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  • 1. Paper Code 075 Studies on Performance of the Cogeneration Programme in Rice Mills in West Bengal Bijoy Kr. Majhi*, Tushar Jash School of Energy Studies, Jadavpur University Kolkata 700032, India * Corresponding Author. Tel: +919433485110, E-mail: bijoy119@gmail.com
  • 2. Introduction       West Bengal is mainly an agricultural based state in India. The state covers a geographical area of 8,684,113 ha of which cultivated area is 4,991,222 ha. There are 2119 modern rice mills mostly having capacity of 3t/h and about 36000 numbers of rice hullers having capacities of 0.6t/h. An attempt have been taken in the year 2005 to 2009 by the Government for installation of rice husk based gasifier in the rice mills to generate electricity for own consumption. Financial subsidies of 15% to 33% depending on the plant size were provided by government to about 76 rice mills in West Bengal. But the programme did not yield much success as all the rice mills owners which had installed gasifier, dismantled the system and switched over to utility-suppiled electricity to run their mills. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research
  • 3. Aims of the paper  To find out the reasons behind the dismantling of rice husk based gasifiers installed in a large number of rice mills in the state.  To investigate whether the failure of the programme was solely due to economic reasons or due to relatively complex nature of technology of biomass gasification and poor reliability of the gas cleaning systems. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research
  • 4. Methodology A primary level field survey were carried out on rice mills in Hooghly and Burdwan district in West Bengal.  A structured questionnaire was set to collect information like the capacity of the mill, capacity of the gasifier installed in the rice mill, cost of installation of the gasifier and the amount of subsidy provided by the government, hours of operation of the mill and the gasifiers, frequency of maintenance, type of failures, labor charges, diesel replacement, and electricity consumption.  Information on the amount of paddy milled per year, rice husk generation, own consumption of rice husk with or without the gasifier in the rice mill and annual surplus availability of rice husk.  IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research
  • 5. Modern rice mill Fig. 1 Flowchart of modern rice mill. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research
  • 6. Cogeneration programme in rice mills in West Bengal   60% of the rice husk produced, during processing of paddy, is consumed in a rice mill for steam generation and 40% of the rice husk remains surplus. This surplus rice husk is used in gasifier for captive power generation. During 2005 to 2009, rice husk based gasfiers were installed for captive power generation in 76 rice mills in West Bengal. Having capacities varies from 40 KW to 350 KW of the gasifier. Table 1 District wise installation of gasifier based cogeneration plants in rice mills in West Bengal. Sl no. Installation Zones Number of rice mills Capacities of gasifier kW (Number) installed gasifiers 1 Burdwan district 56 2 Hooghly district 12 3 Bankura district Midnapore district Murshidabad district Birbhum district Total 2 2 1 3 76 4 5 6 40(1), 120(2), 150(8), 175(15), 200(16), 250(10), 300(3), 350(1) 120(1), 150(4), 200(4), 250(2), 350(1) 120(1), 175(1) 175(2) 175(1) 120(1), 200(2) 14765 IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research
  • 7. Results Table 2 Performance data of rice mills run by gasifiers. Sl. No. Name of the rice mill Capacity of the mill (t/h) Paddy process ed (t/d) Capacity of the gasifier (kW) Surplus rice husk generated (t/d) Rice husk consumed by the gasifier (t/d) Cost of husk if it is sold in the market (Rs.) Remaining rice husk (t/d) Income from selling of the remaining husk (Rs./d) Diesel consumption (l/d) Energ y cost for diesel (Rs./d) Additional labor charge (Rs./d) Maintenance cost for the gasifier & engine (Rs./d) Daily expenditure for gasifier operatio n (Rs./d) Expenditure for energy / tonne of paddy processe d (Rs./t) 1 Bhorosha rice mill 3x2 96 200 8 4.8 9600 3.2 6400 176 9630 500 400 13703 143 2 Panchana n rice mill 3x2 108 250 9 6.75 13500 2.25 4500 216 11785 500 300 21585 200 3 Jyotish rice mill 3 24 200 2 2 4000 0 0 48 2619 300 400 7319 305 4 Joyrampur rice mill 3 48 140 4 3.36 6720 0.64 1280 128 6984 400 200 13024 271 5 Lalji rice mill 3 48 120 4 2.88 5760 1.12 2240 96 5238 500 400 9658 201 6 Balai agro industries 3 24 175 2 2 4000 0 0 48 2619 300 300 7219 300 7 Shree ma rice mill 3 48 250 4 3.75 7500 0.25 560 100 5456 300 300 12996 271 8 Surjyakant a rice mill 3x2 96 250 8 6 12000 2 4000 160 8730 500 300 17530 183 (i) Diesel price: Rs. 54.56 per litre; (ii) selling price of rice husk: Rs.2000 per tonne.th International Conference on IV Advances in Energy Research
  • 8. Sl. No. Table 3 Energy consumption data of rice mills when run by diesel Name of the Paddy Surplus Income Diesel Energy engines. Capacity of rice mill the mill (t/h) processed (t/d) rice husk generated (t/d) from selling of surplus husk (Rs./d) consumption (l/d) cost for diesel (Rs./d) Maintenance cost for engine (Rs./d) Total expenditure (Rs./d) Expenditure for energy / tonne of paddy processed (Rs./t) 1 Bhorosha rice mill 3x2 96 8 16000 576 31427 170 15597 162 2 Panchanan rice mill 3x2 108 9 18000 648 35355 170 17525 162 3 Jyotish rice mill 3 24 2 4000 160 8730 120 4850 202 4 Joyrampur rice mill 3 48 4 8000 256 13967 150 6117 127 5 Lalji rice mill 3 48 4 8000 288 15713 150 7863 164 6 Balai agro industries 3 24 2 4000 144 7857 150 4007 167 7 Shree ma rice mill 3 48 4 8000 320 17459 140 9599 200 8 Surjyakanta rice mill 3x2 96 8 16000 512 27935 170 12105 126 (i) Diesel price: Rs. 54.56 per litre; (ii) selling price of rice husk: Rs.2000 per tonne. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research
  • 9. Table 4 Performance data of rice mills run by electricity. Sl. No. Name of the rice mill Capacity of the mill (t/h) Paddy processed (t/d) Surplus rice husk generated (t/d) Average monthly electricity bill (Rs.) Daily electricity cost (Rs./d) Maintenance cost for the electric drives (Rs./d) Income from selling of surplus husk (Rs./d) Total expenditure (Rs./d) Expenditure for energy / tonne of paddy processed (Rs./t) 1 Bhorosha rice mill 3x2 96 8 760000 25333 150 16000 9483 99 2 Panchanan rice mill 3x2 108 9 800000 26664 150 18000 8814 82 3 Jyotish rice mill 3 24 2 180000 6000 110 4000 2000 83 4 Joyrampur rice mill 3 48 4 350000 11667 135 8000 3802 79 5 Lalji rice mill 3 48 4 360000 12000 150 8000 4150 86 6 Balai agro industries 3 24 2 200000 6667 130 4000 2797 117 7 Shree ma rice mill 3 48 4 350000 11667 120 8000 3787 79 8 Surjyakanta rice mill 3x2 96 8 750000 25000 150 16000 9150 95 (i) Selling price of rice husk: Rs.2000 per tonne. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research
  • 10. Observations From the above tables it shows that energy expenditure for per tonne of paddy processed varied from Rs. 141 to Rs. 300 when rice mills runs by gasifier.  When the rice mills runs by diesel engine the energy expenditure per tonne of paddy processed varies from Rs. 125 to Rs. 200.  Energy cost per tonne of paddy processed varies from Rs. 79 to Rs. 117 when the rice mills switched to utility supplied electricity.  IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research
  • 11. Technical problem associated with the gasifier      Diesel replacement was very low. Fresh water demand was quite high. Gas cleaning system was not up to the mark. There were complaints on frequent choking of gas pipelines and overheating. High maintenance cost. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research
  • 12. Conclusions       The present study reveals that the cogeneration programme in rice mills for captive power generation in West Bengal, did not yield success. The failure of the cogeneration programme is purely economic. There exists a good market for rice husk in West Bengal as the rice mill owners have found it profitable to sell the surplus rice husk. Rice mill owners gets electricity connection easily form the state electricity board because of excess power generation. Problems related to fresh water demand and discharge of contaminated water are concerned, it can be solved by replacing the wet cooling systems with dry cooling systems or by installing an effluent treatment plant within the rice mills. The problem of engine overheating can be solved if 100% gasifier based engines are used. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research
  • 13. Reference s Government of West Bengal. (2012) Economic Review 20112012, Kolkata, India. 2. Kapur, T., Kandpal, T.C. and Garg, H.P. (1996) Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability, Biomass and Bioenergy, 10(5/6), pp. 393-403. 3. Das, S. and Jash, T. (2009) District-level biomass resource assessment: A case study of an Indian State West Bengal, Biomass and Bioenergy, 33, pp. 137-143. 4. Ghosh, S., Das, T.K. and Jash, T. (2004) Sustainability of decentralized wood fuel-based power plant: an experience in India, Energy, 29, pp. 155-166. 1. IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research
  • 14. Thank you IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research

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