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294 deepesh

  1. 1. Performance and Emission studies on unaltered mahua-oil blends with varying injection pressure in a diesel engine PRESENTED BY- Deepesh Sonar DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY JAIPUR (INDIA) 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Need of alternative fuels: • Rising crude oil prices • increasing environmental concerns • long-term energy security reasons Fuels of bio-origin can provide a feasible solution to the crisis. Diesel engines play a major role in transportation, industries, power generation and agricultural sector;  they have high efficiency  they consume less fuel and,  they are reliable. Malaviya National Institute of Technology 2
  3. 3. VEGETABLE OIL AS DIESEL ENGINE FUEL Vegetable oils as fuel – • are renewable • emit low levels of pollutants • provide engine performances similar to that with diesel fuels in diesel engines. In rural and remote areas of developing countries, where grid power is not available, vegetable oils can play a vital role in decentralized power generation for irrigation and electrification purposes. Malaviya National Institute of Technology 3
  4. 4. BUT VISCOSITY IS A MAJOR PROBLEM High viscosity of vegetable oil is a major hindrance. Various means to chemically process it by lowering its viscosity are-heating -microemulsification -pyrolysis -transesterification ; BUT, these are complicated and cost prohibitive, especially in rural settings, due to logistics and other problems. • Blending of vegetable oils with diesel, however, reduces the viscosity drastically. • Raw vegetable oil, even upto 100% blend with diesel, can be used as fuel in diesel engines with some minor modifications. [1-8] Malaviya National Institute of Technology 4
  5. 5. ENGINE MODIFICATION • Fuel injection pressure and timing (among various other parameters like compression ratio, injection rate and air swirl level) are fundamental in determining the overall efficiency of the engine. • Injection pressure of the injected fuel has a significance effect on the performance and formation of pollutants inside the engine. • Higher injection pressure contributes to decreased fuel droplet size, increased mixing with air, improved combustion and emission reduction. [9-13] Malaviya National Institute of Technology 5
  6. 6. MATERIALS AND METHODS • Series of performance and emission tests were conducted with Diesel & Mahua oil blends on single cylinder, water cooled, 5 HP diesel engine. • Tests were conducted at rated fuel IOP of 200 kgf/cm2. Tests were also performed at IOP of 190, 210, 220 and 230 kgf/cm2. • Blends of Mahua oil(v/v) were tested over the entire range of engine operation. Results were compared with baseline data of diesel fuel. • Optimum blend and IOP for engine with Mahua-blends were evaluated. NOx and smoke emissions were measured using INDUS exhaust gas analyzer, PEA 205 and AVL Dispeed 492 smoke meter, respectively. Injection pressure was varied by testing the injector assembly in a nozzle tester.
  7. 7. LINE DIAGRAM OF EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP Malaviya National Institute of Technology 7
  8. 8. FABRICATED AIR-BOX AND FUEL METERING ARRANGEMENT Malaviya National Institute of Technology 8
  9. 9. ELECTRICAL LOAD BANK WITH CONTROL PANEL FABRICATED AND INSTALLED FOR THE CI ENGINE Malaviya National Institute of Technology 9
  10. 10. PROPERTIES OF CRUDE MAHUA OIL AND DIESEL Fuel Specific Calorific Carbon Ash Pour Flash Water Kinematic gravity Value residue content point point content viscosity (MJ/kg) (%) (%) (oC) (oC) (%) (cSt at 40oC) Crude 0.9040 Mahua Oil 38.863 0.4215 0.021 15 238 Trace 37.18 Diesel 45.343 0.0337 0.006 < -5 47 Trace 2.44 0.842 [2] Malaviya National Institute of Technology 10
  11. 11. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Brake Specific Fuel Combustion (BSFC) • BSFC for CMO/blends are higher than diesel at 200 kgf/cm2 (rated). • B20 shows marginally better BSFC than other blends. • C.V. of mahua oil is less, so BSFC for higher blends were higher than diesel. For B100 it is higher by 11–25% at rated engine parameters. • Minimum BSFC was obtained at 230 kgf/cm2 IOP for all fuel blends. • But, further increase in IOP deteriorated the BSFC. 11
  12. 12. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS (cont’d) Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) • BTE in general, reduced with the increasing concentration of mahua in the blends. In all cases, it increased with increase in load. • Maximum thermal efficiency for B20 was comparable with diesel. • Highest BTE, 28.9% occurred at 230 kgf/cm2 at full load due to better atomization and mixing with air thus enhancing combustion. • Too high IOP led to delayed injection and lower BTE.
  13. 13. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS (cont’d) Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) • EGT increased with load for all the fuels tested. • EGT increased with increasing concentration of mahua oil. • EGTs were higher for modified engine operated with higher IOP. • Improved air motion and better mixing improved combustion and increased the EGT. Malaviya National Institute of Technology 13
  14. 14. EFFECT OF IOP ON BSFC Malaviya National Institute of Technology 14
  15. 15. EFFECT OF IOP ON BTE Malaviya National Institute of Technology 15
  16. 16. EFFECT OF IOP ON EGT Malaviya National Institute of Technology 16
  17. 17. EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS Nitogen Oxides (NOX) • Increasing proportion of mahua oil in the blends increased NOx emissions slightly (within 4 %) vis-a-vis diesel. • NOx concentration varied almost linearly with load. • As the load increases, the overall fuel–air ratio increases, so better burning with higher temperatures leads to NOx formation. • NOx level was directly related to the EGT, but inversely related to smoke. • NOx level increases with increasing IOP due to faster combustion and higher temperatures attained. Malaviya National Institute of Technology 17
  18. 18. EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS (cont’d) Smoke • Smoke increased sharply with increase in load for all fuels tested. • Large difference in smoke levels between B100 and HSD at full load. • Mahua and its blends produced less smoke than pure diesel. • The smoke level of CMO gets decreased when the IOP increases. The lowest smoke opacity is obtained for M100 with 240 kgf/cm2. Malaviya National Institute of Technology 18
  19. 19. EFFECT OF IOP ON NOx Malaviya National Institute of Technology 19
  20. 20. EFFECT OF IOP ON SMOKE Malaviya National Institute of Technology 20
  21. 21. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF CMOBLENDS AT VARYING IOP AT FULL LOAD CONDITION IOP Kgf/cm2 190 200 (rated) 200 210 Fuel BSFC kg/kW-h M10 M20 M30 M40 M100 M10 M20 M30 M40 M100 DIESEL M10 M20 M30 M40 0.321 0.323 0.329 0.329 0.334 0.332 0.323 0.335 0.329 0.361 0.321 0.32 0.322 0.327 0.329 BTE % 28.7 28.1 27.6 26.9 22.0 28.8 29.7 28.7 27.2 22.1 29.8 28.8 28.2 27.8 27.3 EGT oC NOx ppm Smoke % 342 342 341 345 355 345 351 348 355 361 345 339 349 351 358 1532 1556 1586 1679 1763 1560 1591 1599 1623 1781 1690 1598 1615 1654 1688 28.6 29.8 29.5 26.3 25.8 27.9 27.7 27.3 25.4 20.3 39.4 25.7 24.0 22.5 18.7
  22. 22. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF CMOBLENDS AT VARYING IOP AT FULL LOAD CONDITION (cont’d) IOP Kgf/cm2 220 230 240 M10 M20 M30 M40 M100 BSFC kg/kW-h 0.320 0.325 0.328 0.332 0.339 BTE % 28.8 28.6 28.7 27.3 23.5 EGT oC 344 347 354 362 375 NOx ppm 1645 1696 1700 1766 1815 Smoke % 23.1 20.6 15.9 12.6 17.5 M10 M20 M30 M40 M100 M10 M20 M30 M40 M100 0.318 0.329 0.330 0.329 0.334 .320 .317 .323 .330 .339 28.8 28.8 28.9 27.5 23.8 28.8 28.8 28.6 27.5 23.6 348 351 359 366 378 349 349 358 369 385 1623 1667 1750 1782 1857 1645 1694 1764 1810 1867 22.3 18.3 16.2 14.3 12.2 25.6 17.3 14.3 10.1 5.9 Fuel
  23. 23. CONCLUSION • CMO and blends can be used as alternative fuel. By optimizing IOP, performance and emissions of engine can be improved significantly. • B10 could be safely used at rated IOP, without significantly affecting engine performance (BSFC, BTE, EGT) and smoke and NOx emissions. • Increasing IOP from rated 200 kgf/cm2 to 230 kgf/cm2 increased the BTE and NOx with reduction in BSFC and smoke. Beyond that, inverse trend was noticed. • At 230 kgf/cm2 IOP, optimum BTE and BSFC were obtained. BSFC improves by 10% and BTE by 9%. Smoke was reduced. NOx emission increased only marginally. Use of B10, even at rated IOP, and B20 and B30 at 230 kgf /cm2 results in minimum loss of efficiency and generates higher environmental benefits.
  24. 24. REFERENCES [1] Ramadhas, A.S., Jayaraj, S, Muraleedharan. C. (2004) Data bank-Use of vegetable oils as I.C. engine fuels—A review, Renewable Energy 29, pp. 727–742. [2] Agarwal D, Kumar L, Agarwal A. K. (2008) Performance evaluation of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine, Renewable Energy 33, pp. 1147–1156. [3] Reddy J. N., Ramesh A.(2006) Parametric studies for improving the performance of a Jatropha oil -fuelled compression ignition engine, Renewable Energy 31, pp. 1994–2016 [4] Godiganur S., Murthy C.H. S., Reddy R. P. (2009) 6BTA 5.9 G2-1 Cummins engine performance an d emission tests using methyl ester mahua (Madhuca indica) oil/diesel blends, Renewable Energy 34, pp. 2172–2177 [5] Saravanan N, Nagarajan G, Puhan S. (2010) Experimental investigation on a diesel engine fuelled with Madhuca Indica ester diesel blend, Biomass and Bio-Energy 34, pp. 838– 843 [6] Sayin, Gumus, Canakci (2012) Effect of fuel injection pressure on the injection, combustion and performance characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with canola oil methyl esters-diesel fuel blends, Biomass and Bio-energy 46, pp. 435-446 [7] Kannan G.R, Anand.(2012) Effect of injection pressure and injection timing on DI diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel from waste cooking oil, Biomass and Bio-energy 46, pp. 343-352 [8] Labecki L, Lindner A, Winklmayr W, Uitz R., Cracknell R., Ganippa L. (2013) Effects of injection parameters and EGR on exhaust soot particle number-size distribution for diesel and RME fuels in HSDI engines, Fuel 112, pp. 224–235 [9] Jindal S., Nandwana B.P., Rathore N.S., Vashistha V. (2010) Experimental investigation of the effect of compression ratio and injection pressure in a direct injection diesel engine running on Jatropha methyl ester, Applied Thermal Engineering 30, pp. (2010) 442–448
  25. 25. REFERENCES (cont’d) [10] Kannan, Anand (2012) Effect of injection pressure and injection timing on DI diesel engine fuelle d with biodiesel from waste cooking oil, Biomass and Bio-energy 46, pp. 343-352 [11] Kannan, Anand (2011) Experimental evaluation of DI diesel engine operating with diestrol at var ying injection pressure and injection timing, Fuel Processing Technology 92, pp. 2252–2263 [12] Pandian, Sivapirakasam , Udayakumar (2011) Investigation on the effect of injection system par ameters on performance and emission characteristics of a twin cylinder compression ignition dir ect injection engine fuelled with pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend using response surface meth odology, Applied Energy 88, pp. 2663–2676 [13] Jaichandar, Annamalai(2013)Combined impact of injection pressure and combustion chamber g eometry on the performance of a biodiesel fueled diesel engine, Energy 55, pp. 330-339 [14] Raheman H., Ghadge S.V. (2007) Performance of compression ignition engine with mahua (M adhuca indica) biodiesel, Fuel 86, pp. 2568–2573. [15] Puhan S., Vedaramana N., Sankaranarayanana G., Boppana V. Rama B. (2005) Technical note-Per formance and emission study of Mahua oil (madhuca indica oil) ethyl ester in a 4-stroke natura l aspirated direct injection diesel engine, Renewable Energy 30, pp. 1269–1278 [16] Saravanan S., Nagarajan G., Sampath S. (2013) Combined effect of injection timing, EGR and inj ection pressure in NOx control of a stationary diesel engine fuelled with crude rice bran oil meth yl ester, Fuel 104, pp. 409–416. [17] Çelikten, Koca, Arslan (2010) Comparison of performance and emissions of diesel ,rapeseed, so ybean oil methyl esters injected at different pressures, Renewable Energy 35, pp. 814–820 [18] Labecki L., Ganippa L.C. (2012) Effects of injection parameters and EGR on combustion and em ission characteristics of rapeseed oil and its blends in diesel engines, Fuel 98, pp. 15–28.
  26. 26. Malaviya National Institute of Technology 26

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