Department of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology Rourkela Odisha,
Materials and Methods
Engine Experimental Analysis
Results and Discussion
Need of Alternative Fuels
Increasing air pollution
Depletion of petroleum reserves
Ever growing vehicle population
High oil prices
Process Flow Chart of Tyre Pyrolysis
Sale to market
Light Fraction Pyrolysis Oil
Pyrolysis is the decomposition of organic compounds under oxygen free
(anaerobic) atmosphere that produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel.
1. Reactor 2. Electric motor 3.Sealing elements 4. Flexible connection 5.Oil separator 6.
Heavy oil tank 7. Damper 8.Condenser (8-12) 13. Cooling tower 14. Smooth inspect
mirror 15. Light oil tank 16.Water sealing and gas recycling system 17. Gas burner 18.
Pump 19. Control panel
Fig.1 Pilot Plant for Pyrolysis of Waste Tyres
Properties of diesel, TPO*, LFPO
Density (kg/m3@20 0C)
Fire point (0C)
Calorific value (MJ/kg)
Sulphur Content ( % w t) 0.29
*Properties of TPO obtained as crude from a lab level pyrolysis reactor
Experimental Condition for the samples studied 
NA3 EU1 EU2 EU3 EU4 EU5 EU6
hearth furnace; B=Laboratory batch reactor; C=Horizontal, pilot reactor, NAI-EU7Data reference from “Vacuum pyrolysis of used tyres”
Table 3 FTIR Analysis of light fraction oil compare with diesel fuel
C-H out of
plane bending compounds
GC-MS Analysis of LFPO
The Gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) make an
effective combination for chemical analysis.
The GC-MS analysis identify the various compounds present in the sample
The GCMS analysis can work on liquids, gases and solids[ 36].
Table 4 GC-MS Analysis of major compounds present in LFPO compare with diesel fuel
GC-MS Analysis of LFPO
Name of compound
GC-MS Analysis of Diesel
Name of compound
p-Xylene Benzene, 1,3- C8H10
1H-Indene, 2,3-dihydro- C9H8
It is found that the major compounds present in the LFPO are p-Xylene
Benzene, 1,3-dimethyl, Benzene, 1-ethyl-4-methyl, D-Limonene, 1HIndene, 2,3-dihydro-1,1,5-trimethyl-, Naphthalene, 2,7-dimethyl, Quinoline,
Octadecanenitrile and Hexadecanenitrile. In diesel fuel the compounds are
1-Ethyl-Metylcyclohexane, Propyl cyclohexane, M-Ethyl methyl benzene,
Decane, n-Undecane, Dodecane, n-Hexadecane, Octadecane, Octacosane
The benzene, Hexadecane, Octadecane, 1-ethyl-4-methyl compounds are
commonly available in both fuels.
Table 5 Details of the test engine
Kirloskar TAF 1
Brake power (kW)
Rated speed (rpm)
Nozzle opening pressure (bar)
No. of holes
Fig. 3 Photographical view of engine setup
As the load increases, the BSEC decreases for diesel, and all the LFPO
diesel blends, because of increase in cylinder temperature.
The BSEC for diesel is found to be the lowest among all the fuels tested in
this study. This is attributed to a better and complete combustion and higher
heating value than these of LFPO blends.
The engine consumes more fuel with the LFPO diesel blends than that of
diesel to develop the same power output. This is because of lower heating
value and higher density of the blends.
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)
Exhaust Gas Temperature ( o C)
Brake Power ( kW)
Fig. 5 Variation of exhaust gas temperature with the brake power
The EGT is noticed higher for all the LFPO diesel blends than that of diesel
fuel, throughout the load spectrum.
The combustion of LFPO blends may be delayed due to higher viscosity and
density. This may be the reason for higher exhaust gas temperature with all
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Emission
Brake Power (k W)
Fig.6 Variation of carbon monoxide with the brake power
At full load, the CO emission per kWh for all the LFPO blends is
found to be higher in comparison with diesel.
This may be due to poor mixing and incomplete combustion of blends.
Nitric Oxide (NO) Emission
Brake Power (kW)
Fig.7 Variation of nitric oxide with the brake power
The value of NO emission is found to be the highest for diesel at full load among all
the fuels tested in this study.
This may be due to higher heating value and complete combustion of diesel fuel
The value of NO emission higher for diesel is 1.290 g/kWh at full load.
Smoke Opacity (%)
Brake Power (kW)
Fig. 8 Variation of smoke emission with the brake power
Smoke is occurred due to the incomplete combustion inside the combustion
chamber, and normally formed in the rich zone [38-41].
With an increase in the load, the air fuel ratio decreases as the fuel injected
increases, and hence results in higher smoke.
The smoke emission for diesel is found to be the lowest at full load among all the
fuels in this study.
The LFPO has high density and viscosity so high smoke emission is recorded.
The conclusions of the investigation are as follows:
The BSEC for diesel is 12.29 MJ/kWh at full load and it is approximately
LFPO5, LFPO10, LFPO15, LFPO20 and LFPO40 diesel blends
The BSEC is found to be the lowest for LFPO40 11.35 MJ/kWh at full load.
May be present high boiling point compound
perform good at high
EGT value for diesel at full load was 338 o C and
340, 370, 345, 344, 339 o C for LFPO5, LFPO10, LFPO15, LFPO20 and
LFPO40 respectively at full load.
The CO emission for diesel, LFPO5, LFPO10, LFPO15, LFPO20 and
LFPO40 are to be found 0.01454, 0.013359, 0.0440, 0.03067, 0.03144 and
0.03229 g/kW h respectively, at full load operation respectively.
The CO emission decreases with increasing load but in full load LFPO10
has more 0.044 g/kWh compare to other blends.
The values of NO emission for diesel, LFPO5, LFPO10, LFPO15, LFPO20
and LFPO40 are 1.290, 1.1885, 0.6776, 0.524, 0.86817 and 1.08201 g/kWh
respectively, at full load operation.
The NO emission is found to be higher for LFPO5 blend compared to all
diesel, LFPO5, LFPO10, LFPO15, LFPO20 and LFPO40
61.2,78, 93.9, 95, 82.2and 69.2 % respectively, at full load operation.
The LFPO15 blend is optimum smoke emission and diesel is less in
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