Presented by
Kapura Tudu
Research Scholar

Department of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology Rourkela ...
Contents
 Introduction
 Materials and Methods
 Engine Experimental Analysis
 Results and Discussion

 Conclusions
 R...
Need of Alternative Fuels
 Increasing air pollution
 Depletion of petroleum reserves
 Ever growing vehicle population
...
Process Flow Chart of Tyre Pyrolysis
Scarp Tyres
Stocking

Pyrolysis unit

Oil (40-45%)

Carbon Black
(30-35%)

Storage

S...
Light Fraction Pyrolysis Oil
Pyrolysis is the decomposition of organic compounds under oxygen free
(anaerobic) atmosphere ...
Properties of diesel, TPO*, LFPO
Table 1
Properties

Diesel

TPO

LFPO

Density (kg/m3@20 0C)

830

920

910

viscosity 2-...
Experimental Condition for the samples studied [35]
Table 2
Product

NA1

NA2

Reactor type

A

A

A

B

C

C

C

C

Feeds...
Table 3 FTIR Analysis of light fraction oil compare with diesel fuel
Diesel

LFPO

Wave
number(cm-1)

Bonds

Class of
comp...
GC-MS Analysis of LFPO
 The Gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) make an

effective combination for chemica...
Table 4 GC-MS Analysis of major compounds present in LFPO compare with diesel fuel
GC-MS Analysis of LFPO
R. time

Area
(%...
 It is found that the major compounds present in the LFPO are p-Xylene

Benzene, 1,3-dimethyl, Benzene, 1-ethyl-4-methyl,...
Experimental Setup

Fig.2 Engine Experimental setup.
Table 5 Details of the test engine
Make/model

Kirloskar TAF 1

Brake power (kW)

4.4

Rated speed (rpm)

1500

Bore (mm)
...
Fuel tank

Smoke meter

Data Acquisition
system

Gas Analyzer

Load cell

Engine

Fig. 3 Photographical view of engine set...
 As the load increases, the BSEC decreases for diesel, and all the LFPO

diesel blends, because of increase in cylinder t...
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)

Exhaust Gas Temperature ( o C)

400

Diesel

LFPO5

LFPO10

LFPO15

LFPO20

LFPO40

350
300...
Emission Parameters
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Emission
Diesel

LFPO5

LFPO10

LFPO15

LFPO20

LFPO40

0.12

CO (g/kWh)

0.1
0.0...
Nitric Oxide (NO) Emission
6
Diesel

LFPO5

LFPO10

LFPO15

LFPO20

LFPO40

5

NO (g/kWh)

4
3
2
1
0
1.1

2.2

3.3

4.4

B...
Smoke Emission
100

Smoke Opacity (%)

90

Diesel

5LFPO

10LFPO

15LFPO

20LFPO

40LFPO

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

1.1...
Conclusions
The conclusions of the investigation are as follows:
 The BSEC for diesel is 12.29 MJ/kWh at full load and it...
 The values of NO emission for diesel, LFPO5, LFPO10, LFPO15, LFPO20

and LFPO40 are 1.290, 1.1885, 0.6776, 0.524, 0.8681...
References
[1] Rai, G. D. (2011) Non-Conventional Energy Sources, book, fifth edition, khanna
publisher,
India
[2] Pakdel,...
[8]Roy, C. Labrecque, B. and De Caumia, B. (1990) Recycling of scrap tyres to oil and carbon black by vacuum
pyrolysis, Re...
[18] Dung, N.A. Mhodmonthin, A. Wongkasemjit, S. and Jitkarnka, S. (2009) Effects of ITQ-21 and ITQ-24 as zeolite additive...
[32] Murugan, S. Ramaswamy, M.C. and Nagarajan, G. (2008) Performance, emission and combustion studies
of a DI diesel engi...
295 tudu
295 tudu
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

295 tudu

719 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
719
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
18
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

295 tudu

  1. 1. Presented by Kapura Tudu Research Scholar Department of Mechanical Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela Odisha, India
  2. 2. Contents  Introduction  Materials and Methods  Engine Experimental Analysis  Results and Discussion  Conclusions  References
  3. 3. Need of Alternative Fuels  Increasing air pollution  Depletion of petroleum reserves  Ever growing vehicle population  High oil prices
  4. 4. Process Flow Chart of Tyre Pyrolysis Scarp Tyres Stocking Pyrolysis unit Oil (40-45%) Carbon Black (30-35%) Storage Sieve Transfer to Refinery Carbon Black Steel Weir ( 3-5%) Gas (8-10%) Moisture (3-5%) Sieve Burning Unit Storage Chimney Storage Pressing Sale to market Transfer to scrap dealer
  5. 5. Light Fraction Pyrolysis Oil Pyrolysis is the decomposition of organic compounds under oxygen free (anaerobic) atmosphere that produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel. 1. Reactor 2. Electric motor 3.Sealing elements 4. Flexible connection 5.Oil separator 6. Heavy oil tank 7. Damper 8.Condenser (8-12) 13. Cooling tower 14. Smooth inspect mirror 15. Light oil tank 16.Water sealing and gas recycling system 17. Gas burner 18. Pump 19. Control panel Fig.1 Pilot Plant for Pyrolysis of Waste Tyres
  6. 6. Properties of diesel, TPO*, LFPO Table 1 Properties Diesel TPO LFPO Density (kg/m3@20 0C) 830 920 910 viscosity 2-4 3.77 36.06 38 39.2 Abel 50 43 30 Fire point (0C) 56 50 50 Cetane number 45-50 - 25-30 0.72 1.17-4.00 Kinematic (cSt@40 0C) Calorific value (MJ/kg) Flash point by 43.8 method (0C) Sulphur Content ( % w t) 0.29 *Properties of TPO obtained as crude from a lab level pyrolysis reactor
  7. 7. Experimental Condition for the samples studied [35] Table 2 Product NA1 NA2 Reactor type A A A B C C C C Feedstock (kg) 25 25 25 1 504 686 175 Average pressure (k Pa) 4 4 4 0.9 3.4 530 530 530 536 1 1 1 1 Maximum Bed temperature NA3 EU1 EU2 EU3 EU4 EU5 EU6 EU7 LFPO C C C 86 86 130 80001000 1.2 2.8 1.6 4.7 19 520 513 496 424 520 375-440 5 2 2 1 1 1 ( C) Number of consecutive runs *A=Multiple 3 hearth furnace; B=Laboratory batch reactor; C=Horizontal, pilot reactor, NAI-EU7Data reference from “Vacuum pyrolysis of used tyres”
  8. 8. Table 3 FTIR Analysis of light fraction oil compare with diesel fuel Diesel LFPO Wave number(cm-1) Bonds Class of compounds Frequency range (cm-1) Bonds Class of compounds 2921.33 C-H, Stretch C-H, Stretch C=C, C=N, Stretch O-H, Bending Nitrate C- Cl C-Br Alkanes 3095-3005 C=C stretching Alkenes Alkanes 3000-2800 C-H stretching Alkanes Alkenes, Amide 1680-1620 C=C stretching Alkenes Alcohol 1600-1525 Nitrate Chloride Bromide 1520-1220 1035-830 825-650 Carbon-carbon Aromatic stretching compounds C-H bending Alkanes C=C stretching Alkenes C-H out of Aromatic plane bending compounds 2812.72 1605.47 1461.19 1376.55 722.05 468.67
  9. 9. GC-MS Analysis of LFPO  The Gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) make an effective combination for chemical analysis.  The GC-MS analysis identify the various compounds present in the sample  The GCMS analysis can work on liquids, gases and solids[ 36].
  10. 10. Table 4 GC-MS Analysis of major compounds present in LFPO compare with diesel fuel GC-MS Analysis of LFPO R. time Area (%) 3.290 4.85 4.859 Name of compound GC-MS Analysis of Diesel Molecular formula R. time Area (%) Name of compound Molecular formula 0.98 1-EthylMetylcyclohexane 6.24 p-Xylene Benzene, 1,3- C8H10 or 3.065 dimethyl C6H4(CH3)2, C10H14 Benzene, C9H12 3.359 1.06 Propyl cyclohexane 5.236 2.17 Benzonitrile 3.782 1.04 5.962 15.24 4.274 3.51 6.035 10.45 5.19 2.19 Benzene, 1,2,3,4- C20H26O, tetramethyl, o-Cymene CH3C6H4CH( CH3)2 D-Limonene C10H16 1H-Indene, 2,3-dihydro- C9H8 1,1,5-trimethyl- M-Ethyl benzene Decane 5.822 7.356 2.14 2.71 n-Undecane Dodecane C11H24 CH3(CH2)10C H3 12.207 3.77 Naphthalene, dimethyl 15.959 3.38 n-Hexadecane CH3 (CH2)14 CH3 12.411 4.58 Quinoline, 4,8-dimethyl 17.885 2.57 Octadecane 13.587 4.65 19.648 1.61 Octacosane CH3(CH2)16C H3 C28H58 19.585 2.68 20.476 1.35 Tetracosane H(CH2)24H C6H5CN 2,7- C10H8, C10H6(CH3)2 C9H7N, C11H18 Naphthalene, 2,3,6- C10H8, trimethyl C9H12O Heptadecanenitrile, C17H33N. Octadecanenitrile, C18H35N, Hexadecanenitrile C16H31N C9H18 C6H11CH2 CH2CH3 methyl C9H12 C10H22
  11. 11.  It is found that the major compounds present in the LFPO are p-Xylene Benzene, 1,3-dimethyl, Benzene, 1-ethyl-4-methyl, D-Limonene, 1HIndene, 2,3-dihydro-1,1,5-trimethyl-, Naphthalene, 2,7-dimethyl, Quinoline, 4,8-dimethyl, Naphthalene, 2,3,6-trimethyl, Heptadecanenitrile, Octadecanenitrile and Hexadecanenitrile. In diesel fuel the compounds are 1-Ethyl-Metylcyclohexane, Propyl cyclohexane, M-Ethyl methyl benzene, Decane, n-Undecane, Dodecane, n-Hexadecane, Octadecane, Octacosane and Tetracosane.  The benzene, Hexadecane, Octadecane, 1-ethyl-4-methyl compounds are commonly available in both fuels.
  12. 12. Experimental Setup Fig.2 Engine Experimental setup.
  13. 13. Table 5 Details of the test engine Make/model Kirloskar TAF 1 Brake power (kW) 4.4 Rated speed (rpm) 1500 Bore (mm) Stroke (mm) 87.5 110 Piston type Bowl-in-piston Compression ratio Nozzle opening pressure (bar) Injection type 17.5:1 200 23 BTDC Nozzle type Multi holes No. of holes Cooling System 3 Air cooling
  14. 14. Fuel tank Smoke meter Data Acquisition system Gas Analyzer Load cell Engine Fig. 3 Photographical view of engine setup
  15. 15.  As the load increases, the BSEC decreases for diesel, and all the LFPO diesel blends, because of increase in cylinder temperature.  The BSEC for diesel is found to be the lowest among all the fuels tested in this study. This is attributed to a better and complete combustion and higher heating value than these of LFPO blends.  The engine consumes more fuel with the LFPO diesel blends than that of diesel to develop the same power output. This is because of lower heating value and higher density of the blends.
  16. 16. Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Exhaust Gas Temperature ( o C) 400 Diesel LFPO5 LFPO10 LFPO15 LFPO20 LFPO40 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 Brake Power ( kW) Fig. 5 Variation of exhaust gas temperature with the brake power  The EGT is noticed higher for all the LFPO diesel blends than that of diesel fuel, throughout the load spectrum.  The combustion of LFPO blends may be delayed due to higher viscosity and density. This may be the reason for higher exhaust gas temperature with all the blends.
  17. 17. Emission Parameters Carbon Monoxide (CO) Emission Diesel LFPO5 LFPO10 LFPO15 LFPO20 LFPO40 0.12 CO (g/kWh) 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 Brake Power (k W) Fig.6 Variation of carbon monoxide with the brake power  At full load, the CO emission per kWh for all the LFPO blends is found to be higher in comparison with diesel.  This may be due to poor mixing and incomplete combustion of blends.
  18. 18. Nitric Oxide (NO) Emission 6 Diesel LFPO5 LFPO10 LFPO15 LFPO20 LFPO40 5 NO (g/kWh) 4 3 2 1 0 1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 Brake Power (kW) Fig.7 Variation of nitric oxide with the brake power  The value of NO emission is found to be the highest for diesel at full load among all the fuels tested in this study.  This may be due to higher heating value and complete combustion of diesel fuel  The value of NO emission higher for diesel is 1.290 g/kWh at full load.
  19. 19. Smoke Emission 100 Smoke Opacity (%) 90 Diesel 5LFPO 10LFPO 15LFPO 20LFPO 40LFPO 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1.1 2.2 Brake Power (kW) 3.3 4.4 Fig. 8 Variation of smoke emission with the brake power  Smoke is occurred due to the incomplete combustion inside the combustion chamber, and normally formed in the rich zone [38-41].  With an increase in the load, the air fuel ratio decreases as the fuel injected increases, and hence results in higher smoke.  The smoke emission for diesel is found to be the lowest at full load among all the fuels in this study.  The LFPO has high density and viscosity so high smoke emission is recorded.
  20. 20. Conclusions The conclusions of the investigation are as follows:  The BSEC for diesel is 12.29 MJ/kWh at full load and it is approximately 12.75, 14.4, 13.33, 11.8 and 11.35 MJ/kWh for the LFPO5, LFPO10, LFPO15, LFPO20 and LFPO40 diesel blends respectively.  The BSEC is found to be the lowest for LFPO40 11.35 MJ/kWh at full load. May be present high boiling point compound temperature . perform good at high  The EGT value for diesel at full load was 338 o C and 340, 370, 345, 344, 339 o C for LFPO5, LFPO10, LFPO15, LFPO20 and LFPO40 respectively at full load.  The CO emission for diesel, LFPO5, LFPO10, LFPO15, LFPO20 and LFPO40 are to be found 0.01454, 0.013359, 0.0440, 0.03067, 0.03144 and 0.03229 g/kW h respectively, at full load operation respectively.  The CO emission decreases with increasing load but in full load LFPO10 has more 0.044 g/kWh compare to other blends.
  21. 21.  The values of NO emission for diesel, LFPO5, LFPO10, LFPO15, LFPO20 and LFPO40 are 1.290, 1.1885, 0.6776, 0.524, 0.86817 and 1.08201 g/kWh respectively, at full load operation.  The NO emission is found to be higher for LFPO5 blend compared to all fuels.  The values of smoke emission diesel, LFPO5, LFPO10, LFPO15, LFPO20 and LFPO40 61.2,78, 93.9, 95, 82.2and 69.2 % respectively, at full load operation. for are  The LFPO15 blend is optimum smoke emission and diesel is less in percentage.
  22. 22. References [1] Rai, G. D. (2011) Non-Conventional Energy Sources, book, fifth edition, khanna publisher, India [2] Pakdel, H. Roy, C. Aubin, H. Jean, G. and Coulombe, S. (1991) Formation of dl-limonene in used tyre vacuum pyrolysis oils, Environmental Science and Technology 25, pp. 1646-1649. [3] Mirmiran, S. Pakdel, H. and Roy, C. (1992) Characterization of used tyre vacuum pyrolysis oil. Nitrogenous compounds from the naphtha fraction, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 22, pp. 205-215. [4] Roy, C. Chaala, A. and Darmstadt, H. (1999) The vacuum pyrolysis of used tyres end-uses for oil and carbon black products, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 51, pp. 201-221. [5] Roy, C. Darmstadt, H. Benallal, B. and Amen-Chen, C. (1997) Characterization of naphtha and carbon black obtained by vacuum pyrolysis of polyisoprene rubber, Fuel Processing Technology ,50, pp. 87-103. [6] Lopez, G. Olazar, M. Aguado, R. Elordi, G. Amutio, M. Artetxe, M. and Bilbao, J. (2010) Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tyres by continuously feeding into a conical spouted bed reactor, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 49, pp. 8990-8997. [7] Zhang, X. Wang, T. Ma, T. L. and Chang, J. (2008) Vacuum pyrolysis of waste Tyres with basic additives, Waste Management, 28, pp. 2301-2310.
  23. 23. [8]Roy, C. Labrecque, B. and De Caumia, B. (1990) Recycling of scrap tyres to oil and carbon black by vacuum pyrolysis, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 4, pp. 203-213 [9] Chaala, A. and Roy, C. (1996) Production of coke from scrap tyre vacuum pyrolysis oil, Fuel Processing Technology, 46, pp. 227-231. [10] Pakdel, H. Pantea, D. M. and Roy, C. (2001) Production of dl-limonene by vacuum pyrolysis of used tyres, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 57, pp. 91-107. [11] Benallal, B. Roy, C. Pakdel, H. Chabot, S. and Poirier, M.A. (1995) Characterization of pyrolytic light naphtha from vacuum pyrolysis of used tyres comparison with petroleum naphtha, Fuel, 74 (11), pp. 1589-1594. [12] Edwin Raj, R. Robert Kennedy, Z. and Pillai, B.C. (2013) Optimization of process parameters in flash pyrolysis of waste tyres to liquid and gaseous fuel in a fluidized bed reactor, Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 67,pp. 145-151. [13] Kaminsky, W. and Mennerich, C. (2001) Pyrolysis of synthetic tyre rubber in a fluidised-bed reactor to yield 1,3-butadiene, styrene and carbon black, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis , 58/59, pp. 803-811. [14] Kaminsky, W. Mennerich, C. and Zhang, Z. (2009) Feedstock recycling of synthetic and natural rubber by pyrolysis in a fluidized bed, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, l85 , pp. 334-337. [15] Araki, T. Niikawa, K. and Hosoda, H. (1979) Development of fluidized-bed pyrolysis of waste Tyres, Conservation and Recycling, 3, pp. 155-164. [16] Kalitko, V.A. (2010) Steam thermolysis of Tyre shreds: modernization in afterburning of accompanying gas with waste steam, Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermo physics, 83, pp. 179-187. [17] Dung, N.A. Wongkasemjit, S. and Jitkarnka, S. (2009) Effects of pyrolysis temperature and Pt-loaded catalysts on polar-aromatic content in tyre-derived oil, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 91, pp. 300-307.
  24. 24. [18] Dung, N.A. Mhodmonthin, A. Wongkasemjit, S. and Jitkarnka, S. (2009) Effects of ITQ-21 and ITQ-24 as zeolite additives on the oil products obtained from the catalytic pyrolysis of waste tyre, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 85, pp. 338-344. [19] Dung, N.A. Klaewkla, R. Wongkasemjit, S. and Jitkarnka, S. (2009) Light olefins and light oil production from catalytic pyrolysis of waste tyre, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 86, pp. 281-286. [20] Dung, N.A. Tanglumlert, W. Wongkasemjit, S. and Jitkarnka, S. (2010) Roles of ruthenium on catalytic pyrolysis of waste tyre and the changes of its activity upon the rate of calcinations, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis ,87 , pp. 256-262. [21] Witpathomwong, C. Longloilert, R. Wongkasemjit, S. and Jitkarnka, S. (2011) Improving light olefins and light oil using Ru/MCM-48 in catalytic pyrolysis of waste Tyre, Energy Procedia, 9, pp. 245-251. production [22] Rombaldo, C.F.S. Lisbôa, A.C.L. Méndez, M.O.A. and Reis Coutinho, A. (2008) Effect of operating conditions on scrap tyre pyrolysis, Materials Research, 11, pp. 359-363. [23] Unapumnuk, K. Lu, M. and Keener, T.C. (2006) Carbon distribution from the pyrolysis of tyre-derived fuels, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 45, pp.8757-8764. [24] Unapumnuk, K. Keener,T.C. Lu, M. and Liang, F. (2008) Investigation into the removal of sulfur from Tyre derived fuel by pyrolysis, Fuel, 87 , pp. 951-956. [25] Williams, P.T. Besler, S. and Taylor, D.T. (1990) The pyrolysis of scrap automotive tyres. The influence of temperature and heating rate on product composition, Fuel, 69, pp. 1474-1482. [26] Mastral, A.M. Murillo, R. Callén, M.S. García, T. and Snape, C.E. (2000) Influence of process variables on oils from Tyre pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis in a swept fixed bed reactor, Energy & Fuels, 14, pp. 739-744. [27] Laresgoiti, M.F. Caballero, B.M. de Marco, I. Torres, A. Cabrero, M.A. and Chomón, M.J. (2004) Characterization of the liquid products obtained in tyre pyrolysis, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 71 , pp.917-934. [28] Murillo, R. Aylón, E. Navarro, M.V. Callén, M.S. Aranda, A. and Mastral, A.M. (2006) The application of thermal processes to valorise waste tyre, Fuel Processing Technology ,87, pp. 143-147. [29] Islam, M. Khan, N. M. F. R. and Alam, M. Z. (2003) Production and characterization of Scrap tyre pyrolysis oil and its blend, International conference on Mechanical Engineering (ICME2003)26-28 December 2003, Dhaka, Bangladesh [30] Waste Tyre Recycling Plant, info@anjaliexim.com. [31] Specification of Carbon Black, www.Valetimegroup.com
  25. 25. [32] Murugan, S. Ramaswamy, M.C. and Nagarajan, G. (2008) Performance, emission and combustion studies of a DI diesel engine using distilled tyre pyrolysis oil–diesel blends, Fuel Process Technology, 89, pp. 152–9. [33] Hariharan, S. Murugan, S. and Nagarajan, G. (2013) Effect of diethyl ether on tyre pyrolysis oil fueled diesel engine, Fuel,Vol 104 pp.109-115. [34] Dogan, Q. Celik, M.B. and Ozdalyan, B. (2012) The effect of tyre derived fuel/diesel fuel blends utilization on diesel engine performance and emissions. Fuel, 95, pp. 340-6. [35] Roy, C. and Challa, A. (2001) Vacuum pyrolysis of automobile shredder residues”, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 32, pp. 1-27. [36] Evans Analytical group, www. Google.com. [37] Agrawal, A.K. (2007) Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines, Energy Combust Science, 33, pp.233–71. [38] Ganesh, V. (2007) Internal combustion engine, Third Edition, Copyright 2007 [39] Murugan, S. Ramaswamy, M.C. and Nagarajan, G. (2009) Assessment of pyrolysis oil as an energy source for diesel engines, Fuel Process Technology, 90, pp.67–74. [40] Murugan, S. Ramaswamy, M.C and Nagarajan, G. (2006) Production of tyre pyrolysis oil from waste automobile tyres, In: Proceedings of national conference on advances in mechanical engineering, p. 899-906. [41] Murugan, S. Ramaswamy, M.C. and Nagarajan, G. (2008) The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, Waste Manage, 28, pp. 2743–9.

×