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303 piyush

  1. 1. Study on Biomass potential: A comparative analysis of India and EU leading towards Bio-based economy International Conference on Advances in Energy Research 10th-12th December, 2013 PIYUSH JOSHI TERI, INDIA
  2. 2. Strengthening Networking on Biomass Research and Biowaste Conversion – Biotechnology for Europe India Integration “SAHYOG” at a Glance
  3. 3. Fact Sheet “SAHYOG”  SAHYOG is co-funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (Project No. FP7-289615) and by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), India  The project will help to identify opportunities for joint initiatives between the EU, its member states and India in the field of biomass production and biowaste conversion  A Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) and a R&D road map will be developed in order to facilitate concerted planning of future joint EU-India research initiatives  The project will identify actual biomass availability and promote new technologies that will drive Europe and India to an increased exploitation of biotechnology for biomass production and biowaste conversion
  4. 4. Objectives of SAHYOG  To bring together leading organisations in the field of biomass production and bio-waste conversion research carried out within EU research programmes and related programmes by Indian national institutions  Inventories of biomass and biowaste potentials and research projects are planned to be elaborated and analysed within SAHYOG  These inventories will be the basis for the joint Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) finally leading to a Roadmap for policymakers and researchers  SAHYOG will ensure wide-range networking of relevant industries and scientific communities and establish linkages between on-going research and innovation projects from EU and India
  5. 5. SAHYOG PARTNERS EU project partners 1. Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Italy 2. Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (NL Agency), Holland 3. Deutsches Zentrum Fuer Luft - Und Raumfahrt Ev (DLR), Germany 4. Wageningen University & Research Centre Food & Biobased Research (WUR), The Netherlands 5. Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO), Belgium 6. Wirtschaft Und Infrastruktur GMBH & Co Planungs KG (WIP), Germany 7. National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Greece Indian Project partners 8. The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) 9. Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR/IICT) 10.GB Pant University of Agriculture & Technology (GBPUAT), Pantnagar 11. Tezpur University (TU), Assam 12. Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI), Pune 13. Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi
  6. 6. Achievements so far…  Setup of project website  Draft of dissemination and exploitation plan  A full inventory of biomass and projects related to Biomass in India and EU has been compiled and report has been published in SAHYOG website  SAHYOG Stakeholder meeting and project meeting held at New Delhi, India (November 2012) and in Copenhagen, Denmark (June 2013)  Successful completion of 1st summer school of project in Athens, Greece (June 2013)  Identification and mapping of EU-Indian RnD projects and prioritization for project twinning, which was held at The Netherlands on 28th and 29th Oct, 2013  Launch of the short-term exchange programme for young researchers
  7. 7. Biomass availability in India  The current availability of biomass in India is estimated at about 500 millions metric tones per year  About 32% of the total primary energy use in the country is still derived from biomass  Biomass power generation in India is an industry that attracts investments of over Rs.600 crores every year  Estimated 5000 million units of electricity and yearly employment of more than 10 million man/days in the rural areas  Sugar industry has been traditionally practicing cogeneration by using bagasse as a fuel
  8. 8. Why bioethanol from agro-residues?  India do not have surplus vegetable oil and biodiesel production should depend on imported oil !  The nation does not have land resources to support the cultivation of oil crops or any energy crops at levels which can meet the production demand !  India generates ~600 MMT of agricultural residues annually and this could be a potential feedstock for fuel production. ~51 % of the land surface in India is cultivated and the cultivated lands are mostly rain-fed !!!! Sukumaran & Pandey 2010, India Country report, In: Eisentraut A (ed), Potential for sustainable production of 2nd generation biofuels, IEA 2010
  9. 9. Several Biomass sources in India Biomass Resource Base Energy Crops Non edible oil seeds like Jatropha, Karanja, Neem Forest Produce Fuel wood, Pine Needles, Bamboo Agro Residues Rice husk, Stalks, Wheat straw, Groundnut shells Waste Sugarcane & Sweet Shorghum MSW, Market & Kitchen Waste, Livestock dung
  10. 10. National Programme on Energy Biosciences Bioethanol • Re-engineered feed stock • Re-engineered microorganisms • Process optimization Algal Biofuel • Collection and characterization • Establishment of repositories Capacity Building • Energy Bioscience Chairs • Energy Bioscience Overseas Fellowships Energy Bioscience Centre • Development of production system Biodiesel Next generation Biofuels • Biohydrogen • Quality planting material • Improved feed stock • Process optimization • Biobutanol • Synthetic biology Source: Research and Development for Bio based economy : DBT. India (2012)
  11. 11. The Potential in India for Biofuels Strengths Weaknesses  Alternate fuel source  Wasteland requirements  Energy security of the country  Need for engine modifications in higher blends  Less GHG emissions, environment friendly  Higher Cetane number and better lubricating effect for biodiesel  Market still in nascent stage  Still in field trial stage in India Opportunities  National Biodiesel policy  Keen interest of private players  R&D across the sector  Less dependency on depleting fossil fuels Threats  The discovery of huge gas reserves in India may push biofuels on the back foot  Food vs. fuel debate  Cost effectiveness of Biofuels  Raw material
  12. 12. Comparatives analysis of Biomass in EU and India
  13. 13. Methodology followed for making common Biomass inventories Criteria adopted for data collection  Collection and compilation of information (last five years duration)  Visited Agricultural Universities, State Agricultural and Forest Departments, Central and State Research organizations and several Institutes of National importance  Collection of data from various sources (Reports, manuscripts , reviews, books, relevant online sources, Universities/ Institutes library and resource persons)
  14. 14. Preparation of Inventory sheets  Separate sheet for separate states and Pan India  The data collected is compiled and filled in the excel sheets  Includes all the possible data reported from relevant source  Most recent data was included in the sheets  All the crops grown in India was placed in the sheet and one master file was created  All data filled should have been converted into similar units so as to compare easily
  15. 15. EU sources for preparing inventories  In Europe the information was obtained through the relevant ERA-NET networks on Bioenergy, Industrial Biotechnology, Plant Genomics, EC Cordis database and the relevant European projects like Star-Colibri, Bioref etc. Pan India and state level inventorisation  We considered the several relevant sources of Govt. of India which gives data on Biomass/crop production/yield, but crops considered in each database in not uniform
  16. 16.  Biomass Resource Atlas of India, (2004) .  Annual report of Indian States of Forest, (2011).  Statistical Year Book, Government of India,(2012).  Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of India, (2012).  Reserve Bank of India, Data base, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India , (2012).  TIFAC Biomass resources Report (Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council), (2009).  The annual reports published in India by authenticated Government sources, in most recent years (2010-2012).  Central Pollution Control Board report (CPCB,2012).  Report on Sustainable Solid Waste Management in India by Ranjith Kharvel Annepu, Columbia University in the City of New York, (2012).
  17. 17. Finalized common Biomass Inventory Sheet Total biomass/gross potential Biomass source Tons A) Biomass from forestry 1) Direct supply of wood biomass from forests and other wooded land for energy, materials and chemicals production 2. Indirect supply of wood biomass for energy, materials and chemicals production B) Biomass from agriculture and fishery 1. Agricultural crops and fishery products directly provided for energy, materials and chemical production 2. Agricultural by-products / processed residues and fishery byproducts for energy, materials and chemicals production C) Biomass from wastes 1. Biowastes 2. Biodegradable fraction of industrial waste (including paper, cardboard, pallets) 3. Sewage sludge 4. Landfill gas 1 3 m Used biomass Tons 3 m Net biomass potential Tons 3 m 2 3 Energy content MWh TJ Ktoe Conversion process Geographical location Source/link Reference year Notes
  18. 18. Work distribution of among India partners TERI - Punjab, Municipal waste (India), Forest residue (India), Pan India GBPUAT - Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh JNU - Rajasthan, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh ARTI - Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh ,Goa TU - North East IICT - Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Kerala
  19. 19. Biomass land in Europe and India Europe: 420 M ha India: 330 M ha 25% crops 44% crops 13% grass 15% grass 42% forest 21% forest 20% others 20% others
  20. 20. Wood stock growing in India S.No . Growing Stock (Million. cu.m) 2003 2005 2009 1. Trees Outside Forest 1,632 1,616 1599.57 2. Inside Forest 4,782 4,602 4498.66 3. Total 6,414 6,218 6098.23 Source: State of Forest Report (2012), Forest Survey of India Total growing stock of wood follows a decreasing trend (Table ) in forest and trees outside forests (TOF). Moreover, average growing stock per hectare of forest area has declined to 58.46 cubic meters (cu. m) in 2009 from 61.72 cu. m in 2003. Thus there are legal implications for usage of forest biomass as a substrate for its conversion to bioenergy by Ministry of Environment and Forests, India
  21. 21. The type of conversion processed used for conversion of the biomass to energy as identified in India were mainly Pyrolysis (57%), Gasification (29%) and Combustion / Anaerobic digestion (14%)
  22. 22. Fig: The utilization of biomass for bioenergy production in EU-27
  23. 23. Bio-energy Installed Capacity in India Grid Connected Capacities in MW (Cumulative achievement up to 31.07.2013) 1. Biomass Power 1264.80 2. Baggas Cogeneration 2337.43 3. Waste to Power (Urban & Industrial) 96.08 Off Grid / Captive Power MWEQ 4. Waste to Energy (Urban & Industrial) 115.57 5. Biomass(non-bagas) Cogeneration 486.84 6. Biomass Gasifiers (Rural & Industrial) 158.77 7. Family Biogas Plants (in Lakhs) 46.55 Total 4506.04 Source: Ministry of Non-conventional & Renewable Energy (MNRE)
  24. 24. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE … Indian Scenario • • Energy content in waste is not being used No creation of new jobs Source : CPCB report, 2012
  25. 25. Limitations faced during Biomass inventorisation  For agricultural data, the total amount of residues (actual biomass) were calculated using CRR ratio but the data for used and surplus residues (net biomass) were not available  TOF (Tree outside forest) data is present in scattered form and no information on there consumption is present with ministry or on net  Short rotational forestry and energy plantation were reported from some regions but there is no such Pan India data base
  26. 26.  Data for industrial waste generated is not available since there is no reported data indicating the actual amount of industrial wastes from whole country  Since the amount of MSW generated in whole country was not available, thus extrapolations were done on the population basis, in order to calculate the actual amount of waste generated and the power generation potential that can be derived from it
  27. 27. Conclusion The major challenge in India is related to centralized documentation of authenticated databases and updating of relevant information of Biomass availability and projects funded for biomass research, as it is available in Europe. Therefore under the present study we have tried to compiled all the latest available data into one web page, for easy access in the future research. For more details kindly visit project web site : http://www.sahyog-europa-india.eu/ A bright future for bio-based economy in EU and India