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  • 1. 4th International Conference on “Advances in Energy Research’’ Department of Energy Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Analysis of weather conditions of Indian cities with respect to rating conditions for HVAC equipments Pramod Kumar, Manoj Singh, Anant Joshi, Jyotirmay Mathur Center for Energy & Environment Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur
  • 2. Introduction • Indian has five distinct climatic zones with wide variance • HVAC ratings have direct dependence on weather conditions. • Presently HVAC systems in India are rated as per AHRI standards. •Outdoor Rating conditions based on DBT (air cooled) & WBT(water cooled)
  • 3. Introduction……..Contd. • Rating condition should be country specific – recommendations by ISO 19289 for rating of HVAC equipments • European countries have separate standard (Eurovent 14511) even with marginal difference with AHRI standards (550/590) Chiller type AHRI Eurovent Water cooled chiller Condenser EWT: O 29.4 C at 100% O 23.9 C at 75% O 18.3 C at 50% O 18.3 C at 25% Condenser EWT: O 30 C at 100% O 26 C at 75% O 22 C at 50% O 18 C at 25% Air cooled chiller Condenser EAT: O 35 C at 100% O 27 C at 75% O 19 C at 50% O 13 C at 25% Condenser EAT: O 35 C at 100% O 30 C at 75% O 25 C at 50% O 20 C at 25% 3
  • 4. Introduction …….. Contd. • Oriental countries; China, Japan, Malaysia etc have their own standards based on their climatic conditions. • Chiller standards for Indian climatic conditions……… An emergent need. 4
  • 5. Objectives of the study To check the suitability of prevailing rating condition (AHRI) for HVAC equipments with respect to Indian climatic conditions.  Identification of a representative city(s) through statistical analysis of weather data for different climatic zones. 5
  • 6. Methodology  Weather data analysis of prominent cities : All climatic zones.  ISHARE weather data considered in analysis.  Identification of Representative cities for each climatic zone. - Through statistical analysis - Criteria as per GOI classification for cities. - Metro/larger city considered. 6
  • 7. Methods … Weather analysis  Wide Zones; Warm & humid and composite covers more number of large cities -Additional representative cities identified for such zones Hot & Dry Composite Warm & Humid 50 40 Max 30 DBT C variance observed in weather profiles within the zones and in cities within the same zone. 20 Min 10 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Months 7
  • 8. Analysis : Summary of weather condition in representative cities Type of city Annual Max temp (OC) DBT Annual Min temp (OC) DBT Annual Mean temp (OC) DBT Mumbai X 37.6 13.0 25.3 Chennai X 43.4 18.6 31.0 Kolkata X 39.8 9.4 24.6 Composite New Delhi X 44.0 5.0 24.5 Hyderabad X 41.7 11.6 26.6 Hot & Dry Ahmedabad Y 43.2 9.6 26.4 Moderate Bangalore X 37.1 13.4 25.2 Climatic zone Warm & Humid City name X: 30% HRA Y : 20% HRA 8
  • 9. Analysis : Pattern of weather profile of representative cities in zone 50 Mumbai Kolkata Chennai Avg of all cities of zone DBT C 40 30 Warm & humid 20 10 50 New Delhi  Hyderabad Dec Oct Sep Nov Months Aug Jul Jun May Apr Mar Feb Jan 0  Avg of all cities of zone 40 Composite 20 10 Months Dec Nov Oct Sep Aug Jul Jun May Apr Mar Feb 0 Jan DBT C 30 9
  • 10. Analysis: Temperature frequency distribution  Post identification detailed analysis of weather data of all representative cities − Temperature frequency distribution of DBT and WBT for complete year. − Percentage coverage of total hours in a year at different temperature condition (DBT/WBT) 10
  • 11. Analysis: Temperature frequency distribution of DBT of representative cities City Coverage 33 34 84.36 88.77 DBT (OC) 35 36 37 91.99 93.97 95.58 38 96.87 39 40 97.79 98.52 New Delhi % hours 32 80.4 Mumbai % hours 92.05 96.68 98.82 99.54 99.92 99.99 99.99 99.99 99.99 Chennai % hours 83.95 89.02 93.34 95.98 97.51 98.39 99.05 99.46 99.61 Hyderabad % hours 87.55 90.13 92.23 94.38 96.35 97.69 98.93 99.43 99.78 Kolkata % hours 88.8 92.32 95.13 96.91 98.34 99.33 99.82 99.97 99.99 Ahmedabad % hours 78.37 82.75 86.14 88.77 91.35 93.46 95.19 96.76 97.82 Bangalore % hours 96.59 98.18 99.12 99.76 99.94 99.99 99.99 99.99 99.99 Average % hours 86.82 90.49 93.36 95.33 96.77 97.78 98.55 99.06 99.39 11
  • 12. Analysis: Temperature frequency distribution of WBT of representative cities WBT (OC) City Coverage 25 26 27 28 29 New Delhi % hours 76.04 84.21 92.99 98.28 99.62 Mumbai % hours 64.35 84.10 96.66 99.65 99.98 Chennai % hours 63.11 81.22 93.72 98.80 99.50 Hyderabad % hours 98.92 99.82 99.93 99.99 99.99 Kolkata % hours 55.39 68.03 82.05 92.44 97.31 Ahmedabad % hours 71.61 85.06 94.38 99.70 99.97 Bangalore % hours 99.92 99.97 99.99 99.99 99.99 Average % hours 71.57 83.74 93.29 98.14 99.28 12
  • 13. Summary: Observations  Coverage of percentage of total hrs/yr at particular temperature condition different for each representative cities. on an average basis AHRI rating conditions for air cooled chiller covers only 95.33% of total hrs in a year.  With urban heat island (UHI) consideration of 3OC, the AHRI condition would come to 32OC cover only 86.82% of total hrs in a year. 13
  • 14. Conclusion  Analytical status underline the variance of temperature condition compared to existing rating condition for chillers (Air cooled). WBT rating condition for water cooled chiller is suitable as per Indian climatic conditions.  Any further increment of temperature would increase coverage of hrs.  There is need to revise the prevailing rating condition according the Indian climatic condition 14
  • 15. Future work  Extending the study for unitary air condition system/other HVAC equipments  Revision of the part load coefficients 15
  • 16. Reference [1] J. Hansen, R. Ruedy, M. Sato, and K. Lo (2010), Global Surface Temperature Change, Reviews of Geophysics, 48, RG4004 / 2010 [2] Mehmet Azmi Aktacir ,Orhan Bu yu kalaca , Husamettin Bulut , Tuncay Yılmaz, (2008) Influence of different outdoor design conditions on design cooling load and design capacities of air conditioning equipments, Energy Conversion and Management 49, 1766–1773 [3] Danny H.W.Li, S.L. Wong, Joseph C. Lam (2003), Climatic effect on cooling load determination in subtropical regions, Energy Conservation and Management 44, 1831-1843. [4] Tianzhen Hong, Wen-Kuei Chang, Hung-Wen Lin (2013), A fresh look at weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings using 30-year actual weather data, Applied Energy 111, 333–350. [5] Y.H. Yau, H.L. Pean, (2011) The climate change impact on air conditioner system and reliability in Malaysia—A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15, 4939– 4949. [6] ANSI/AHRI Standard 550/590 (I-P)-2011, Standard for Performance Rating Of water-Chilling and Heat Pump WaterHeating Packages Using the Vapor Compression Cycle. [7] European Standard EN 14511-1(2011), Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps with electrically driven compressors for space heating and cooling. [8] International Standard ISO/TC 86/SCG/WG9 (2006) Liquid-chilling packages using the vapour compression cycle. [9] Energy Conservation Building Code User Guide for India (2011), Bureau of Energy Efficiency, ISBN No 978-81-9090253-3. [10] Department of Personnel and training, Ministry of personnel and public grievance and pensions, Government of India - http://www.irfc-nausena.nic.in/irfc/dpa/HRA_CCA_RULE.pdf [11] Suryadevara S. Devi, (2006) Urban heat islands and environmental impact, American Metrological Society, 104770 [12] Manju Mohan, Yukihiro Kikegawa, B. R. Gurjar, Shweta Bhati, Narendra Reddy Kolli, (2012), Assessment of urban heat island effect for different land use–land cover from micrometeorological measurements and remote sensing data for megacity Delhi, Theoretical and Applied Climatology 112:647–658. 16
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