are no longer concentrated to a point, but are all reflected somewhere below the focus. • The rays on the right-hand side reflect below the focus and the rays on the left-hand side reflect above the focus. • So the half parabola tilted away from the sun is discarded, and replaced with a similarly shaped parabola with its rim pointed toward the sun • A receiver is now placed in the region below the focus 12 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  13. Dielectric Totally Internally Reflecting Concentrator 13 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  14. Dielectric Totally Internally Reflecting Concentrator • DTIRC take advantage of the optical properties of a dielectric, namely its refractive index, which leads to total internal reflection. • Consists of three parts: a curved front surface, a totally internally reflecting side profile and an exit aperture. • The front aperture can be a hemisphere, but different designs such as parabola and eclipse have been developed recently. • The advantage of DTIRC over CPC is that it offers higher geometrical concentration gain and smaller sizes. • The disadvantage of a DTIRC is that it cannot efficiently transfer all of the solar energy that it collects into a lower index media. 14 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  15. Quantum Dot Concentrator 15 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  16. Quantum Dot Concentrator • QDC is a planar device consisting of three parts; – a transparent sheet of glass or plastic made doped with quantum dots (QDs), – reflective mirrors mounted on the three edges – An exit where a PV cell is attached • When the sun radiation hits the surface of a QDC, a part of the radiation will be refracted by the fluorescent material and absorbed by the QDs. • Photons are then reemitted in all direction and are guided to the PV cell via total internal reflection. • Works with diffuse light so does not need tracking. 16 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  17. Recent Break-through • Rod Lens 17 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  18. Rod Lens • Solar cell might be damaged if a small portion of the cell, on which unevenly distributed light concentrates, gets hot. • In a system with a Rod lens, it is possible to cause light to be shed on the entire area of the solar cell. • Can be used in both transmission type and reflection type concentrators • In both types, light passes through rod lens before striking the solar cell to enable uniform distribution of the rays. 18 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  19. Solar Sphere 19 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  20. • Solar Sphere – Barcelona-based German-born architect André Broessel has constructed an enormous glass ball lens filled with water capable of harnessing power from the sun and even the moon and converting it into usable energy. – He proposes that the spheres could be embedded in buildings allowing for natural light to stream through while capturing valuable energy – The orb has been designed to be easily integrated into a building’s design, replacing giant glass windows with a large sphere. 20 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  21. APPLICATIONS TO INDIAN MARKET • Moser Baer Clean Energy Limited (MBCEL) commissioned Asia's largest solar farm in Banaskantha district of Gujarat. • The 30 MW solar farm has been set up using 2,36,000 Thin Film modules with an approximate investment of Rs 465 crore ( $95 million). • Each module has surface area of 2600 x 2200 mm2 that is 5.72 m2. • Total area of photovoltaic used was 17.3 Km2. • We shall compare a new 30 MW plant with and without concentration according to the current tariff rates. • If we use 150W thin film polycrystalline cells, we can assert the cost to be around Rs10000 per piece of area 1335 x 650 mm2. • Fresnel lens costs around Rs100 per piece of area 350 x 350 mm2. 21 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  22. Analysis Results Without concentration With concentration Expected output 30MW 30MW PV sheet used 150W Thin film Polycrystalline cells 150W Thin film Polycrystalline cells Area of photo-voltaic used 1,73,55,000 m2 3,54,183.67 m2 Total cost of PV cells used Rs 200 crore Rs14.16 crore Area of Fresnel lens used - 1,73,55,000 m2 Cost of Fresnel lens - Rs 4.081 crore Total cost of installation Rs 200 crore Rs 18.24 crore 22 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  23. Conclusion • The area of PV used will be reduced from 17.35Km2 to just 0.35Km2 which would now cost Rs 14.16 crore. • Adding to it the cost of Fresnel lens which would be Rs 4.081 crore, the total material cost adds up to be around Rs 18.24 crore. • CPV installation requires tracking and cooling mechanisms which would account for an increase in cost of installation. • But the amount would still be less than the initial cost and would also result in a higher efficiency. • So by installing Fresnel lens, we reduce the installation cost from an exorbitant amount of Rs 200 crores to just above Rs 18 crores. 23 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  24. BITS Pilani Pilani|Dubai|Goa|Hyderabad THANK YOU

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